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Cao W.,Hubei Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Chen N.,Hubei Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Tian Y.,Hubei Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Quan J.,Hubei Environmental Monitoring Central Station
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2017

The atmospheric pollution characteristics during clean and heavy air pollution processes in Wuhan was analyzed based on the ion compositions monitored by Marga and PM2.5 measured by Wuhan environmental air quality automatic monitoring in autumn and winter 2014. During the study period, PM2.5 was generally the major air pollutant in Wuhan. water-soluble nitrate, sulfate and ammonium were major inorganic components in PM2.5 during both clean and heavy pollution processes. The average concentration of PM2.5 during the heavy pollution process was 4.5 times that during clean periods. Three water-soluble ions increased 5~6 times and higher correlations with PM2.5 were observed. Meanwhile, the secondary inorganic ions in PM2.5 were the main cause of ambient particle pollution in Wuhan. Chloride concentration and correlation coefficient with PM2.5 increased remarkably, indicating that fossil fuel burning might have great effect on heavy pollution in Wuhan. Potassium concentration and correlation coefficient with PM2.5 increased simultaneously, demonstrating that the combustion activities aggravated the pollution process. The analyses of SOR and NOR showed that secondary transformation was enhanced during heavy pollution process, which might be caused by the heterogeneous reactions driving the formation of secondary nitrate and sulfate. Ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate were the typical inorganic components during both clean and heavy pollution processes. The average NO3 -/SO4 2- ratio implied that mobile source played a major role in particle pollution in Wuhan, especially in heavy pollution process. © 2017, Science Press. All right reserved.

Wu Y.,Wuhan University | Xi B.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Hu G.,University of British Columbia | Wang D.,Wuhan University | And 4 more authors.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2016

Antibiotics in the aquatic environment present potential risks to aquatic ecosystems. The adsorption of tetracycline (TC) and two sulfonamides (SAs), sulfadiazine (SD) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), from an aqueous solution of synthesized amorphous nano-carbon (ANC) was investigated. The ANC had a large adsorption capacity for TC (125.55 mg/g), SD (620.74 mg/g), and SMZ (332.21 mg/g). Several mechanisms (i.e. cation exchange, electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic effect, H-bonding, and π–π interactions) are potentially involved in the adsorption process. SAs were more strongly adsorbed on ANC because their molecules are smaller than those of TC. Adsorption nearly reached equilibrium within 2 h, with a removal rate of over 75%. Temperature and pH of the solution positively affected the adsorption process. Cations (Na+ and Ca2+) in solution had a slight effect on adsorption; Ca2+ inhibited adsorption, while Na+ promoted it. The adsorption process was fitted to pseudo-second-order kinetic and Freundlich models, which indicated that adsorption was both favorable and spontaneous. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the interactions between antibiotics and ANC. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

Zhang L.,Wuhan University | Zhang L.,Jiangxi Normal University | Chen X.-L.,Wuhan University | Chen X.-L.,Jiangxi Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2014

Based on the in situ measurements from the field survey in July, 2011, the objective of this paper was to investigate the spatial distribution of the total suspended sediment (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll a (Chl a), where their impacting factors were also studied by dividing the lake into 8 hydro-geomorphological partitions considering the hydrodynamic conditions. Results show that the TSS concentration was 33.65 mg/L, which was three times higher than that of the average conditions before 2003. The N, P concentrations were 1.61 mg/L and 0.075 mg/L respectively, which appears much higher than the requirements of eutrophication. The average Chl a concentration was 5.99 μg/L, which was smaller than the threshold of being a eutrophic lake. Correlation analysis showed that TP and TSS were significantly correlated with each other in high sediment concentration regions, while no significant correlation was observed between the Chl a and other water quality parameters. In different hydro-geomorphological sections, due to pollution inputs from the watershed and sand mining activities within the lake, the TSS concentration of the northern high velocity water regions was three times higher than the river estuary area. TN and TP concentrations of the Ganjiang and Raohe river estuary area was larger than the northern high velocity water regions, where Xiuhe River estuary area and some central lake area showed minimum TN and TP concentration. The hydrodynamics also played an important role in regulating the spatial distribution of TSS, TN, TP and Chl a in the lakes, Chl a concentration of the river estuary area was larger than the northern high velocity regions, while the Rao-Xin-Tong Jin River estuary area even reached 12.53 μg/L, exceeding the low bound value of being a eutrophic lake. ©, 2014, Editorial Board of China Environmental Science. All right reserved.

Cai J.,Hubei Provincial Research Institute of Environmental Science | Feng L.,Hubei Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Kang J.,Hubei Provincial Research Institute of Environmental Science | Kang J.,Wuhan University | And 3 more authors.
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2013

The adsorption of methylene blue on activated carbon derived from brewer's yeast was systematically investigated in this study. Activated carbon prepared by chemical activation with Na2CO3 (weight ratio of Na2CO3/yeast was 2:1) at 700 °C for 2 h, presenting high BET surface (957.7 m2/g) and large pore volume (0.81 mL/g), was more effective for methylene blue removal than those prepared under other conditions. 88% of the uptake of methylene blue by this activated carbon occurred in 2.0 h, and the equilibrium was obtained within 3.0 h, which was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. The methylene blue adsorption on activated carbon decreased as the solution pH was increased from 3.0 to 4.0 and then increased obviously as the pH was further increased, which was caused by the pH-dependent surface charge of activated carbon. The adsorption isotherm was better described by the Freundlich isotherm than the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum methylene blue uptake was estimated to be 407.78 mg/g. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies showed that carbonyl and amine groups in activated carbon were involved in the adsorption of methylene blue. © by PSP.

Wu Y.-X.,Wuhan University | Li A.-M.,Hubei Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Wang D.-H.,Wuhan University | Zhang W.-H.,Wuhan University
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2015

The experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption behavior of tetracycline on a kind of nano-sized amorphous carbon, which was synthetized in a molten salt electrochemical system, comprising a eutectic mixture of Li-Na-K carbonates. The results showed that, the carbon powder had a good adsorption performance. At 298K, the maximum adsorption capacity of tetracycline was 127.76 mg·g-1. The adsorption data could be well fitted by the pseudo-second-order model and the Freundlich isotherm. Also, the thermodynamic tests for the adsorption were conducted. The adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous reaction with chemical bond as the dominant. The adsorption was pH dependent. The adsorption capacity reached the maximum when solution pH was 4 in the range from 2 to 11. The existence of cations had little effects on the adsorption. The adsorption capacity increased with the concentration of cations to a certain extent. Ion exchange may be one of the adsorption mechanisms, as well as, electric attraction and hydrogen bond. Moreover, desorption experiments were carried out in 0.25 mol·L-1 CaCl2 or NaCl solution respectively. Desorption efficiency ranged from 7.42% to 25%, which was at a relatively low level. The result indicated that the chemical adsorption process was strong. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

Li Z.,Wuhan University | Li Z.,Jiangxi Normal University | Xiao-Ling C.,Wuhan University | Xiao-Ling C.,Jiangxi Normal University | Yuan Z.,Hubei Environmental Monitoring Central Station
2014 The 3rd International Conference on Agro-Geoinformatics, Agro-Geoinformatics 2014 | Year: 2014

Suspended matters have a significant role on the overlying water. Nutrients and heavy metal released from sediments were an important source for lake eutrophication and pollution, especially for the shallow lakes. In this paper, HJ-1A/1B charge Coupled Device (CCD) data was collected to generate the Total suspended matter (TSM) concentration map of Poyang lake. Gaseous absorption and Rayleigh scattering effects was removed to get the reflectance of the lake and a TSM retrieve method called total suspended matter index (TSMI) at 660um wss used to retrieve the TSM concentration map from the HJ-1A/1B CCD images. During 15th to 23rd. Jul, 2011, A cruise survey was to get the in-situ data which was arranged to get the water samples to analyze the field TSM concentration of the lake, as well as the nutrients, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and heavy metal concentration data. Results showed that it was a high TSM concentration in Northern part of the lake while it is a low TSM concentration in the southern part of the lake. Spatial Correlation analysis was used to find the relationship between the TSM and the nutrients data, as well as the heavy metal data and the COD data. Total phosphorus (TP) had a higher relationship (R2=0.756 and Sig.<=0.01) with the TSM concentration data along the main course of the lake while the Total nitrogen has no relationship to it. The COD concentration varied with the TSM concentration changed. The heavy metal concentration (Cu, Pb, Zn) were in a low level in the lake and only Pb was related to the TSM concentration at the 0.05 confidence level. © 2014 IEEE.

Han G.,Wuhan University | Gong W.,Wuhan University | Quan J.H.,Hubei Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Li J.,Wuhan University | Zhang M.,Wuhan University
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2014

Activities involving firecrackers and fireworks on Chinese New Year's Eve (NYE) are common in Chinese culture. Previous studies revealed that such human activities significantly influence the ambient air quality and negatively impact human health. However, both the academia and the public lack a deep understanding of the extent and consequences of such human-induced air pollution. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effects of these Spring Festival celebrations on ambient air quality at a large spatial scale and a fine temporal resolution. Data from ten monitoring stations distributed around Wuhan and a Lidar system provide a good opportunity to gain insight into spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants due to the NYE celebrations. Dramatic increases in PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations due to NYE celebrations were observed in this study. Moreover, the ratio of residential to total area was found to be a significant factor in predicting the geographic distributions of contaminants. The vertical distribution of such human-induced and culture-related contaminants was first shown using a Mie Lidar. Contaminants emitted by firecrackers on the ground spread to a distance of over 450 m in the atmosphere. The vertical influence began to fade two hours after celebrations because of dry deposition. Moreover, it took over 15 hours for the contaminant levels to return to pre-celebration levels. Finally, estimations of PM 2.5 emissions from firecrackers in Wuhan were 39.57 and 43.51 tons, based on regression and time series analyses, respectively. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Zhao J.,Yunnan University | He X.-M.,Hubei Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Sun P.-S.,Yunnan University | Zhang S.-H.,Yunnan University
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2013

The effects of six emergent macrophytes (Typha orientalis, Acorus calamus, Oenanthe javanica, Scirpus validus, Sagittaria sagittifolia, and Pontederia cordata) on the growth of two strain Microcystis aeruginosa were studied under co-culture conditions. And the sensitivities of unicellular and colonial Microcystis strains to six emergent macrophytes were compared using an exudation experiment. Based on laboratory experiments, T. orientalis, A. calamus, O. javanica, S. validus, S. sagittifolia, and P. cordata had strong inhibitory effects on growth of unicellular M. aeruginosa, while only A. calamus and P. cordata show obvious growth inhibition on colonial M. aeruginosa. When the biomass density was 20 g FW·L-1, the growth inhibition rate of unicellular M. aeruginosa can exceed 90% for all of the six emergent macrophytes. When macrophytes coexisted with the colonial M. aeruginosa, only A. calamus, P. cordata, and S. sagittifolia showed the growth inhibition of algae. Maximal inhibition of Chl a growth was 75% (p<0.05) for A. calamus, 69% (p<0.05) for P. cordata, and 40% for S. sagittifolia at 45 g FW·L-1 on day 15. The results of the exudation experiment indicated that there were no significant differences between control and treatment of Chl a concentrations of colonial M. aeruginosa for all of the six macrophyte exudations on days 6 and 12. While after 6 d incubation in 100% and 50% macrophyte exudations (40 g FW·L-1), the cell densities of unicellular M. aeruginosa in control were obviously higher than all those in treatment (p < 0.05). The maximal algal growth inhibition (89.62%) of unicellular M. aeruginosa was achieved in 100% exudation of A. calamus on day 6 (p < 0.05). So according to the results of exudation experiments, the unicellular M. aeruginosa was more sensitive than the colonial strain to six emergent macrophytes. And this different sensitivity between Microcystis species probably correlated positively with colony size.

Zhang S.-H.,Yunnan University | Guo L.,Hubei Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Cao J.-Y.,Yunnan University | Chang J.-J.,Yunnan University
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2015

The extracts of three emergent macrophytes (Acorus calamus, Oenanthe javanica, and Sagittaria sagittifolia) were tested to study their allelopathic activities on unicellular Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena flosaquae, Aphanizomenon flosaquae, and natural phytoplankton assemblages. The 72 h EC50 of the most active extracts were measured. The results demonstrated the obvious species-specific activities of macrophytes on algae. Anabaena flosaquae and Aphanizomenon flosaquae was sensitive to the three macrophytes extracts, while unicellular M. aeruginosa was only sensitive to A. calamus and O. javanica extracts under the extracts concentration of 100 mg·L-1. Only the extract of A. calamus roots showed high growth inhibition on the natural phytoplankton assemblages in Dianchi Lake (Microcystis water bloom). The 72 h EC50 of A. calamus roots hexane extract on unicellular M. aeruginosa was 13.59 mg·L-1, while that on natural phytoplankton assemblages was 48.75 mg·L-1. These results demonstrated that the growth inhibitory activities of allelochemicals on unicellular M. aeruginosa cannot instead of the efficacies for controlling Microcystis bloom completely. And according to the different sensitivities of Microcystis species, the colonial Microcystis strains or natural Microcystis bloom will be proposed as the target organism when searching for Microcystis bloom control. © 2015, HARD Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

He X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Dai K.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li A.,Hubei Environmental Monitoring Central Station | Chen H.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Residues of eight perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in 15 fish samples from the Danjiangkou reservoir and Hanjiang river (Xiangyang and Zhongxiang sections). The total concentrations of PFCs in fish muscles ranged from 2.01 to 43.8 ng g- 1 dry weight. The mean concentration of total PFCs from related muscles showed the following trend in various regions: Zhongxiang section < Xiangyang section < Danjiangkou reservoir. Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC in the fish liver samples from the Danjiangkou reservoir. The calculated hazard ratio (HR) of PFCs, for all fish muscle samples, was less than 1.0, and could be classified at safe levels for the general population. However, yellow croaker fish from the Danjiangkou reservoir and Hanjiang river-Xiangyang section had HRs of 0.2, indicating that frequent consumption of this contaminated fish may pose an unacceptable risk to human health. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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