Manthey A.K.,Hubbard Feeds Inc. |
Anderson J.L.,South Dakota State University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2017
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing the inclusion rate of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in replacement of forage in diets that were limit-fed during peripubertal growth on performance during the first 3 mo of first lactation. A secondary objective was to also characterize reproductive performance of the dairy heifers. A 16-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 48 Holstein heifers (199 ± 2 d of age) with 3 treatments. Treatments were (1) 30% DDGS, (2) 40% DDGS, and (3) 50% DDGS, with the remainder of the diet consisting of grass hay and 1.5% mineral mix. Heifers were individually limit-fed using Calan gates at 2.65, 2.50, and 2.35% of body weight on a dry matter basis for 30, 40, and 50% DDGS, respectively. After completing the feeding study, heifers were fed a common diet according to standard herd management. Data on reproductive performance and milk production for the first 3 mo of lactation were collected for each heifer from dairy herd records. At 3 wk prepartum and at calving, body weight, frame measurements, and body condition score were recorded. We found no differences in reproductive or frame measurements taken around parturition. However, due to relatively small numbers of heifers for evaluation of reproductive parameters, results should be viewed as qualitative rather than conclusive, and more research is necessary. We noted a treatment by month effect for somatic cell count; however, there were no other differences for any of the lactation parameters measured. Results demonstrate that up to 50% of diet can be fed in limit-fed rations as DDGS, compared with 30 or 40%, to peripubertal dairy heifers without negative consequences to first-lactation performance during the first 3 mo. © 2017 American Dairy Science Association.
Chester-Jones H.,University of Minnesota |
Heins B.J.,University of Minnesota |
Ziegler D.,University of Minnesota |
Schimek D.,Hubbard Feeds Inc. |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2017
The objective was to determine the relationships between early-life parameters [including average daily gain (ADG), body weight (BW), milk replacer intake, starter intake, and birth season] and the first-lactation performance of Holstein cows. We collected data from birth years 2004 to 2012 for 2,880 Holstein animals. Calves were received from 3 commercial dairy farms and enrolled in 37 different calf research trials at the University of Minnesota Southern Research and Outreach Center from 3 to 195 d. Upon trial completion, calves were returned to their respective farms. Milk replacer options included varying protein levels and amounts fed, but in the majority of studies, calves were fed a milk replacer containing 20% crude protein and 20% fat at 0.57 kg/calf daily. Most calves (93%) were weaned at 6 wk. Milk replacer dry matter intake, starter intake, ADG, and BW at 6 wk were 21.5 ± 2.2 kg, 17.3 ± 7.3 kg, 0.53 ± 0.13 kg/d, and 62.4 ± 6.8 kg, respectively. Average age at first calving and first-lactation 305-d milk yield were 715 ± 46.5 d and 10,959 ± 1,527 kg, respectively. We conducted separate mixed-model analyses using the REML model-fitting protocol of JMP (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to determine the effect of early-life BW or ADG, milk replacer and starter intake, and birth season on first-lactation 305-d milk, fat, and true protein yield. Greater BW and ADG at 6 wk resulted in increased first-lactation milk and milk component yields. Intake of calf starter at 8 wk had a significant positive relationship with first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Milk replacer intake, which varied very little in this data set, had no effect on first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Calves born in the fall and winter had greater starter intake, BW, and ADG at 8 wk. However, calves born in the summer had a higher 305-d milk yield during their first lactation than those born in the fall and winter. Improvements were modest, and variation was high, suggesting that additional factors not accounted for in these analyses affected first-lactation performance. © 2017 American Dairy Science Association.
Apple J.K.,University of Arkansas |
Sawyer J.T.,University of Arkansas |
Sawyer J.T.,Tarleton State University |
Maxwell C.V.,University of Arkansas |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011
Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the effect of supplemental l-carnitine (CARN) on the fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of fresh pork bellies from pigs fed diets formulated with different inclusion levels of corn oil. Pigs were blocked by BW (43.6 ± 1.0 kg) and allotted randomly to pens of 6 pigs within blocks. Then, within blocks, pens were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with either 0 or 100 mg/kg of supplemental CARN and 3 dietary inclusion levels (0, 2, or 4%) of corn oil (CO). When the lightest block weighed 125.0 kg, all pigs were slaughtered, and leftside bellies were captured during carcass fabrication for quality data collection. Fresh pork bellies were evaluated for length, width, thickness, and firmness (barsuspension and Instron-compression methods) before a 2.5-cm-wide strip of belly was removed and subsequently dissected into subcutaneous fat, primary lean (latissimus dorsi), secondary lean (cutaneous trunci), and intermuscular fat for fatty acid composition determination. Although belly length, width, and thickness of fresh pork bellies were not affected by CARN (P ≥ 0.128) or CO (P ≥ 0.073), belly firmness decreased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary CO, but there was no (P ≥ 0.137) effect of CARN on any belly firmness measure. Dietary CARN increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total SFA in the intermuscular fat layer, increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total MUFA in the primary and secondary lean layers, and decreased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total PUFA in the intermuscular fat and secondary lean layers of pork bellies. Moreover, the SFA and MUFA compositions decreased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary CO, and the rate of the decrease in SFA composition was greater (P < 0.001) in the fat layers than the lean layers. Conversely, the PUFA content increased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary CO, and the rate of the increase in PUFA was greater (P < 0.001) in the fat than the lean layers, and greater (P = 0.022) in the primary than secondary lean layer. Results from this study would indicate that differences in the amount and rate of fatty acid deposition associated with feeding increased amounts of CO, along with moisture differences among the belly layers, combine to negatively affect fresh pork belly firmness. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science.
Flohr J.R.,Kansas State University |
Tokach M.D.,Kansas State University |
Dritz S.S.,Kansas State University |
Derouchey J.M.,Kansas State University |
And 10 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014
Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of supplemental vitamin D3 on pig growth, feed preference, serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3], and bone mineralization of nursing and weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, 270 pigs (1.71 ± 0.01 kg BW) were administered 1 of 3 oral vitamin D3 dosages (none, 40,000, or 80,000 IU vitamin D3) on d 1 or 2 of age. Increasing oral vitamin D3 increased serum 25(OH)D3 on d10 and 20 (quadratic, P < 0.01) and d 30 (linear, P < 0.01). No differences were observed in ADG before weaning or for nursery ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Vitamin D3 concentration had no effect on bone ash concentration or bone histological traits evaluated on d 19 or 35. In Exp. 2, 398 barrows (initially 7 d of age) were used in a 2 × 2 split plot design to determine the influence of vitamin D3 before (none or 40,000 IU vitamin D3 in an oral dose) or after weaning (1,378 or 13,780 IU vitamin D3/kg in nursery diets from d 21 to 31 of age) in a 45-d trial. Before weaning (7 to 21 d of age), oral vitamin D3 dose did not influence growth but increased (P < 0.01) serum 25(OH)D3 at weaning (d21) and tended (P = 0.08) to increase 25(OH)D3 on d 31. Increasing dietary vitamin D3 concentration from d 21 to 31 increased (P < 0.01) serum 25(OH)D3 on d31. Neither the oral vitamin D3 dose nor nursery vitamin D3 supplements influenced nursery ADG, ADFI, or G:F. In Exp. 3, 864 pigs (initially 21 d of age) were allotted to 1 of 2 water solubilized vitamin D3 treatments (none or 16,516 IU/L vitamin D3 provided in the drinking water from d 0 to 10) in a 30-d study. Providing vitamin D3 increased serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations on d 10, 20, and 30; however, vitamin D3 supplementation did not affect overall (d 0 to 30) ADG, ADFI, or G:F. In Exp. 4, 72 pigs were used in a feed preference study consisting of 2 feed preference comparisons. Pigs did not differentiate diets containing either 1,378 or 13,780 IU vitamin D3/kg but consumed less (P < 0.01) of a diet containing 44,100 IU vitamin D3/kg compared with the diet containing 1,378 IU vitamin D3/kg. Overall, these studies demonstrate that supplementing vitamin D3 above basal concentrations used in these studies is effective at increasing circulating 25(OH)D3, but the supplement did not influence growth or bone mineralization. Also, concentrations of vitamin D3 of 44,100 IU/kg of the diet may negatively affect feed preference of nursery pigs. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.
Gaughan J.B.,University of Queensland |
Mader T.L.,Concord University |
Holt S.M.,Hubbard Feeds Inc |
Sullivan M.L.,University of Queensland |
Hahn G.L.,United States Meat Animal Research Center
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2010
Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. Nearly 82% of the world's 1.2 billion cattle can be found in developing countries. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals. Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle, and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score (0 to 4.5 scale where 0 = no stress and 4.5=extreme stress) and the heat load index (HLI) [HLIBG<25°C=10.66+0.28×rh+1.30×BG -WS; and, HLIBG> 25°C=8.62+0.38×rh+1.55×BG - 0.5×WS+e(2.4 - WS), where BG = black globe temperature (oC), rh = relative humidity (decimal form), WS = wind speed (m/s) and e is the base of the natural logarithm] were used to assess the heat tolerance of 17 genotypes (12,757 steers) within 13 Australian feedlots over three summers. The cattle were assessed under natural climatic conditions in which HLI ranged from thermonuetral (HLI<70) to extreme (HLI>96; black globe temperature = 40.2°C, relative humidity = 64%, wind speed = 1.58 m/s). When HLI>96 a greater number (P<0.001) of pure bred Bos taurus and crosses of Bos taurus cattle had a panting score≥2 compared to Brahman cattle, and Brahman-cross cattle. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI. Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI. © 2009 ISB.
Ridley Inc. and Hubbard Feeds Inc. | Date: 2010-09-07
Ridley Inc. and Hubbard Feeds Inc. | Date: 2010-07-06
Ridley Inc. and Hubbard Feeds Inc. | Date: 2010-07-06
Frobose H.L.,Kansas State University |
Fruge E.D.,Hubbard Feeds Inc. |
Tokach M.D.,Kansas State University |
Hansen E.L.,Hubbard Feeds Inc. |
And 4 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2015
Four experiments were conducted to ascertain the effects of hydrothermal treatment and sodium metabisulfite (SMB) on deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Experiment 1 evaluated SMB and heat (autoclaving) on high-DON DDGS (20.6 mg/kg). Six levels of SMB were tested: 0.0% (control), 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, 5%, and 5% with 100 mL/kg distilled water. Autoclaving after 1 h at 121 °C alone elicited a 9.8% reduction in DON, whereas an 82% reduction was achieved when 5% SMB was added before autoclaving. Experiment 2 tested pelleting high-DON DDGS with SMB. Four batches of DDGS (20.5 mg/kg DON) were tested: 0 (control), 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% SMB. Pelleted samples were collected at conditioning temperatures of 66 and 82 °C and retention times of 30 and 60 s within temperature. Pelleting conditions had no effect on DON levels, but as SMB inclusion increased in pelleted DDGS, DON levels were reduced (quadratic; P < 0.001). Experiments 3 and 4 evaluated pelleting and SMB on nursery pig growth. Both trials were arranged in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial with 5 replicate pens per treatment. In Exp 3, 987 pigs (13.0 ± 0.2 kg) were used with main effects of (1) diet form: meal or pellet and (2) SMB level: Negative Control (NC), NC + 0.25% SMB, or NC + 0.50% SMB. Negative Control diets were formulated to contain 3 mg/kg DON. Treatment 7 was a Positive Control (P C; < 0.5 mg/kg DON) fed in meal form. Pigs fed high-DON diets had reduced (P < 0.001) ADG and ADFI, but pelleting improved (P < 0.001) ADG and G:F. Adding SMB increased (linear; P < 0.03) ADG and tended to increase (P < 0.10) ADFI. In Exp 4, 1180 pigs (11.1 ± 0.32 kg) were used with main effects of (1) diet form: meal or pellet and (2) DDGS source: PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), NC (5 mg/kg DON), or NC + DDGS pelleted and crumbled before mixing into the final diet. In meal form, treatment 7 included 2.5% SMB prior to pelleting DDGS (final diet contained 0.77% SMB). Overall, a 2-way interaction (P < 0.04) was observed within NC diets where pelleting the final diet improved G:F by a greater margin in high-DON diets than when the DDGS was pelleted, crumbled, and re-pelleted. DON reduced (P < 0.002) ADG and ADFI, and pelleting the diet improved (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F. Including SMB prior to pelleting DON-contaminated DDGS increased (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI. Using SMB combined with thermal processing can mitigate DON effects in diets for nursery pigs. © 2015.
Hubbard Feeds Inc. | Date: 2010-10-06
Dietary and nutritional supplements for calves; Colostrum replacement, replacers, or supplements for calves.