Time filter

Source Type

PubMed | Yangtze University, Huazhong Agricultural University, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety and Complutense University of Madrid
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of toxicology | Year: 2016

Fumonisins (FBs) are widespread Fusarium toxins commonly found as corn contaminants. FBs could cause a variety of diseases in animals and humans, such as hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatocarcinogenic and cytotoxic effects in mammals. To date, almost no review has addressed the toxicity of FBs in relation to oxidative stress and their metabolism. The focus of this article is primarily intended to summarize the progress in research associated with oxidative stress as a plausible mechanism for FB-induced toxicity as well as the metabolism. The present review showed that studies have been carried out over the last three decades to elucidate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress as a result of FBs treatment and have correlated them with various types of FBs toxicity, indicating that oxidative stress plays critical roles in the toxicity of FBs. The major metabolic pathways of FBs are hydrolysis, acylation and transamination. Ceramide synthase, carboxylesterase FumD and aminotransferase FumI could degrade FB1 and FB2. The cecal microbiota of pigs and alkaline processing such as nixtamalization can also transform FB1 into metabolites. Most of the metabolites of FB1 were less toxic than FB1, except its partial (pHFB1) metabolites. Further understanding of the role of oxidative stress in FB-induced toxicity will throw new light on the use of antioxidants, scavengers of ROS, as well as on the blind spots of metabolism and the metabolizing enzymes of FBs. The present review might contribute to reveal the toxicity of FBs and help to protect against their oxidative damage.


Wang X.,National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues HZAU | Zhang H.,Northwest University, China | Huang L.,National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues HZAU | Pan Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 9 more authors.
Chemical Research in Toxicology | Year: 2015

Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides (QdNOs) are synthetic agents with a wide range of biological activities. However, the mechanism of DNA damage mediated by QdNOs is far from clear. Five classical QdNOs, quinocetone (QCT), mequindox (MEQ), carbadox (CBX), olaquindox (OLA), and cyadox (CYA), were used to investigate the genotoxicity of QdNOs. The deoxidation rate of QdNOs was presumed to play a role in their genotoxicity. Deoxidation rates of QdNOs in both rat and pig liver microsomes were investigated using LC/MS-IT/TOF, and their relative quantification was achieved with HPLC. To reveal the relationships between the deoxidation rate and genotoxicity, cell damage, oxidative stress, and DNA damage were detected. Under low oxygen conditions, the rank order of the desoxy and bidesoxy rates in rat and pig liver microsomes was QCT < CBX < MEQ < OLA < CYA and QCT < MEQ < CBX < OLA < CYA, respectively. Only desoxy-quinoxalines were detected under aerobic conditions. The concentrations of deoxidized metabolites under low oxygen conditions were at least 6 times higher than those under aerobic conditions. In rats, porcine primary hepatocytes, and HepG2 cells, oxidative stress indices and DNA damage showed inverse relationships with the deoxidation rate, indicating that the deoxidation rate of QdNOs, especially bidesoxy rates, might play a critical role in mediating their ability to promote DNA damage. These results indicated that faster deoxidation of QdNOs results in lower DNA-damage-induced toxicity. Our results shed new light on the prevention of DNA damage mediated by QdNOs and help to understand the relationships among the chemical structures, metabolism, and DNA damage of QdNOs. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Wang X.,National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues HZAU | Zhou W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ihsan A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Chen D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Cyadox (2-formylquinoxaline-N1,N4-dioxide cyanocetylhydrazone) is a new antimicrobial agent and growth-promoter to be used in food-producing animals. Although its toxicity has been clearly documented in rodents, no study is available in non-rodent animals. Therefore, we studied the subchronic effects of cyadox in Beagle dogs to provide additional information with which to establish safety criteria for human exposure. For this purpose, 36 Beagle dogs, 18 males and 18 females, were divided into four groups and fed diets containing 0, 100, 450 and 2500 mg/kg of cyadox, respectively, for 13 weeks. It was found that there were no significant changes among the examined parameters, except for an increase in the level of serum potassium (K+) in 2500 mg/kg cyadox group in males at week 13 of the study. However, the K+ level returned to normal during the recovery period. In conclusion, cyadox showed slight effects in Beagle dogs in the subchronic oral toxicity study. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of cyadox was considered to be 450 mg/kg diet, which equates to approximately 15.3-15.4 mg/kg b.w./day. The study provided subchronic effects of cyadox in Beagle dogs, suggesting that cyadox might present mild toxicity in non-rodents. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Huazhong Agricultural University, MOA Laboratory for Risk Assessment of Quality and Safety of Livestock and Poultry Products, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety and University of Hradec Kralove
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2017

T-2 toxin, a major compound of trichothecenes, induces cell apoptosis and growth hormone (GH) deficiency and causes considerable growth retardation in animals and human cells. However, the mechanism underlying its growth suppression still remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that ROS induced cell apoptosis and animal feed intake reduction, but there are limited reports on the role of RNS in T-2 toxin-mediated mitochondrial damage, cell apoptosis and growth retardation. Herein, T-2 toxin-induced GH3 cell damage and apoptosis were tested by MTT assay, LDH leakage and flow cytometry, respectively. Intracellular NO and antioxidant enzyme activity, m, morphometric changes of mitochondria, the caspase pathway, and inflammatory factors were investigated. Free radical scavengers NAC, SOD and NO scavenger haemoglobin were used to explore the role of oxidative stress and the relationship between NO production and caspase pathway. The results clearly revealed that T-2 toxin caused significant increases in NO generation, cell apoptosis, GH deficiency, increased iNOS activity, upregulation of inflammatory factors and caspase pathway, decreases in m and morphosis damage. These data suggest that mitochondria are a primary target of T-2 toxin-induced NO, and NO is a key mediator of T-2 toxin-induced cell apoptosis and GH deficiency via the mitochondria-dependent pathway in cells.


PubMed | Huazhong Agricultural University, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2016

Quinoxaline-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) are potential antibacterial agents with a wide range of biological properties. Quinocetone (QCT), carbadox (CBX), olaquindox (OLA), mequindox (MEQ) and cyadox (CYA) are classical QdNOs. Though the genotoxicity of parent drugs has been evaluated, the genotoxicity of their primary NO reduced metabolites remains unclear. In the present study, a battery of four different short-term tests, mouse lymphoma assay (MLA), Ames test, chromosomal aberration assay invitro and bone marrow erythrocyte micronucleus assay invivo was carried out to investigate the genotoxicity of the six primary NO reduced metabolites. Additionally, the genotoxicity of five parent drugs was evaluated by the MLA. Strong genotoxicity of N1-MEQ, B-MEQ and B-CBX was found in three of the assays but not in the Ames assay, and the rank order was N1-MEQ>B-MEQ>B-CBX that is consistent with prototype QdNOs. Negative results for the five QdNOs were noted in the MLA. We present for the first time a comparison of the genotoxicity of primary NO reduced metabolites, and evaluate the ability of five QdNOs to cause mutations in the MLA. The present study demonstrates that metabolites are involved in genetic toxicity mediated by QdNOs, and improve the prudent use of QdNOs for public health.


PubMed | Huazhong Agricultural University, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety and National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues HZAU and MOA Key Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2015

Cyadox (2-formylquinoxaline-N(1),N(4)-dioxide cyanocetylhydrazone) is a new antimicrobial agent and growth-promoter to be used in food-producing animals. Although its toxicity has been clearly documented in rodents, no study is available in non-rodent animals. Therefore, we studied the subchronic effects of cyadox in Beagle dogs to provide additional information with which to establish safety criteria for human exposure. For this purpose, 36 Beagle dogs, 18 males and 18 females, were divided into four groups and fed diets containing 0, 100, 450 and 2500 mg/kg of cyadox, respectively, for 13 weeks. It was found that there were no significant changes among the examined parameters, except for an increase in the level of serum potassium (K(+)) in 2500 mg/kg cyadox group in males at week 13 of the study. However, the K(+) level returned to normal during the recovery period. In conclusion, cyadox showed slight effects in Beagle dogs in the subchronic oral toxicity study. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of cyadox was considered to be 450 mg/kg diet, which equates to approximately 15.3-15.4 mg/kg b.w./day. The study provided subchronic effects of cyadox in Beagle dogs, suggesting that cyadox might present mild toxicity in non-rodents.


PubMed | Huazhong Agricultural University, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety and National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues HZAU and MAO Key Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues
Type: | Journal: Toxicology | Year: 2016

Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives (QdNOs) with a wide range of biological activities are used in animal husbandry worldwide. It was found that QdNOs significantly inhibited the gene expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, the key aldosterone synthases, and thus reduced aldosterone levels. However, whether the metabolites of QdNOs have potential adrenal toxicity and the role of oxidative stress in the adrenal toxicity of QdNOs remains unclear. The relatively new QdNOs, cyadox (CYA), mequindox (MEQ), quinocetone (QCT) and their metabolites, were selected for elucidation of their toxic mechanisms in H295R cells. Interestingly, the results showed that the main toxic metabolites of QCT, MEQ, and CYA were their N1-desoxy metabolites, which were more harmful than other metabolites and evoked dose and time-dependent cell damage on adrenal cells and inhibited aldosterone production. Gene and protein expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 and mRNA expression of transcription factors, such as NURR1, NGFIB, CREB, SF-1, and ATF-1, were down regulated by N1-desoxy QdNOs. The natural inhibitors of oxidant stress, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC), could upregulate the expression of diverse transcription factors, including CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, and elevated aldosterone levels to reduce adrenal toxicity. This study demonstrated for the first time that N1-desoxy QdNOs have the potential to be the major toxic metabolites in adrenal toxicity, which may shed new light on the adrenal toxicity of these fascinating compounds and help to provide a basic foundation for the formulation of safety controls for animal products and the design of new QdNOs with less harmful effects.


PubMed | Huazhong Agricultural University, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety and National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues HZAU and MAO Key Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2015

Quinocetone (QCT) is a new feeding antibacterial agent in the QdNOs family. The mechanism of its adrenal toxicity is far from clear. This study was conducted to estimate the adrenal cell damage induced by QCT and its bidesoxy-quinocetone (B-QCT) metabolite and to further investigate their mechanisms. Following doses of QCT increasing from 5 to 50 M, cell apoptosis and necrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and redox imbalance were observed in porcine adrenocortical cells. The mRNA levels of the six components of intermediary enzymes and the adrenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) displayed a dysregulation induced by QCT, indicating that QCT might influence aldosterone secretion not only through the upstream of the production but also through the downstream of the adrenal RAAS pathway. In contrast, B-QCT had few toxic effects on the cell apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and redox imbalance. Moreover, LCMS-IT-TOF analysis showed that no desoxy metabolites of QCT were found in either cell lysate or supernatant samples. In conclusion, we reported on the cytotoxicity in porcine adrenocortical cells exposed to QCT via oxidative stress, which raised awareness that its toxic effects resulted from NO groups, and its toxic mechanism might involve the interference of the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway.


PubMed | Huazhong Agricultural University, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety and National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues HZAU and MAO Key Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied toxicology : JAT | Year: 2015

Aditoprim (ADP), a new developed dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor, has great potential in clinical veterinary medicine because of its greater pharmacokinetic properties than structural analogs. Preclinical toxicology studies were performed to assess the safety of ADP including an acute oral toxicity test, a subchronic toxicity test and five mutagenicity tests. In the acute oral toxicity test, ADP was administered singly by oral gavage to Wistar rats and Kunming mice. The LD50 calculated was 1400 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW) day(-1) in rats and 1130 mg kg(-1) BW day(-1) in mice. In a subchronic study, Wistar rats were administered ADP at dose levels of 0, 20, 100 and 1000 mg kg(-1) diet for 90 days. Significant decreases were observed on body weight and food efficiency in the high-dose group. Treatment-related changes in clinical serum biochemistry were found in the medium- and high-dose groups. Significant increases in the relative weights of livers and kidneys in females and testis in males in the 1000 mg kg(-1) diet, and significant decrease in relative weights of livers in males in the 100 mg kg(-1) diet were noted. Histopathological observations revealed that the 1000 mg kg(-1) ADP diet could induce lymphocytic infiltration and hepatocytic necrosis near the hepatic portal area. The genotoxicity of ADP was negative in tests, such as the bacterial reverse mutation assay, mice bone marrow erythrocyte micronucleus assay, in vitro chromosomal aberration test, in vitro cho/hgprt mammalian cell mutagenesis assay and mice testicle cells chromosome aberration. Based on the subchronic study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level for ADP was a 20 mg kg(-1) diet, which is about 1.44-1.53 mg kg(-1) BW day(-1) in rats.


PubMed | Huazhong Agricultural University, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety and National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues HZAU and MAO Key Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues
Type: | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2016

Cyadox (CYA) is a synthetic antimicrobial agent, belonging to quinoxaline (QdNO) family. Cy1 (bidesoxy cyadox), Cy2 (N4-desoxycyadox) and Cy10 (N1-desoxycyadox) are the primary metabolites of CYA. In our present study, an acute toxicity test, a sub-chronic toxicity test, and a battery of three genotoxicity tests were carried out according to standard protocols. The LD50 of the metabolites were above 5000mg/kg b.w. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of Cy1 and Cy-M (mixture of Cy2 and Cy10) in rats, and the MTD of Cy1, Cy2 and Cy10 in mice were above 6000mg/kg b.w./day. In subchronic study, rats were separately administered Cy1 and Cy-M at the dose levels of 0, 50, 150 and 2500mg/kg diet for 90 days, with CYA (2500mg/kg) as a control. Significant decreases in body weight and changes in clinical serum biochemistry were observed in the high-dose group of Cy1 and Cy-M, as well as CYA. Significant changes in relative weights of organs at 150 and 2500mg/kg diet of Cy1 and CYA were noted. Additionally, the high-dose groups of Cy1, Cy-M and CYA showed pathological changes near the hepatic portal area. There was no evidence for genotoxic activity of any of the three metabolites in the bacterial reverse mutation test, mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay or an invitro assay for clastogenicity. Based on the subchronic study, the target organ of the primary metabolites was the liver, and the no-observed-adverse-effect level for Cy1 and Cy-M was 150mg/kg diet.

Loading Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety collaborators
Loading Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety collaborators