Mankato, MN, United States
Mankato, MN, United States

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Apple J.K.,University of Arkansas | Sawyer J.T.,University of Arkansas | Sawyer J.T.,Tarleton State University | Maxwell C.V.,University of Arkansas | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the effect of supplemental l-carnitine (CARN) on the fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of fresh pork bellies from pigs fed diets formulated with different inclusion levels of corn oil. Pigs were blocked by BW (43.6 ± 1.0 kg) and allotted randomly to pens of 6 pigs within blocks. Then, within blocks, pens were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with either 0 or 100 mg/kg of supplemental CARN and 3 dietary inclusion levels (0, 2, or 4%) of corn oil (CO). When the lightest block weighed 125.0 kg, all pigs were slaughtered, and leftside bellies were captured during carcass fabrication for quality data collection. Fresh pork bellies were evaluated for length, width, thickness, and firmness (barsuspension and Instron-compression methods) before a 2.5-cm-wide strip of belly was removed and subsequently dissected into subcutaneous fat, primary lean (latissimus dorsi), secondary lean (cutaneous trunci), and intermuscular fat for fatty acid composition determination. Although belly length, width, and thickness of fresh pork bellies were not affected by CARN (P ≥ 0.128) or CO (P ≥ 0.073), belly firmness decreased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary CO, but there was no (P ≥ 0.137) effect of CARN on any belly firmness measure. Dietary CARN increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total SFA in the intermuscular fat layer, increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total MUFA in the primary and secondary lean layers, and decreased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total PUFA in the intermuscular fat and secondary lean layers of pork bellies. Moreover, the SFA and MUFA compositions decreased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary CO, and the rate of the decrease in SFA composition was greater (P < 0.001) in the fat layers than the lean layers. Conversely, the PUFA content increased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary CO, and the rate of the increase in PUFA was greater (P < 0.001) in the fat than the lean layers, and greater (P = 0.022) in the primary than secondary lean layer. Results from this study would indicate that differences in the amount and rate of fatty acid deposition associated with feeding increased amounts of CO, along with moisture differences among the belly layers, combine to negatively affect fresh pork belly firmness. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science.


Flohr J.R.,Kansas State University | Tokach M.D.,Kansas State University | Dritz S.S.,Kansas State University | Derouchey J.M.,Kansas State University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of supplemental vitamin D3 on pig growth, feed preference, serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3], and bone mineralization of nursing and weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, 270 pigs (1.71 ± 0.01 kg BW) were administered 1 of 3 oral vitamin D3 dosages (none, 40,000, or 80,000 IU vitamin D3) on d 1 or 2 of age. Increasing oral vitamin D3 increased serum 25(OH)D3 on d10 and 20 (quadratic, P < 0.01) and d 30 (linear, P < 0.01). No differences were observed in ADG before weaning or for nursery ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Vitamin D3 concentration had no effect on bone ash concentration or bone histological traits evaluated on d 19 or 35. In Exp. 2, 398 barrows (initially 7 d of age) were used in a 2 × 2 split plot design to determine the influence of vitamin D3 before (none or 40,000 IU vitamin D3 in an oral dose) or after weaning (1,378 or 13,780 IU vitamin D3/kg in nursery diets from d 21 to 31 of age) in a 45-d trial. Before weaning (7 to 21 d of age), oral vitamin D3 dose did not influence growth but increased (P < 0.01) serum 25(OH)D3 at weaning (d21) and tended (P = 0.08) to increase 25(OH)D3 on d 31. Increasing dietary vitamin D3 concentration from d 21 to 31 increased (P < 0.01) serum 25(OH)D3 on d31. Neither the oral vitamin D3 dose nor nursery vitamin D3 supplements influenced nursery ADG, ADFI, or G:F. In Exp. 3, 864 pigs (initially 21 d of age) were allotted to 1 of 2 water solubilized vitamin D3 treatments (none or 16,516 IU/L vitamin D3 provided in the drinking water from d 0 to 10) in a 30-d study. Providing vitamin D3 increased serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations on d 10, 20, and 30; however, vitamin D3 supplementation did not affect overall (d 0 to 30) ADG, ADFI, or G:F. In Exp. 4, 72 pigs were used in a feed preference study consisting of 2 feed preference comparisons. Pigs did not differentiate diets containing either 1,378 or 13,780 IU vitamin D3/kg but consumed less (P < 0.01) of a diet containing 44,100 IU vitamin D3/kg compared with the diet containing 1,378 IU vitamin D3/kg. Overall, these studies demonstrate that supplementing vitamin D3 above basal concentrations used in these studies is effective at increasing circulating 25(OH)D3, but the supplement did not influence growth or bone mineralization. Also, concentrations of vitamin D3 of 44,100 IU/kg of the diet may negatively affect feed preference of nursery pigs. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Gaughan J.B.,University of Queensland | Mader T.L.,Concord University | Holt S.M.,Hubbard Feeds Inc | Sullivan M.L.,University of Queensland | Hahn G.L.,United States Meat Animal Research Center
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2010

Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. Nearly 82% of the world's 1.2 billion cattle can be found in developing countries. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals. Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle, and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score (0 to 4.5 scale where 0 = no stress and 4.5=extreme stress) and the heat load index (HLI) [HLIBG<25°C=10.66+0.28×rh+1.30×BG -WS; and, HLIBG> 25°C=8.62+0.38×rh+1.55×BG - 0.5×WS+e(2.4 - WS), where BG = black globe temperature (oC), rh = relative humidity (decimal form), WS = wind speed (m/s) and e is the base of the natural logarithm] were used to assess the heat tolerance of 17 genotypes (12,757 steers) within 13 Australian feedlots over three summers. The cattle were assessed under natural climatic conditions in which HLI ranged from thermonuetral (HLI<70) to extreme (HLI>96; black globe temperature = 40.2°C, relative humidity = 64%, wind speed = 1.58 m/s). When HLI>96 a greater number (P<0.001) of pure bred Bos taurus and crosses of Bos taurus cattle had a panting score≥2 compared to Brahman cattle, and Brahman-cross cattle. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI. Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI. © 2009 ISB.


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Ridley Inc. and Hubbard Feeds Inc. | Date: 2010-09-07

Animal Feed.


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Ridley Inc. and Hubbard Feeds Inc. | Date: 2010-07-06

Animal Feed Supplements.


Trademark
Ridley Inc. and Hubbard Feeds Inc. | Date: 2010-07-06

Animal Feed; Livestock Feed; Non-Medicated Additives for Animal Feed.


Frobose H.L.,Kansas State University | Fruge E.D.,Hubbard Feeds Inc. | Tokach M.D.,Kansas State University | Hansen E.L.,Hubbard Feeds Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Four experiments were conducted to ascertain the effects of hydrothermal treatment and sodium metabisulfite (SMB) on deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Experiment 1 evaluated SMB and heat (autoclaving) on high-DON DDGS (20.6 mg/kg). Six levels of SMB were tested: 0.0% (control), 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, 5%, and 5% with 100 mL/kg distilled water. Autoclaving after 1 h at 121 °C alone elicited a 9.8% reduction in DON, whereas an 82% reduction was achieved when 5% SMB was added before autoclaving. Experiment 2 tested pelleting high-DON DDGS with SMB. Four batches of DDGS (20.5 mg/kg DON) were tested: 0 (control), 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% SMB. Pelleted samples were collected at conditioning temperatures of 66 and 82 °C and retention times of 30 and 60 s within temperature. Pelleting conditions had no effect on DON levels, but as SMB inclusion increased in pelleted DDGS, DON levels were reduced (quadratic; P < 0.001). Experiments 3 and 4 evaluated pelleting and SMB on nursery pig growth. Both trials were arranged in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial with 5 replicate pens per treatment. In Exp 3, 987 pigs (13.0 ± 0.2 kg) were used with main effects of (1) diet form: meal or pellet and (2) SMB level: Negative Control (NC), NC + 0.25% SMB, or NC + 0.50% SMB. Negative Control diets were formulated to contain 3 mg/kg DON. Treatment 7 was a Positive Control (P C; < 0.5 mg/kg DON) fed in meal form. Pigs fed high-DON diets had reduced (P < 0.001) ADG and ADFI, but pelleting improved (P < 0.001) ADG and G:F. Adding SMB increased (linear; P < 0.03) ADG and tended to increase (P < 0.10) ADFI. In Exp 4, 1180 pigs (11.1 ± 0.32 kg) were used with main effects of (1) diet form: meal or pellet and (2) DDGS source: PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), NC (5 mg/kg DON), or NC + DDGS pelleted and crumbled before mixing into the final diet. In meal form, treatment 7 included 2.5% SMB prior to pelleting DDGS (final diet contained 0.77% SMB). Overall, a 2-way interaction (P < 0.04) was observed within NC diets where pelleting the final diet improved G:F by a greater margin in high-DON diets than when the DDGS was pelleted, crumbled, and re-pelleted. DON reduced (P < 0.002) ADG and ADFI, and pelleting the diet improved (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F. Including SMB prior to pelleting DON-contaminated DDGS increased (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI. Using SMB combined with thermal processing can mitigate DON effects in diets for nursery pigs. © 2015.


Frobose H.L.,Kansas State University | Fruge E.D.,Hubbard Feeds Inc | Tokach M.D.,Kansas State University | Hansen E.L.,Hubbard Feeds Inc | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) from naturally contaminated dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and the efficacy of feed additives in nursery pig diets. In Exp. 1, 180 pigs (10.3 ± 0.2 kg BW) were fed 1 of 5 diets for 21 d. Diets were 1) Positive Control (PC; < 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) Negative Control (NC; 4 mg/kg DON), 3) NC + 0.10% Biofix (Biomin Inc., Herzogenburg, Austria), 4) NC + 0.15% Cel-can (VAST Inc., Mason City, IA) and 0.50% bentonite clay, and 5) NC + 0.25% Defusion Plus (Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Pigs fed the NC diet had poorer (P < 0.01) ADG than those fed the PC. Pigs fed Defusion Plus had improved (P < 0.03) ADG over those fed NC, whereas pigs fed Biofix or Cel-can with bentonite clay had reduced ADG (P < 0.01) compared with those fed PC. In Exp. 2, 340 pigs (11.7 ± 0.1 kg BW) were fed 1 of 8 diets for 21 d. Diets were 1) PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) Low NC (1.5 mg/ kg DON), 3) Low NC + 0.15% Biofix, 4) Low NC + 0.30% Biofix, 5) High NC (3.0 mg/kg DON), 6) High NC + 0.30% Biofix, 7) High NC + 0.45% Biofix, and 8) Diet 7 with 5% added water. Increasing the DON level reduced (linear; P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and pig BW, and Biofix did not improve performance. In Exp. 3, 1,008 pigs (12.5 ± 0.3 kg BW) were fed 6 treatments for 24 d. Diets were 1) PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) NC (3 mg/kg DON), 3) NC + 0.25% Defusion, 4) NC + 0.50% Defusion, 5) Diet 3 with supplemental nutrients, and 6) Diet 5, pelleted. Pigs fed the NC had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, but adding Defusion improved (linear; P < 0.04) ADG and ADFI over pigs fed NC. Pelleting improved (P < 0.01) both ADG and G:F, resulting in ADG above PC pigs. In Exp. 4, 980 pigs (12.0 ± 0.3 kg BW) were fed 1 of 7 diets in a 28-d trial in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement. The 7 treatments were based on 3 diets fed in meal or pellet form: 1) PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) NC (3 mg/kg DON), and 3) NC + 0.25% Defusion. Treatment 7 was Diet 3 with supplemental nutrients in pellet form. No interactions were observed between pelleting and Defusion. Pigs fed the NC had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, and pelleting improved (P < 0.01) ADG to PC levels, driven by improved (P < 0.01) G:F. Adding nutrients or Defusion had no effect. Overall, these studies show that Defusion and pelleting can help overcome some of the negative effects of DON, whereas other feed additives and additional nutrients do not. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


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Hubbard Feeds Inc. | Date: 2010-10-06

Dietary and nutritional supplements for calves; Colostrum replacement, replacers, or supplements for calves.

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