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Nawaz Z.,Zhejiang University | Kakar K.U.,Zhejiang University | Li X.-B.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li S.,Zhejiang University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

An association mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regulating the concentrations of eight elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) was performed using USDA mini-core subset cultivated in two different environments. In addition, correlation between the grain elemental concentrations was also studied. A total of 60 marker loci associated with 8 grain elemental concentrations were identified, and these loci were clustered into 37 genomic regions. Twenty new QTLs were found to be associated with important elements such as Zn, Fe, and P, along with others. Fe concentration was associated with the greatest number of markers in two environments. In addition, several important elemental/metal transporter genes were identified in a few mapped regions. Positive correlation was observed within all grain elemental concentrations. In summary, the results provide insight into the genetic basis of rice grain element accumulation and may help in the identification of genes associated with the accumulation of Zn, Fe, and other essential elements in rice. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Yu Y.,Capital Normal University | Zhen S.,Capital Normal University | Wang S.,Capital Normal University | Wang Y.,Capital Normal University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2016

Background: Wheat embryo and endosperm play important roles in seed germination, seedling survival, and subsequent vegetative growth. ABA can positively regulate dormancy induction and negatively regulates seed germination at low concentrations, while low H2O2 concentrations promote seed germination of cereal plants. In this report, we performed the first integrative transcriptome analysis of wheat embryo and endosperm responses to ABA and H2O2 stresses. Results: We used the GeneChip® Wheat Genome Array to conduct a comparative transcriptome microarray analysis of the embryo and endosperm of elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhengmai 9023 in response to ABA and H2O2 treatments during seed germination. Transcriptome profiling showed that after H2O2 and ABA treatments, the 64 differentially expressed genes in the embryo were closely related to DNA synthesis, CHO metabolism, hormone metabolism, and protein degradation, while 121 in the endosperm were involved mainly in storage reserves, transport, biotic and abiotic stresses, hormone metabolism, cell wall metabolism, signaling, and development. Scatter plot analysis showed that ABA treatment increased the similarity of regulated patterns between the two tissues, whereas H2O2 treatment decreased the global expression similarity. MapMan analysis provided a global view of changes in several important metabolism pathways (e.g., energy reserves mobilization, cell wall metabolism, and photosynthesis), as well as related functional groups (e.g., cellular processes, hormones, and signaling and transport) in the embryo and endosperm following exposure of seeds to ABA and H2O2 treatments during germination. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to validate the expression patterns of nine differentially expressed genes. Conclusions: Wheat seed germination involves regulation of a large number of genes involved in many functional groups. ABA/H2O2 can repress/promote seed germination by coordinately regulating related gene expression. Our results provide novel insights into the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of embryo and endosperm in response to ABA and H2O2 treatments during seed germination. © 2016 Yu et al.

Dong K.,Capital Normal University | Zhen S.,Capital Normal University | Cheng Z.,Capital Normal University | Cao H.,Capital Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially expressed protein (DEP) spots representing 73 unique proteins were identified, which are mainly involved in storage, stress/defense/detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, cell metabolism, and transcription/translation/transposition. The identified DEPs and their dynamic expression profiles generally correspond to three distinct seed germination phases after imbibition: storage degradation, physiological processes/morphogenesis, and photosynthesis. Some key DEPs involved in storage substance degradation and plant defense mechanisms, such as globulin 3, sucrose synthase type I, serpin, beta-amylase, and plastid ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) small subunit, were found to be phosphorylated during seed germination. Particularly, the phosphorylation site Ser355 was found to be located in the enzyme active region of beta-amylase, which promotes substrate binding. Phosphorylated modification of several proteins could promote storage substance degradation and environmental stress defense during seed germination. The central metabolic pathways involved in wheat seed germination are proposed herein, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cereal seed germination. © 2015 Dong, Zhen, Cheng, Cao, Ge and Yan.

Hao P.,Capital Normal University | Zhu J.,Capital Normal University | Gu A.,Capital Normal University | Lv D.,Capital Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Proteomics | Year: 2015

Roots, leaves, and intermediate sections between roots and leaves (ISRL) of wheat seedlings show different physiological functions at the protein level. We performed the first integrative proteomic analysis of different tissues of the drought-tolerant wheat cultivar Hanxuan 10 (HX-10) and drought-sensitive cultivar Chinese Spring (CS) during a simulated drought and recovery. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the roots (122), ISRLs (146), and leaves (163) showed significant changes in expression in response to drought stress and recovery. Numerous DEPs associated with cell defense and detoxifications were significantly regulated in roots and ISRLs, while in leaves, DEPs related to photosynthesis showed significant changes in expression. A significantly larger number of DEPs related to stress defense were upregulated in HX-10 than in CS. Expression of six HSPs potentially related to drought tolerance was significantly upregulated under drought conditions, and these proteins were involved in a complex protein-protein interaction network. Further phosphorylation analysis showed that the phosphorylation levels of HSP60, HSP90, and HOP were upregulated in HX-10 under drought stress. We present an overview of metabolic pathways in wheat seedlings based on abscisic acid signaling and important protein expression patterns. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Zhang M.,Capital Normal University | Zhang M.,Heze University | Chen G.-X.,Capital Normal University | Lv D.-W.,Capital Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2015

Brachypodium distachyon L., a model plant for cereal crops, has become important as an alternative and potential biofuel grass. In plants, N-glycosylation is one of the most common and important protein modifications, playing important roles in signal recognition, increase in protein activity, stability of protein structure, and formation of tissues and organs. In this study, we performed the first glycoproteome analysis in the seedling leaves of B. distachyon. Using lectin affinity chromatography enrichment and mass-spectrometry-based analysis, we identified 47 glycosylation sites representing 46 N-linked glycoproteins. Motif-X analysis showed that two conserved motifs, N-X-T/S (X is any amino acid, except Pro), were significantly enriched. Further functional analysis suggested that some of these identified glycoproteins are involved in signal transduction, protein trafficking, and quality control and the modification and remodeling of cell-wall components such as receptor-like kinases, protein disulfide isomerase, and polygalacturonase. Moreover, transmembrane helices and signal peptide prediction showed that most of these glycoproteins could participate in typical protein secretory pathways in eukaryotes. The results provide a general overview of protein N-glycosylation modifications during the early growth of seedling leaves in B. distachyon and supplement the glycoproteome databases of plants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Liu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Sun G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Sun G.,Saint Mary's University, Halifax | Ren X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2015

Physiological and morphological traits of flag leaf play important roles in determining crop grain yield and biomass. In order to understand genetic basis controlling physiological and morphological traits of flag leaf, a double haploid (DH) population derived from the cross of Huaai 11×Huadamai 6 was used to detect quantitative trait locus (QTL) underlying 7 physiological and 3 morphological traits at the pre-filling stage in year 2012 and 2013. Results: Total of 38 QTLs distributed on chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 6H and 7H were detected, and explained 6.53% - 31.29% phenotypic variation. The QTLs flanked by marker Bmag829 and GBM1218 on chromosome 2H were associated with net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), flag leaf area (LA), flag leaf length (FLL), flag leaf width (FLW), relative chlorophyll content (SPD) and leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC). Conclusion: Two QTL cluster regions associated with physiological and morphological traits, one each on the chromosome 2H and 7H, were observed. The two markers (Bmag829 and GBM1218) may be useful for marker assisted selection (MAS) in barley breeding. © Liu et al.

Xiong Q.,Yangtze University | Xiong Q.,Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain Industry
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2015

Sub-surface waterlogging is one of the main agricultural meteorological disasters affecting summer crops in Jianli County, Hubei Province, China. For sub-surface waterlogging is caused by the long-term influence of high soil moisture on crops, it is not easily identified. Few studies were found on the risk evaluation and zonation of crops injured by sub-surface waterlogging. The researchers of this paper firstly adjusted the parameters of DHSVM (distributed hydrology soil vegetation model) by using soil moisture data collected from February 13 to May 20 in 2014 and verified it with the data collected from May 25 to September 23 in 2014. The result showed that the DHSVM could be used to simulate the soil moisture changes in Jianli County. Based on this model, the influencing parameters of waterlogging injury were input, which included meteorology, soil physical properties, groundwater levels, topography, drainage and irrigation conditions, and the farming system. Then the spatial distributions of soil surface moisture were simulated using the DHSVM with a step of 24 h during the growth seasons (March and April) of summer crops from 1970 to 2014. Also the waterlogging moisture indicators were also used to analyze the injury times of each grid in Jianli County (waterlogging injury occurs when the water level is less than 60 cm and surface soil moisture is higher than 95% of soil saturation for 5 days), and the spatial resolution was 90 m. In this way, the spatial distribution of the sub-surface waterlogging injured ratio (SWIR) was calculated, as well as the indicator of the degree of sub-surface waterlogging injury. According to the different range of SWIR value, the research areas which were at the risk of the sub-surface waterlogging injury, were consequently classified into 4 grades: the severe damage zone (SWIR greater than or equal to 0.6), the moderate damage zone (SWIR greater than or equal to 0.3 and less than 0.6), the mild damage zone (SWIR greater than or equal to 0.1 and less than 0.3), and the damage-free zone (SWIR less than 0.1). Thus the zonation of sub-surface waterlogging injury of summer crops was mapped. With some risk evaluation of each zone, the zonation conformed to the actual situation. Since the method used in this paper is based on the model and all the damage factors are taken into account, it is more accurate than the division only using the meteorological elements and proved to be an applicable method for the zonation of sub-surface waterlogging injury on the county scale. ©, 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.

Zhang Z.S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang Z.S.,Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain Industry | Guo L.J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Guo L.J.,Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain Industry | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

Significant efforts have been devoted to assess the effects of conservation tillage (no-tillage [NT] and straw returning) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and net economic budget in crop growing seasons. However, only a few studies have evaluated the effects conservation tillage on the net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB) in a rice-wheat cropping system. Therefore, a split-plot field experiment was performed to comprehensively evaluate the effects of tillage practices (i.e., conventional intensive tillage [CT] and NT) and straw returning methods (i.e., straw returning or removal of preceding crop) on the soil total organic carbon (TOC), GHG emissions, GWP, GHGI, and NEEB of sandy loam soil in a rice-wheat cropping system in central China. Conservation tillage did not affect rice and wheat grain yields. Compared with CT and straw removal, NT and straw returning significantly increased the TOC of 0-5 cm soil layer by 2.9% and 7.8%, respectively. However, the TOC of 0-20 cm soil layer was not affected by tillage practices and straw returning methods. NT did not also affect the N2O emissions during the rice and wheat seasons; NT significantly decreased the annual CH4 emissions by 7.5% and the annual GWP by 7.8% compared with CT. Consequently, GHGI under NT was reduced by 8.1%. Similar to NT, straw returning did not affect N2O emissions during the rice and wheat seasons. Compared with straw removal, straw returning significantly increased annual CH4 emissions by 35.0%, annual GWP by 32.0%, and annual GHGI by 31.1%. Straw returning did not also affect NEEB; by contrast, NT significantly increased NEEB by 15.6%. NT without straw returning resulted in the lowest GWP, the lowest GHGI, and the highest NEEB among all treatments. This finding suggested that NT without straw returning may be applied as a sustainable technology to increase economic and environmental benefits. Nevertheless, environmentally straw returning methods should be considered in future studies. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhang Z.-S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Cao C.-G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Guo L.-J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li C.-F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li C.-F.,Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain Industry
Paddy and Water Environment | Year: 2016

A field experiment was conducted to investigate effects of tillage practices [no-tillage (NT) and conventional intensive tillage (CT)] and oilseed rape residue returning levels (0, 3000, 6000, 9000 kg dry matter ha−1) on methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and grain yield from paddy fields during the 2011 rice growing season after 2 years oilseed rape-rice rotation in central China. The experiment was established following a split-plot design of a randomized complete block with tillage practices as the main plots and residue returning levels as the sub-plots. NT significantly decreased CO2 and CH4 emissions by 38.8 and 27.3 % compared with CT, respectively. Residue returning treatments released significantly more CO2 and CH4 by 855.5–10410 and 51.5–210.5 kg ha−1 than no residue treatments, respectively. The treatments of 3,000 and 6,000 kg ha−1 residue returning significantly increased rice grain yield by 37.9 and 32.0 % compared with the treatment of no residue returning, respectively. Compared with NT, CT increased yield-scaled emissions of CH4 and CO2 by 16.0 %. The treatments of 6,000 and 9,000 kg ha−1 residue returning significantly increased yield-scaled emissions of CH4 and CO2 by 18.1 and 61.5 %, respectively, compared with the treatment of no residue returning. Moreover, the treatment of NT in combination with 3,000 kg ha−1 residues had the lowest yield-scaled emissions of CH4 and CO2 across tillage and residue treatments. In this way, this study revealed that the combination of NT with 3,000 kg ha−1 residues was a suitable strategy for optimizing carbon emissions and rice grain yield. © 2015, The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering and Springer Japan.

PubMed | Yangtze University and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain Industry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of virology | Year: 2016

A novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus, designated Magnaporthe oryzae partitivirus 1 (MoPV1), was isolated from a strain of the plant pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. The MoPV1 genome has two dsRNA genome segments. The larger segment (1763bp) has a single open reading frame (ORF) with a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. The smaller segment (1491bp) contains a single ORF encoding a putative coat protein (CP). Homology searches and phylogenetic analysis indicated that MoPV1 is a new member of the genus Gammapartitivirus. This is the first report of a mycovirus of the family Partitiviridae identified in Magnaporthe oryzae.

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