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Wang X.,Complutense University of Madrid | Wang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Martinez M.-A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Dai M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 10 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2016

Permethrin (PER), the most frequently used synthetic Type I pyrethroid insecticide, is widely used in the world because of its high activity as an insecticide and its low mammalian toxicity. It was originally believed that PER exhibited low toxicity on untargeted animals. However, as its use became more extensive worldwide, increasing evidence suggested that PER might have a variety of toxic effects on animals and humans alike, such as neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, reproductive, genotoxic, and haematotoxic effects, digestive system toxicity, and cytotoxicity. A growing number of studies indicate that oxidative stress played critical roles in the various toxicities associated with PER. To date, almost no review has addressed the toxicity of PER correlated with oxidative stress. The focus of this article is primarily to summarise advances in the research associated with oxidative stress as a potential mechanism for PER-induced toxicity as well as its metabolism. This review summarises the research conducted over the past decade into the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress as a consequence of PER treatments, and ultimately their correlation with the toxicity and the metabolism of PER. The metabolism of PER involves various CYP450 enzymes, alcohol or aldehyde dehydrogenases for oxidation and the carboxylesterases for hydrolysis, through which oxidative stress might occur, and such metabolic factors are also reviewed. The protection of a variety of antioxidants against PER-induced toxicity is also discussed, in order to further understand the role of oxidative stress in PER-induced toxicity. This review will throw new light on the critical roles of oxidative stress in PER-induced toxicity, as well as on the blind spots that still exist in the understanding of PER metabolism, the cellular effects in terms of apoptosis and cell signaling pathways, and finally strategies to help to protect against its oxidative damage. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source


Wang X.,National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues HZAU | Tan Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Pan Y.,Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety | Ihsan A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Applied Toxicology | Year: 2015

Aditoprim (ADP), a new developed dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor, has great potential in clinical veterinary medicine because of its greater pharmacokinetic properties than structural analogs. Preclinical toxicology studies were performed to assess the safety of ADP including an acute oral toxicity test, a subchronic toxicity test and five mutagenicity tests. In the acute oral toxicity test, ADP was administered singly by oral gavage to Wistar rats and Kunming mice. The LD50 calculated was 1400 mg kg-1 body weight (BW) day-1 in rats and 1130 mg kg-1 BW day-1 in mice. In a subchronic study, Wistar rats were administered ADP at dose levels of 0, 20, 100 and 1000 mg kg-1 diet for 90 days. Significant decreases were observed on body weight and food efficiency in the high-dose group. Treatment-related changes in clinical serum biochemistry were found in the medium- and high-dose groups. Significant increases in the relative weights of livers and kidneys in females and testis in males in the 1000 mg kg-1 diet, and significant decrease in relative weights of livers in males in the 100 mg kg-1 diet were noted. Histopathological observations revealed that the 1000 mg kg-1 ADP diet could induce lymphocytic infiltration and hepatocytic necrosis near the hepatic portal area. The genotoxicity of ADP was negative in tests, such as the bacterial reverse mutation assay, mice bone marrow erythrocyte micronucleus assay, in vitro chromosomal aberration test, in vitro cho/hgprt mammalian cell mutagenesis assay and mice testicle cells chromosome aberration. Based on the subchronic study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level for ADP was a 20 mg kg-1 diet, which is about 1.44-1.53 mg kg-1 BW day-1 in rats. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Wang X.,National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues HZAU | Wang X.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martinez M.-A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cheng G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 9 more authors.
Drug Metabolism Reviews | Year: 2016

Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives (QdNOs) have been widely used as growth promoters and antibacterial agents. Carbadox (CBX), olaquindox (OLA), quinocetone (QCT), cyadox (CYA) and mequindox (MEQ) are the classical members of QdNOs. Some members of QdNOs are known to cause a variety of toxic effects. To date, however, almost no review has addressed the toxicity and metabolism of QdNOs in relation to oxidative stress. This review focused on the research progress associated with oxidative stress as a plausible mechanism for QdNO-induced toxicity and metabolism. The present review documented that the studies were performed over the past 10 years to interpret the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress as the results of QdNO treatment and have correlated them with various types of QdNO toxicity, suggesting that oxidative stress plays critical roles in their toxicities. The major metabolic pathways of QdNOs are N→O group reduction and hydroxylation. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), aldehyde oxidase (SsAOX1), carbonyl reductase (CBR1) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes were involved in the QdNOs metabolism. Further understanding the role of oxidative stress in QdNOs-induced toxicity will throw new light onto the use of antioxidants and scavengers of ROS as well as onto the blind spots of metabolism and the metabolizing enzymes of QdNOs. The present review might contribute to revealing the QdNOs toxicity, protecting against oxidative damage and helping to improve the rational use of concurrent drugs, while developing novel QdNO compounds with more efficient potentials and less toxic effects. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Source


Wang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang X.,Complutense University of Madrid | Wu Q.,Yangtze University | Wu Q.,University of Hradec Kralove | And 9 more authors.
Archives of Toxicology | Year: 2015

Fumonisins (FBs) are widespread Fusarium toxins commonly found as corn contaminants. FBs could cause a variety of diseases in animals and humans, such as hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatocarcinogenic and cytotoxic effects in mammals. To date, almost no review has addressed the toxicity of FBs in relation to oxidative stress and their metabolism. The focus of this article is primarily intended to summarize the progress in research associated with oxidative stress as a plausible mechanism for FB-induced toxicity as well as the metabolism. The present review showed that studies have been carried out over the last three decades to elucidate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress as a result of FBs treatment and have correlated them with various types of FBs toxicity, indicating that oxidative stress plays critical roles in the toxicity of FBs. The major metabolic pathways of FBs are hydrolysis, acylation and transamination. Ceramide synthase, carboxylesterase FumD and aminotransferase FumI could degrade FB1 and FB2. The cecal microbiota of pigs and alkaline processing such as nixtamalization can also transform FB1 into metabolites. Most of the metabolites of FB1 were less toxic than FB1, except its partial (pHFB1) metabolites. Further understanding of the role of oxidative stress in FB-induced toxicity will throw new light on the use of antioxidants, scavengers of ROS, as well as on the blind spots of metabolism and the metabolizing enzymes of FBs. The present review might contribute to reveal the toxicity of FBs and help to protect against their oxidative damage. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015. Source


Wang X.,National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues HZAU | Yang C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ihsan A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Luo X.,Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety | And 8 more authors.
Toxicology | Year: 2016

Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives (QdNOs) with a wide range of biological activities are used in animal husbandry worldwide. It was found that QdNOs significantly inhibited the gene expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, the key aldosterone synthases, and thus reduced aldosterone levels. However, whether the metabolites of QdNOs have potential adrenal toxicity and the role of oxidative stress in the adrenal toxicity of QdNOs remains unclear. The relatively new QdNOs, cyadox (CYA), mequindox (MEQ), quinocetone (QCT) and their metabolites, were selected for elucidation of their toxic mechanisms in H295R cells. Interestingly, the results showed that the main toxic metabolites of QCT, MEQ, and CYA were their N1-desoxy metabolites, which were more harmful than other metabolites and evoked dose and time-dependent cell damage on adrenal cells and inhibited aldosterone production. Gene and protein expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 and mRNA expression of transcription factors, such as NURR1, NGFIB, CREB, SF-1, and ATF-1, were down regulated by N1-desoxy QdNOs. The natural inhibitors of oxidant stress, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC), could upregulate the expression of diverse transcription factors, including CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, and elevated aldosterone levels to reduce adrenal toxicity. This study demonstrated for the first time that N1-desoxy QdNOs have the potential to be the major toxic metabolites in adrenal toxicity, which may shed new light on the adrenal toxicity of these fascinating compounds and help to provide a basic foundation for the formulation of safety controls for animal products and the design of new QdNOs with less harmful effects. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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