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Huazhong Agricultural University is a multi-disciplinary comprehensive university giving priority to agriculture, characterized by life science and supplemented by the combination of agriculture, basic science, engineering, liberal arts, law, economic trade, and management. HAU, one of the first groups of universities in China which are authorized to confer Ph.D. and M.A. degrees, has produced the new China's first doctor majoring in agronomy. Firmly adhering to the two central tasks like teaching and scientific research, HAU maintains its management by levels and flexible forms. As far as education quality and academic level, HAU ranks first among the agricultural universities in China. In addition, it has been converted into a nationally important base for training senior special agricultural personnel and developing agricultural science and technology. Wikipedia.

Phospholipase Ds (PLDs) and PLD-derived phosphatidic acids (PAs) play vital roles in plant hormonal and environmental responses and various cellular dynamics. Recent studies have further expanded the functions of PLDs and PAs into plant-microbe interaction. The molecular diversities and redundant functions make PLD-PA an important signalling complex regulating lipid metabolism, cytoskeleton dynamics, vesicle trafficking, and hormonal signalling in plant defence through protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions or hormone signalling. Different PLD-PA signalling complexes and their targets have emerged as fast-growing research topics for understanding their numerous but not yet established roles in modifying pathogen perception, signal transduction, and downstream defence responses. Meanwhile, advanced lipidomics tools have allowed researchers to reveal further the mechanisms of PLD-PA signalling complexes in regulating lipid metabolism and signalling, and their impacts on jasmonic acid/oxylipins, salicylic acid, and other hormone signalling pathways that essentially mediate plant defence responses. This review attempts to summarize the progress made in spatial and temporal PLD/PA signalling as well as PLD/PA-mediated modification of plant defence. It presents an in-depth discussion on the functions and potential mechanisms of PLD-PA complexes in regulating actin filament/microtubule cytoskeleton, vesicle trafficking, and hormonal signalling, and in influencing lipid metabolism-derived metabolites as critical signalling components in plant defence responses. The discussion puts PLD-PA in a broader context in order to guide future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

Tan J.,Wuhan University | Tan J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zou X.,Wuhan University
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine | Year: 2015

Innate immune response plays an important role in control and clearance of pathogens following viral infection. However, in the majority of virus-infected individuals, the response is insufficient because viruses are known to use different evasion strategies to escape immune response. In this study, we use optimal control theory to investigate how to control the innate immune response. We present an optimal control model based on an ordinary-differential-equation system from a previous study, which investigated the dynamics and regulation of virus-triggered innate immune signaling pathways, and we prove the existence of a solution to the optimal control problem involving antiviral treatment or/and interferon therapy. We conduct numerical experiments to investigate the treatment effects of different control strategies through varying the cost function and control efficiency. The results show that a separate treatment, that is, only inhibiting viral replication (u 1 (t)) or enhancing interferon activity (u 2 (t)), has more advantages for controlling viral infection than a mixed treatment, that is, controlling both (u 1 (t)) and (u 2 (t)) simultaneously, including the smallest cost and operability. These findings would provide new insight for developing effective strategies for treatment of viral infectious diseases. © 2015 Jinying Tan and Xiufen Zou.

Zhang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A | Year: 2014

Photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange (MO) and Congo red (CR) as typical model organic contaminants was investigated in aqueous solution within a cooperating Au/TiO2/sepiolite heterostructure system under UV light irradiation. The Au/TiO2/sepiolite composites with a single-crystalline (anatase) framework was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using titanium tetrachloride as a TiO2 precursor and depositing metal Au on the surface of TiO2 nanostructures via a facile chemical reduction process. The crystal structure, surface area, light adsorption and the photoinduced charge separation rate of the photocatalyst prepared were characterized in detail. As compared with the pristine TiO2, the Au/TiO2/sepiolite hybrid material exhibited good photocatalytic efficiency (90%) for the UV-light photooxidation of methyl orange, which is four-fold of that of reference TiO2. In addition, Au/TiO2/sepiolite hybrid material also shows a good photodegradation performance toward Congo red removal. The highly efficient photocatalytic activity is associated with the strong adsorption ability of sepiolite for aromatic dye molecules, fast photogenerated charge separation due to the formation of Schottky junction between TiO2 and metallic Au. This work suggests that the combination of the excellent adsorption properties of sepiolite and the efficient separation effect of noble metallic nanoparticles provides a versatile strategy for the synthesis of novel and highly efficient photocatalysts. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Cao H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li X.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion | Year: 2016

The aim of this paper is to develop an effective control system for a kW-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stand-alone system based on our previous studies, where the dynamic model and the steady-state analysis and optimization of the system have been completed. The open-loop dynamic responses of the system are first conducted to gain insight on the system dynamics, and the results demonstrate that the system is a complicated multivariable system with strong coupling and nonlinear characteristics. Considering the complicated dynamics, a multivariable robust proportional-integral derivative (PID) control system is proposed with a multiloop feedforward/feedback control structure. The feedforward controllers are designed using the stack current based on the steady-state optimization results determined in the previous studies, and the feedback controllers are implemented by developing a single neuron adaptive PID algorithm. The adaptive PID combines the advantages of robust control and PID control, which can automatically adjust control parameters when system encounters uncertainties and disturbances, and is very easy for engineering practices because of its simple structure. Test results demonstrate that the multivariable robust PID control system has well robustness and stability for the SOFC system when operating point changes within the full operating range. © 1986-2012 IEEE.

Wan X.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Wan X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Fang H.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Asian Journal of Control | Year: 2012

This paper addresses the problem of fault detection (FD) for discrete-time systems with global Lipschitz conditions and network-induced uncertainties. By utilizing Bernoulli stochastic variables and a switching signal, a unified measurement model is proposed to describe three kinds of network-induced uncertainties, that is, access constraints, time delays, and packet dropouts. We aim to design a mode-dependent fault detection filter (FDF) such that, for all external disturbances and the above uncertainties, the error between the residual and fault is made as small as possible. The addressed FD problem is then converted into an auxiliary H ∞ filtering problem for discrete-time stochastic system with multiple time-varying delays. By applying the Lyapunov-Krasovskii approach, a sufficient condition for the existence of the FDF is derived in terms of certain linear matrix inequalities (LMI). When these LMIs are feasible, the explicit expression of the desired FDF can also be characterized. A numerical example is exploited to show the effectiveness of the results obtained. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley and Sons Asia Pte Ltd and Chinese Automatic Control Society.

Gang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University
PloS one | Year: 2014

Sample preparation is key to the success of proteomics studies. In the present study, two sample preparation methods were tested for their suitability on the mature, recalcitrant leaves of six representative perennial plants (grape, plum, pear, peach, orange, and ramie). An improved sample preparation method was obtained: Tris and Triton X-100 were added together instead of CHAPS to the lysis buffer, and a 20% TCA-water solution and 100% precooled acetone were added after the protein extraction for the further purification of protein. This method effectively eliminates nonprotein impurities and obtains a clear two-dimensional gel electrophoresis array. The method facilitates the separation of high-molecular-weight proteins and increases the resolution of low-abundance proteins. This method provides a widely applicable and economically feasible technology for the proteomic study of the mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

Dai K.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Wuhan University | Fan K.,Wuhan University | Peng T.,Wuhan University | Wei B.,University of Delaware
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2013

A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-TiO2 hybrid was prepared hydrothermally by direct growth of TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of functionalized SWCNTs to develop highly efficient photocatalysts. The SWCNT-TiO2 hybrid was characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, N2-adsorption analysis, FT-IR, Raman, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the SWCNT-TiO2 hybrid was examined by the photocatalytic degradation of pirimicarb. Although the SWCNT-TiO2 hybrid exhibits no visible-light-induced activity, the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of pirimicarb over TiO2 can be increased significantly with the introduction of SWCNTs (2-3 times) because SWCNTs can act as electron conductors that hinder the recombination of photo-generated electrons and holes. Compared with a multi-walled carbon nanotube-TiO2 hybrid, it can be found that the electronic configurations of carbon nanotubes significantly affect the photocatalytic activity of carbon nanotube-TiO2 hybrid. Metal-typed SWCNTs act more as an electrical conductor than a photosensitizer, which efficiently suppress charge recombination, improve interfacial charge transfer, and improve the photoactivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Hu C.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural Science | Qi Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2013

An eleven years long-term field experiment for soil fertility and crop yield improvement had been conducted at China Agricultural University's Qu-Zhou experiment station since 1993. The field experiment included three treatments: effective microorganisms (EM) compost treatment; traditional compost treatment; and unfertilized control. The results revealed that long-term application of EM compost gave the highest values for the measured parameters and the lowest values in the control plot. The application of EM in combination with compost significantly increased wheat straw biomass, grain yields, straw and grain nutrition compared with traditional compost and control treatment. Wheat straw biomass, grain yields, straw and grain nutrition were significantly higher in compost soils than in untreated soil. This study indicated that application of EM significantly increased the efficiency of organic nutrient sources. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Hussain S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hussain S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Khaliq A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Little seed canary grass (LCG) is a pernicious weed of wheat crop causing enormous yield losses. Information on the interference and economic threshold (ET) level of LCG is of prime significance to rationalize the use of herbicide for its effective management in wheat fields. The present study was conducted to quantify interference and ET density of LCG in mid-sown (20 November) and late-sown (10 December) wheat. Experiment was triplicated in randomized split-plot design with sowing dates as the main plots and LCG densities (10, 20, 30, and 40 plants m−2) as the subplots. Plots with two natural infestations of weeds including and excluding LCG were maintained for comparing its interference in pure stands with designated densities. A season-long weed-free treatment was also run. Results indicated that composite stand of weeds, including LCG, and density of 40 LCG plants m−2 were more competitive with wheat, especially when crop was sown late in season. Maximum weed dry biomass was attained by composite stand of weeds including LCG followed by 40 LCG plants m−2 under both sowing dates. Significant variations in wheat growth and yield were observed under the influence of different LCG densities as well as sowing dates. Presence of 40 LCG plantsm−2 reduced wheat yield by 28 and 34% in mid- and late-sown wheat crop, respectively. These losses were much greater than those for infestation of all weeds, excluding LCG. Linear regressionmodel was effective in simulating wheat yield losses over a wide range of LCG densities, and the regression equations showed good fit to observed data. The ET levels of LCG were 6–7 and 2.2–3.3 plants m−2 in mid- and late-sown wheat crop, respectively. Herbicide should be applied in cases when LCG density exceeds these levels under respective sowing dates. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Xiang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xiang Q.,Wuhan University of Technology | Cheng B.,Wuhan University of Technology | Yu J.,Wuhan University of Technology
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2013

Hierarchical porous CdS nanosheet-assembled flowers were synthesized by a simple ion-exchange strategy using morphology-analogous Cd(OH)2 and Na2S as precursors. The prepared CdS flowers exhibited high visible-light photocatalytic H2-production activity with a rate of 468.7μmolh-1 and the corresponding apparent quantum efficiency (QE) of 24.7% at 420nm, which exceeded that obtained on CdS nanoparticles by more than 3 times. This enhanced photocatalytic H2-production activity was achieved because the hierarchical organization of nanosheets and porous nanosheet structures can efficiently enhance light-absorption ability and provide a greater number of active adsorption sites. This work shows a great potential of hierarchical porous CdS nanosheet-assembled flowers for photocatalytic H2 production, and also demonstrates that the ion-exchange strategy of Cd(OH)2 intermediates can be extended to the preparation of other porous oxides and sulfides with hierarchical nanostructures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Zhu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhu F.,Wuhan University
BMC Medical Genomics | Year: 2015

In oncology drug development, it is important to develop low risk drugs efficiently. Meanwhile, computational methods have been paid more and more attention in drug discovery. However, few studies attempt to discover the mutual gene modules shared by the drug and disease association. Here we introduce a novel method to identify repositioned drug for breast cancer by integrating the breast cancer survival data with the drug sensitivity information. Among the 140 drug candidates, we are able to filter 4 FDA approved drugs and identify 2 breast cancer drugs among 4 known breast cancer therapeutic drug in total. © 2015 Zhu and Zhu; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Madenjian C.P.,U.S. Geological Survey | Wang C.,U.S. Geological Survey | Wang C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Walleye (Sander vitreus) is an important sport fish throughout much of North America, and walleye populations support valuable commercial fisheries in certain lakes as well. Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye in the laboratory. Walleyes were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks each day during a 126-day experiment. Feeding rates ranged from 1.4 to 1.7 % of walleye body weight per day. Based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of monthly consumption with observed monthly consumption, we concluded that the bioenergetics model estimated food consumption by walleye without any significant bias. Similarly, based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of weight at the end of the monthly test period with observed weight, we concluded that the bioenergetics model predicted walleye growth without any detectable bias. In addition, the bioenergetics model predictions of cumulative consumption over the 126-day experiment differed from observed cumulative consumption by less than 10 %. Although additional laboratory and field testing will be needed to fully evaluate model performance, based on our laboratory results, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye appears to be providing unbiased predictions of food consumption. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA).

Qiu G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Qiu G.,University of Connecticut | Dharmarathna S.,University of Connecticut | Genuino H.,University of Connecticut | And 3 more authors.
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2011

Vanadium pentoxide nanomaterials were prepared by a facile microwave-assisted refluxing reaction of VOSO 4 and (NH 4) 2S 2O 8 solutions under atmospheric pressure at 100 °C for 1 h. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements. The catalytic oxidation and photocatalytic activities of the synthesized V 2O 5 were evaluated by oxidative cyanation of N,N-dimethylaniline in methanol and photodegradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in aqueous solution, respectively. V 2O 5· xH 2O nanofibers were formed when VOSO 4 and (NH 4) 2S 2O 8 solutions were irradiated with microwaves under reflux conditions at 100 °C within 1 h. Nanostructured V 2O 5 was synthesized by calcining V 2O 5·xH 2O at 280 °C for 12 h. The conversion of N,N-dimethylaniline to N-methyl-N-phenylcyanamide increased with an increase in the amount of V 2O 5 catalyst. As the amount of synthesized V 2O 5 increased from 10 to 15 mg, the conversion of N,N-dimethylaniline to N-methyl-N-phenylcyanamide reached 100%, but the selectivity decreased from 100% to 96%. N-methyl-N-phenylformamide was formed as a byproduct because of use of excess V 2O 5. The as-synthesized V 2O 5 nanomaterials showed comparable photocatalytic performance with commercial TiO 2 (P-25) for the degradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine to NO 3 - in water. This work provides a facile synthesis method of nanosized V 2O 5·xH 2O and V 2O 5 with excellent catalytic activities. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Qiu G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Qiu G.,University of Connecticut | Huang H.,University of Connecticut | Dharmarathna S.,University of Connecticut | And 3 more authors.
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2011

Manganese oxides were fabricated by hydrothermal reactions of KMnO 4 and MnSO 4 solutions. Crystal structures and morphologies of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The combined effects of temperature, additives of H 2SO 4, and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) on manganese oxide crystal structures were investigated. The key factors affecting catalytic activity and electrochemical performance of manganese oxides were studied using oxidation of benzyl alcohol and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The results indicated that pyrolusite (OMS-7) was formed in 0.1 mol•L -1 MnSO 4 solution with KMnO 4/MnSO 4 molar ratios of 7:18 and 8:17 at 120 °C, respectively. A mixture of OMS-7 and cryptomelane (OMS-2) was prepared when the molar ratio increased. Potassium ion plays an important role in the formation of OMS-2. Steric effects arose from complexation reactions of TBAB and MnSO 4 solutions and facilitated the formation of OMS-2. K-OMS-2 and H-K-OMS-2 were formed by adding 0.1 mol•L -1 TBAB and 0.2 mol•L -1 H 2SO 4 to 0.1 mol•L -1 MnSO 4 solution with a KMnO 4/MnSO 4 molar ratio of 11:14 at 120 °C, respectively. The catalytic oxidation activity was found to follow this trend: H-K-OMS-2 > K-OMS-2 > OMS-7 likely because of the larger amount of acid sites in H-K-OMS-2. However, the exchangeable active oxygen and specific surface area had a greater impact on the electrochemical performance of manganese oxides. The electrocatalytic activity of synthesized manganese oxides for oxygen reduction increased in the order: OMS-7 < H-K-OMS-2 < K-OMS-2. Supercapacitor performance was compared, and the capacitance also increased in the sequence: OMS-7 < H-K-OMS-2 < K-OMS-2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

The persimmon Diospyros kaki Thunb. is an important commercial and deciduous fruit tree. The fruits have proanthocyanidin (PA) content of >25% of the dry weight and are astringent. PAs cause astringency that is often undesirable for human consumption; thus, the removal of astringency is an important practice in the persimmon industry. Soluble PAs can be converted to insoluble PAs by enclosing the fruit in a polyethylene bag containing diluted ethanol. The genomic resource development of the persimmon is delayed because of its large and complex genome. Second-generation sequencing is an efficient technique for generating huge sequences that can represent a large number of genes and their expression levels. We used 454 sequencing for the de novo transcriptome assembly of persimmon fruit treated with 5% ethanol (Tr library) and without treatment as the control (Co library) to investigate the genes and pathways that control PA biosynthesis and other secondary metabolites. We obtained 374.6 Mb in clean nucleotides comprising 624,690 and 626,203 clean sequencing reads from the Tr and Co libraries, respectively. We also identified 83,898 unigenes; 54,719 (~65.2%) unigenes were annotated based on similarity searches with known proteins. Up to 14,954 of the unigenes were assigned to the protein database Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), 24,337 were assigned to the term annotation database of Gene Ontology (GO), and 45,506 were assigned to 200 pathways in the database of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The two libraries were compared to identify the differentially expressed unigenes. The expression levels of genes involved in PA biosynthesis and tannin coagulation were analysed, and some of them were verified using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study provides abundant genomic data for persimmon and offers comprehensive sequence resources for persimmon research. The transcriptome dataset will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of tannin coagulation and other biochemical processes in persimmons.

Li Y.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Li Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | McClements D.J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a non-ionic cosurfactant (Tween 20) on the formation and properties of electrostatic complexes consisting of charged oil droplets and charged biopolymers. The mean droplet diameters in oil-in-water emulsions prepared using a membrane homogenizer were considerably larger when β-lactoglobulin (BLG) was used alone (≈8μm), than when it was used in combination with Tween 20 (≈2μm). The cationic oil droplets formed by membrane homogenization (4.0μm pore size) were mixed with either alginate (anionic) solution (1% oil: 0-0.5% alginate: pH 3.5) or with alginate (anionic) and then chitosan (cationic) solutions (0.4% oil: 0.1% alginate; 0-0.2% chitosan: pH 4.5). The electrical characteristics, microstructure, and physical stability of the electrostatic complexes formed were determined. Under certain conditions multilayer emulsions consisting of oil droplets coated by alginate or alginate/chitosan layers were formed, whereas under other conditions microclusters consisting of aggregated oil droplets embedded within alginate or alginate/chitosan complexes were formed. The presence of the cosurfactant had a major impact on the electrical charge and dimensions of the electrostatic complexes formed. This study shows that various kinds of electrostatic complexes can be formed from charged oil droplets and charged biopolymers, and that their functional characteristics can be controlled using non-ionic cosurfactants. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ye R.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lu X.,CAS Xian Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanic | Liu H.,South-Central University for Nationalities
Neurocomputing | Year: 2013

This paper studied region-of-interest (ROI) problem of computed tomography. It is necessary to use almost local projection data to reduce radiation exposure or time in medical imaging when only a small part of the patient's body needs to be viewed. Improving the quality of reconstructed ROI and reducing radiation exposure are our aims. However, the traditional local tomography algorithm has difficulty in reconstructing the ROI due to significant truncation artifacts. In this paper, a new grey model based method is reported for ROI image reconstruction from truncated projection data. By using grey model, the proposed method can extrapolate the truncated projection data, and reconstruct the ROI from a set of its projections. As a result, about 75% of full projection data are saved, as compared with other traditional approachs, in reconstructing a local region of 32 pixels in radius in an image of 256×256 pixels. Experimental results show that the proposed method exhibits more saving in exposure as compared with other local tomography algorithms and results in better quality of the reconstructed image. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang C.,University of Connecticut | Zhao T.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Li W.,University of Connecticut | Li W.,Huazhong Agricultural University
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2010

Although the fast development of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) WFS (Web Feature Service) technologies has undoubtedly improved the sharing and synchronization of feature-level geospatial information across diverse resources, literature shows that there are still apparent limitations in the current implementation of OGC WFSs. Currently, the implementation of OGC WFSs only emphasizes syntactic data interoperability via standard interfaces and cannot resolve semantic heterogeneity problems in geospatial data sharing. To help emergency responders and disaster managers find new ways of efficiently searching for needed geospatial information at the feature level, this paper aims to propose a framework for automatic search of geospatial features using Geospatial Semantic Web technologies and natural language interfaces. We focus on two major tasks: (1) intelligent geospatial feature retrieval using Geospatial Semantic Web technologies; (2) a natural language interface to a geospatial knowledge base and web feature services over the Semantic Web. Based on the proposed framework we implemented a prototype. Results show that it is practical to directly discover desirable geospatial features from multiple semantically heterogeneous sources using Geospatial Semantic Web technologies and natural language interfaces. © 2010.

Zhu Z.X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Takeoff is important to a variety of difficult movements for sports aerobics. The paper analyzes the kinematic mechanics of takeoff in pre-jumping for the sport. It first discusses the importance of takeoff in sports aerobics, and finds that the mechanics theory can be utilized to analyze the forces produced in the process of takeoff. Then, the dynamics analysis of takeoff in pre-jumping is completed to reveal the change of the vertical force and expound the sports process from the aspect of mechanics. Subsequently, the body for the athlete is simplified a two-light-pole mechanical model. On the basis of this, the mechanics analysis of vertical force in pre-jumping is done to find the influencing factors for vertical force. The results show that the vertical force produced by the takeoff in pre-jumping suffers from the factors of the weight, length of leg, bending angle of knee, and angular speed of leg rotation, etc. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Zhang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A | Year: 2012

Manganese-doped and undoped ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized via wet-chemical methods. The structure, physico-chemical, electrical and optical properties of the as-prepared products were characterized by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PLS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The photocatalytic activity of Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystal (mixed phases) has been examined under the visible-irradiation by using photocatalytic oxidation of rhodamine B (RhB) dye as a model reaction, and compared with that of known system such as pure ZnO nanocrystal (single-phase). The results showed that Mn doped ZnO nanocrystals bleaches RhB much faster than undoped ZnO upon its exposure to the visible light. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity was discussed as an effect due to the Mn doping in the Mn-doped ZnO semiconductors, which shifts the optical absorption edge to the visible region and alters the electron-hole pair separation conditions. These factors are responsible for the higher photocatalytic performance of Mn/ZnO composites. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Wang X.,China Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yang P.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2012

Moss species Physcomitrella patens has been used as a model system in plant science for several years, because it has a short life cycle and is easy to be handled. With the completion of its genome sequencing, more and more proteomic analyses were conducted to study the mechanisms of P. patens abiotic stress resistance. It can be concluded from these studies that abiotic stresses could lead to the repression of photosynthesis and enhancement of respiration in P. patens, although different stresses could also result in specific responses. Comparative analysis showed that the responses to drought and salinity were very similar to that of abscisic acid, while the response to cold was quite different from these three. Based on previous studies, it is proposed that sub-proteomic studies on organelles or protein modifications, as well as functional characterization of those candidate proteins identified from proteomic studies will help us to further understand the mechanisms of abiotic stress resistance in P. patens. © 2012 Wang, Liu and Yang.

Yi M.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics | Liu Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2010

The investigation of enzymatic reaction under stochastic effect and spatial effect is an interesting problem. By virtue of Monte Carlo simulation, the stochastic dynamic of enzyme and the related MichaelisMenten mechanism with stochastic internal noise and spatial diffusion are explored in this article. (i) For the single-enzyme system, two cases, including the fast phosphorylation case [X. S. Xie, et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 109 (2005) 19068] and slow phosphorylation case [X. S. Xie, et al., Nat. Chem. Biol. 2 (2006) 87] are considered. It is found the micro enzymatic velocity rate shows a rough hyperbolic dependence on the substrate concentration, hence obeys the MichaelisMenten law qualitatively. In addition, our result reveals that diffusion rate can adjust the MichaelisMenten curve; especially, it is shown that increasing diffusion rate enhances the micro enzyme rate. (ii) For the multi-enzyme system, a typical example, i.e., MAPK signaling pathway is used. We apply the MichaelisMenten mechanism to the MAPK cascade and give a simple comparison for the signaling ability between the MichaelisMenten mechanism and the single collision mechanism [J. W. Locasale et al., PLOS Comput. Biol. 4 (2008) e1000099]. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Yin T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yin T.,Oregon State University | Reed Z.H.,Oscar Mayer | Park J.W.,Oregon State University
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The effects of adding fish bone with two different particle sizes (micro and nano) on Alaska pollock surimi gels prepared by two heating procedures were investigated. Heating procedures (with or without setting) resulted in significantly different gel texture values. The addition of nano-scaled fish bone (NFB) (up to 1 g/100 g) effectively increased gel breaking force and penetration distance while micro-scaled fish bone (MFB) did not. Endogenous transglutaminase (TGase) activity of surimi paste increased obviously as the concentration of NFB increased, indicating calcium ions readily released from NFB and assisting gel formation through TGase-induced covalent bonds. With MFB, TGase activity increased slightly, but not significantly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results revealed NFB was capable of being imbedded in the gel matrices without disrupting the myofibrillar gel network. Surimi with MFB formed a discontinuous and porous network with pores near the size of MFB. Lightness (L*) and whiteness (L*-3. b*) of NFB gels were higher than those of MFB. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

You L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | You L.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Wood S.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation | Wood-Sichra U.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Wu W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2014

We describe a new crop allocation model that adds further methodological and data enhancements to the available crop downscaling modeling. The model comprises the estimates of crop area, yield and production for 20 major crops under four rainfed and irrigated production systems across a global 5. arc minute grid. The new model builds on prior work by the authors (and published in this journal) in developing regional downscaled databases for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and encompasses notions of comparative advantage and potential economic worth as factors influencing the geographic distribution of crop production. This is done through a downscaling approach that accounts for spatial variation in the biophysical conditions influencing the productivity of individual crops within the cropland extent, and that uses crop prices to weigh the gross revenue potential of alternate crops when considering how to prioritize the allocation of specific crops to individual grid cells. The proposed methodology also allows for the inclusion of partial, existing sources of evidence and feedback on local crop distribution patterns through the use of spatial allocation priors that are then subjected to an entropy-based optimization procedure that imposes a range of consistency and aggregation constraints. We compare the global datasets and summarize factors that give rise to systematic differences amongst them and how such differences might influence the fitness for purpose of each dataset. We conclude with some recommendations on priorities for further work in improving the reliability, utility and periodic repeatability of generating crop production distribution data. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Li J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
BioTechnology: An Indian Journal | Year: 2013

In the cliff diving competition, whether the athletes should head first or feet first into the water and safety water depth issues has always been an issue of concern. This paper combines with computer and uses MTALAB software for numerical simulation, and obtains the mathematical model of cliff diving safety water depth. It uses the estimation formula of impact pressure peak on compressible water surface by the rigid plate based on vonkarman unitary collision theory and calculates the maximum pressure dropping from height 28m; according to the maximum force of the human head, it can be seen that the head cannot first enter into the water. In the study of the safety water depth issue, the athlete's movement is divided into three processes: The process from diving tower to the water surface, the process from barely touching surface to completely into water, the process from completely into water to the bottom of the pool; It uses MTALAB to simulate three processes, finally solves the safe water depth and provides theoretical support for safety competitions, training and extreme challenges. © 2013 Trade Science Inc.

Wang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
CMES - Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences | Year: 2014

In this paper, an efficient and robust wavelet Laplace inversion method of solving the fractional differential equations is proposed. Such an inverse function can be applied to any reasonable function categories and it is not necessary to know the properties of original function in advance. As an example, we have applied the proposed method to the solution of the Bagley-Torvik equations and Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed. Copyright © 2014 Tech Science Press.

Guo J.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wan F.-H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2013

Use of plant secondary metabolic compounds is an important method for insect pest control. In this study, the survival, development, and reproduction of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1 cryptic species were compared over two consecutive generations on three cotton cultivars of different gossypol levels. Both cotton cultivar and generation significantly affected the fitness of the whitefly. In both generations, the immature development times on the low-gossypol cultivar ZMS13 were significantly longer than those on the high-gossypol cultivar M9101 or medium-gossypol cultivar HZ401. The female fecundity and rate of population increase of the whitefly ranked in the following order: ZMS13 > HZ401 > M9101. On each cultivar, the immature development time was shorter and the immature survival rate was higher in the second generation than those in the first generation. Rate of increase was also higher in the second generation. These results demonstrated that the fitness of B. tabaci MEAM1 cryptic species on the low-gossypol cotton cultivar ZMS13 was higher than that on the medium- or high-gossypol cultivar. The comparison of the life histories of B. tabaci MEAM1 cryptic species on different cotton varieties is important for the development of an integrated pest management program of the whitefly by using plant secondary metabolic compounds. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.

Zhao J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Subcellular flavonoid transport and its underlying regulatory mechanisms are still poorly understood, but are fascinating research frontiers in plant science. Recent studies support and further extend previous hypotheses indicating that vacuolar sequestration of flavonoids involves vesicle trafficking, membrane transporters, and glutathione S-transferase (GST). However, the question remains to be addressed of how three distinct but nonexclusive mechanisms are functionally integrated into diverse but redundant transport routes for vacuolar sequestration or extracellular secretion of flavonoids. In this review, I highlight recent progress in understanding flavonoid-transporting vesicle behavior and properties, GST and membrane transporter functions and mechanisms, and flavonoid transport substrate specificity and preference. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Guo X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

Based on the model and feature of combination testing, a novel technique of fault analysis based on combination testing is proposed. The faults of software can be triggered by system parameters and their interaction. The result of combination testing is analyzed, and discovered the possible reasons, and then generates an additional test cased which involved from the test case causing the fault, and analysis and verify the result. This method can locate the faults in a relative small area, and can simplify the process of software debugging and testing. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Benelli G.,University of Pisa | Daane K.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Canale A.,University of Pisa | Niu C.-Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2014

Tephritidae are an enormous threat to fruit and vegetable production throughout the world, causing both quantitative and qualitative losses. Investigating mating sequences could help to unravel mate choice dynamics, adding useful information to improve behaviour-based control strategies. We review current knowledge about sexual communication and related behaviours in Tephritidae, with a focus on six key agricultural pests: Anastrepha ludens, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera oleae, Ceratitis capitata and Rhagoletis pomonella. We examine features and the role of male-male combat in lekking sites, cues affecting mating dynamics, and some fitness-promoting female behaviours that occur at oviposition sites [the use of oviposition marking pheromones (OMPs) and female-female fights for single oviposition sites]. We outline future perspectives and potential contributions of knowledge about sexual communication to Integrated Pest Management programs for tephritid pests. Sexually selected traits are frequently good indicators of male fitness and knowledge of sexual selection processes may contribute to the improvement of the sterile insect technique (SIT), to select genotypes with high reproductive success and to promote sexually selected phenotypes through mass-rearing optimization. Furthermore, males' exposure to parapheromones, such as phenyl propanoids (PPs), ginger root oil and trimedlure can enhance the mating success of sterile flies used in SIT programs. PPs are also a powerful tool to improve reduced-risk monitoring dispensers and the male annihilation technique, with low side effects on non-target insects. Lastly, we outline the possibility to sensitise or train mass-reared parasitoids on OMPs during the pre-release phase, in order to improve their post-release performance in the field. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Luo J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2015

The plant metabolome is the readout of plant physiological status and is regarded as the bridge between the genome and the phenome of plants. Unraveling the natural variation and the underlying genetic basis of plant metabolism has received increasing interest from plant biologists. Enabled by the recent advances in high-throughput profiling and genotyping technologies, metabolite-based genome-wide association study (mGWAS) has emerged as a powerful alternative forward genetics strategy to dissect the genetic and biochemical bases of metabolism in model and crop plants. In this review, recent progress and applications of mGWAS in understanding the genetic control of plant metabolism and in interactive functional genomics and metabolomics are presented. Further directions and perspectives of mGWAS in plants are also discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Wu K.,Shenzhen University | Cheng Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang G.P.,Shenzhen University
Journal of Optics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2016

Regarding invisibility cloaks as an optical imaging system, we present a Fourier approach to analytically unify both Pendry cloaks and complementary media-based invisibility cloaks into one kind of cloak. By synthesizing different transfer functions, we can construct different devices to realize a series of interesting functions such as hiding objects (events), creating illusions, and performing perfect imaging. In this article, we give a brief review on recent works of applying Fourier approach to analysis invisibility cloaks and optical imaging through scattering layers. We show that, to construct devices to conceal an object, no constructive materials with extreme properties are required, making most, if not all, of the above functions realizable by using naturally occurring materials. As instances, we experimentally verify a method of directionally hiding distant objects and create illusions by using all-dielectric materials, and further demonstrate a non-invasive method of imaging objects completely hidden by scattering layers. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Zhong K.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhong K.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

Ultrasonic technology was applied for polysaccharides extraction from the dried longan pulp and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the effects of processing parameters on polysaccharides yields. Three independent variables were ultrasonic power (X1), extraction time (X2) and ratio of water to raw material (X3), respectively. The statistical analysis indicated that three variables and the quadratic of X1 and X2 had significant effects on the yields, and followed by the significant interaction effects between the variables of X2 and X3 (p < .05). A mathematical model with high determination coefficient was gained and could be employed to optimize polysaccharides extraction. The optimal extraction conditions of polysaccharides were determined as follows: Ultrasonic power 680 W, extraction time 4.5 min, ratio of water to raw material 25 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 4.455 ± 0.093%, which was agreed closely with the predicted value (4.469%). Crown Copyright © 2009.

Zhao W.,Wuhan University | Zhang W.-P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang W.-P.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | Zhang Z.-L.,Wuhan University | And 5 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

In this work, robust approach for a highly sensitive point-of-care virus detection was established based on immunomagnetic nanobeads and fluorescent quantum dots (QDs). Taking advantage of immunomagnetic nanobeads functionalized with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the surface protein hemagglutinin (HA) of avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 subtype, H9N2 viruses were efficiently captured through antibody affinity binding, without pretreatment of samples. The capture kinetics could be fitted well with a first-order bimolecular reaction with a high capturing rate constant k f of 4.25 × 10 9 (mol/L) -1 s -1, which suggested that the viruses could be quickly captured by the well-dispersed and comparable-size immunomagnetic nanobeads. In order to improve the sensitivity, high-luminance QDs conjugated with streptavidin (QDs-SA) were introduced to this assay through the high affinity biotin-streptavidin system by using the biotinylated mAb in an immuno sandwich mode. We ensured the selective binding of QDs-SA to the available biotin-sites on biotinylated mAb and optimized the conditions to reduce the nonspecific adsorption of QDs-SA to get a limit of detection low up to 60 copies of viruses in 200 μL. This approach is robust for application at the point-of-care due to its very good specificity, precision, and reproducibility with an intra-assay variability of 1.35% and an interassay variability of 3.0%, as well as its high selectivity also demonstrated by analysis of synthetic biological samples with mashed tissues and feces. Moreover, this method has been validated through a double-blind trial with 30 throat swab samples with a coincidence of 96.7% with the expected results. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Attanayake R.N.,North Dakota State University | Carter P.A.,Washington State University | Jiang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Del Rio-Mendoza L.,North Dakota State University | Chen W.,Washington State University
Phytopathology | Year: 2013

Genetic and phenotypic diversity and population differentiation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates infecting canola from China and the United States were investigated. Genetic diversity was assessed with eight microsatellite markers and mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs). Phenotypic diversity was assessed with sensitivity to three fungicides, production of oxalate and sclerotia, growth rate, and virulence on two canola cultivars. No shared MCGs or multilocus haplotypes were detected between the two populations, and populations differed significantly (P < 0.001). Recombination was detected in both populations but was greater in the Chinese population. A polymerase chain reaction detection assay showed that ~60% of the isolates were inversion-plus at the mating type locus. The two populations differed significantly (P < 0.05) for all of the phenotypic traits except for sensitivity to fungicide fluazinam and virulence. Isolates in the Chinese population were unique in several aspects. Despite the phenotypic differentiation, heritabilities of the phenotypic traits were similar for both populations. Significant correlations were found among five phenotypic traits. Cross resistance to benomyl and iprodione was detected. Virulence was not significantly correlated with any other phenotypic trait and had the least heritability. However, both populations were equally virulent on either a susceptible or a moderately resistant canola cultivars. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society.

Qu M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Qu M.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Li W.,University of Connecticut | Zhang C.,University of Connecticut
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment | Year: 2014

The objective of this study is to assess the spatial distribution and uncertainty of the potential ecological risks of heavy metals in soil using sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and the Hakanson potential ecological risk index (PERI). We collected 130 soil samples in an area of 150 km2 in the High-Tech Park of Wuhan, China, and measured the concentrations of five heavy metals in soil (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). We then simulated the spatial distribution of each heavy metal using SGS, and calculated Hakanson PERIs for individual metals and multiple metals based on the simulated realizations. The spatial uncertainty of the Cd PERI and its occurrence probabilities in different risk grades were further assessed. Results show that the potential ecological risks of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn are relatively low in the study area, but Cd indeed reaches a serious level that deserves much attention and essential treatment. The total PERI of multiple heavy metals indicates a moderate grade in most of the study area. In general, combining SGS and the Hakanson PERI appears to be an effective method for evaluating the potential ecological risks of heavy metals in soil and the priority areas for remediation. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Zhu Z.X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

Different sole materials impose very important influences on athletes' movement effects. Sole materials of tennis shoes to a large extent decide athletes' start and sudden stop etc. Through the study of the influences of common abrasion resistant rubber, DRC abrasion resistant rubber and adiWEAR composite of tennis shoe soles on non-slip performance of the tennis shoes, it is concluded that DRC abrasion resistant rubber has the best effect on sudden stop of athletes; common abrasion resistant rubber is more beneficial to abrupt changes in athletes' movement than adiWEAR composite, but in terms of start and acceleration, common abrasion resistant rubber is worse than adiWEAR composite. Meanwhile, common abrasion resistant rubber has better support effects for long-time competitions and is more beneficial to diversified movement changes of athletes. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Zhang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A | Year: 2013

Heterogeneous photocatalytic removal of Rhodamine-B (RhB) dye from liquid phase was done using anatase-phase nanocrystalline TiO2 synthesized via a modified sol-gel process. The anatase-phase nanocrystalline TiO 2 was characterized using various analytical techniques including XRD, UV-vis DRS, PL, and FTIR to investigate its phase composition and structure, nanocrystalline size, band gap energy, photoluminescence and surface properties of the prepared systems. The photocatalytic discoloration efficiency of anatase-phase nanocrystalline titania was investigated by monitoring the decomposition of RhB dye as target compounds in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the as-prepared anatase-phase nanocrystalline TiO2 was excellent for degradation of RhB molecule, and the crystallite size, excitonic PL and surface hydroxyl content have intimate relationship with the decomposition efficiency of RhB. The reaction mechanism was proposed and the results demonstrate that the role of direct photolysis on RhB dye degradation can be neglected. Meanwhile, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model describes the photodecay date of RhB in consistent with a first order powder law and thus photocatalytic oxidation reaction followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Li J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
BioTechnology: An Indian Journal | Year: 2013

This article is based on the problems and using the process arrangement problems in production planning algorithm, on the basis of according to the characteristics of the students physical fitness test, determined to solve the problemof two stagemethod: the first stage, the simplified model into a packing problem, and thus get the minimum time period, according to the time optimization principles of equilibrium, the total number of physical tests the class assigned to each time period; The second stage, in order to simplify the computation, students in as little as possible waiting time and as the objective function, simplify the problem into process arrangement problemmodel, the rationality of themodel of different schemes to make a good evaluation, strong adaptability, have certain application promotion value. © 2013 Trade Science Inc. - INDIA.

Ding T.,Kangwon National University | Jin Y.-G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Oh D.-H.,Kangwon National University
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

This study was performed to develop predictive models for the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat (RTE) lettuce treated with or without alkaline electrolyzed water. Firstly, growth curves of L. monocytogenes in treated and untreated RTE lettuce were obtained at several isothermal conditions (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and were then fitted into Gompertz model with a high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.99). Growth parameters such as growth rate (GR) and lag time (LT) estimated by Gompertz model were found mostly have significant difference (P < 0.05) with those predicted by Combined database for predictive microbiology (ComBase). Moreover, increased GR and decreased LT were observed with increasing storage temperatures from 4 to 35°C and untreated lettuce showed lowest GR or longest LT, and followed by treated lettuce and ComBase, respectively. Furthermore, square root equation was employed to establish the secondary models for the GR to evaluate the effect of different storage temperatures on the growth rate of L. monocytogenes in untreated lettuce and treated lettuce. After that, verification of the developed models has been carried out using several mathematical or statistical indicators such as R2, the average mean square error (MSE), bias factor (Bf) and accuracy factor (Af). It showed that R2 values were close to 1 (>0.95), and MSE calculated from models of untreated and treated lettuce were 0.0011 and 0.0008, respectively. Also, Bf values of 0.980 and 1.034 and Af values of 1.107 and 1.118 were all in the acceptable range. This demonstrated that overall predictions showed good agreement with the experimental values, indicating success at providing reliable predictions of L. monocytogenes growth in RTE lettuce. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

Peng T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Moriguchi T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Preferences for the appearance of apples may vary from country to country and region to region, but polished redness is undeniably eye-catching and could easily win a good first impression. Anthocyanin is considered as the dominant pigment responsible for the red coloration in apple. Many reports have been published to elucidate the biosynthetic genes and the upstream regulatory genes involved in the anthocyanin accumulation. This paper reviews the recent studies on the biosynthetic and regulatory genes associated with the pigmentation as well as the external stimuli affecting anthocyanin production in apple. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Zhu C.-P.,Shaanxi Normal University | Zhang S.-H.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), isolated with boiling water from the famous Chinese medicinal herb Lycium barbarum fruits, is one of the most important functional constituents in Lycium barbarum. In this study the effects of LBP on cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were investigated. RESULTS: LBP could inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cells by changing cell cycle distribution and inducing apoptosis. In addition, the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m) was observed by flow cytometry and the increase of intracellular Ca 2+ concentration was detected by laser scanning confocal microscope in apoptotic cells. At the same time, the nitric oxide content, nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase activities were also increased. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effect of LBP on the proliferation of HeLa cells was caused by inducing apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. The results showed that LBP can be developed as a potential chemotherapeutic agent candidate against human cervical cancer. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Zhu Y.Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2012

Myostatin (MSTN) gene has negative influence on the growth of muscle, which belongs to transforming growth factor-β family. Using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MSTN gene were detected in yellow catfish. Correlation analysis between MSTN polymorphisms and growth traits was also carried out. Results indicated that five genotypes (AA, BB, CC, CD and DD) were found in the first intron with one deletion site and two mutant sites (T1003del, G1022A and T1063G), two genotypes (EE and EF) were found in the third exon with one mutant site (T132C). The individuals with genotypes AA had a lager value than the individuals with the genotype CD and DD in total length, body length, body height, body width, head length and body weight (Plt;0.05). The female individuals with genotypes AA also had a lager value than the female individuals with genotypes DD in total length, body length, body height, body width, caudal peduncle height, caudal peduncle width and body weight (Plt;0.05). This implies that genotype AA has a positive influence on the growth traits of female yellow catfish, and genotype DD is opposite. Genotypes AA and DD can be used in marker assisted selection of female yellow catfish breeding in the future.

Jin S.,University of Pennsylvania | Jin S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Daniell H.,University of Pennsylvania
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Chloroplasts are known to sustain life on earth by providing food, fuel, and oxygen through the process of photosynthesis. However, the chloroplast genome has also been smartly engineered to confer valuable agronomic traits and/or serve as bioreactors for the production of industrial enzymes, biopharmaceuticals, bioproducts, or vaccines. The recent breakthrough in hyperexpression of biopharmaceuticals in edible leaves has facilitated progression to clinical studies by major pharmaceutical companies. This review critically evaluates progress in developing new tools to enhance or simplify expression of targeted genes in chloroplasts. These tools hold the promise to further the development of novel fuels and products, enhance the photosynthetic process, and increase our understanding of retrograde signaling and cellular processes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Chen S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ho D.W.C.,City University of Hong Kong
Information Sciences | Year: 2016

Consensus control for multiple autonomous underwater vehicles(AUVs) with imperfect information due to communication faults is established in this paper. Two novel fault tolerant consensus control techniques are addressed with respect to leaderless multiple AUV systems and leader-follower multiple AUV systems. The proposed control architectures are constructed so that each AUV exchanges information with its neighboring AUVs, i.e. distributed consensus control strategies are emphasized to tolerate information transmission faults for multiple AUV systems. The simulation study is carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical analysis. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Zhong Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2011

Due to specific recognization of DNA sequences and designability, zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) has been used in knock in and knock out genes. Because of high ratio of homologous recombination of DSB-GT induces by ZFN, ZFN technology has been considered as the most powerful tool for gene modification. It has been successfully used at cell or embryo levels in plants and animals. Under the rapid development of high affinity zinc finger protein (ZFP), this technique will be applied to genetic engineering and breeding extensively in the future. This review discussed the DNA recognization mechanism and double strand break gene targeting (DSB-GT) of zinc finger nucleases (ZFN). Some application examples of ZFN were summarized.

Liu F.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

In the research area of network security, we often need to analyze the Internet traffic in real time. But the Internet traffic is usually very heavy, so it is very hard for us to analysis each packet one by one. Alternatively, analyzing the Internet traffic on flow level is often employed. Before analyzing the traffic flows, how we can fast construct and update these flows is a key issue. To solve this issue, in this paper, we propose a fast connection construction and update algorithm. Firstly, we define bidirectional flows as connection. Then, we use hash table to store the connection records and use this connection construction and update algorithm to ensure that these connection records can to be stored in memory in heavy traffic environment to achieve real-time traffic analysis. At last, the experiments show that the algorithm we proposed is efficient and can meet the traffic analysis need. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Tan J.,Wuhan University | Tan J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zou X.,Wuhan University
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos | Year: 2013

In this paper, we investigate the complex dynamical behaviors of a biological network that is derived from innate immune responses and that couples positive and negative feedback loops. The stability conditions of the non-negative equilibrium points (EPs) of the system are obtained, using the theory of dynamical systems, and we deduce that no more than three stable EPs exist in this system. Through bifurcation analysis and numerical simulations, we find that the system presents rich dynamical behaviors, such as monostability, bistability and oscillations. These results reveal how positive and negative feedback cooperatively regulate the dynamical behavior of the system. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Huang H.,Auburn University | Dai M.-H.,Auburn University | Dai M.-H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Tao Y.-X.,Auburn University
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science | Year: 2014

The G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) was deorphanized in 2003 as a receptor of medium- and long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs), now also called FFA receptor 1 (FFAR1). Studies have shown that GPR40 not only directly mediates FFA amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion but also indirectly enhances insulin secretion by stimulating incretin release. Therefore, GPR40 has attracted considerable attention as a therapeutic drug target of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and numerous GPR40 ligands have been developed and investigated for their antidiabetic actions. Recently, one of these ligands, TAK-875, has been successfully tested in phase II clinical trials with reduced risk of hypoglycemia. This chapter will summarize studies on GPR40, including its molecular cloning and tissue distribution, physiology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Li W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li W.,University of Connecticut | Zhang C.,University of Connecticut
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

This paper introduces an expert interpretation-based Markov chain geostatistical (MCG) framework for classifying land-use/land-cover (LULC) classes from remotely sensed imagery. The framework uses the MCG method to classify uninformed pixels based on the informed pixels and quantify the associated uncertainty. The method consists of the following steps: 1) decide the number of LULC classes and define the physical meaning of each class; 2) obtain a data set of class labels from one or a time series of remotely sensed images through expert interpretation; 3) estimate transiogram models from the data set; and 4) use the Markov chain sequential simulation algorithm to conduct simulations that are conditional to the data set. The simulated results not only provide classified LULC maps but also quantify the uncertainty associated with the classification. A case study with three LULC classes shows that, with increasing number of informed pixels from 0.45% to 1.81% of the total pixels at the resolution of 4.8 m × 4.8 m, the optimal classification accuracy based on maximum probabilities increases from 88.13% to 99.23% and the averaged classification accuracy of realization maps increases from 81.84% to 97.18%. Although it is relatively labor intensive, such an expert interpretation and geostatistical simulation-based approach may provide a useful LULC classification method complementary to existing image processing methods, which usually account for limited expert knowledge and may not incorporate ground observation data or assess the uncertainty associated with classified data. © 2011 IEEE.

Iqbal N.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Mei J.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Mei J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu J.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Cell Cycle | Year: 2014

The Arf tumor suppressor gene product, p19Arf, regulates cell proliferation in incipient cancer cells and during embryo development. Beyond its commonly accepted p53-dependent actions, p19Arf also acts independently of p53 in both contexts. One such p53-independent effect with in vivo relevance includes its repression of Pdgfrβ, a process that is essential for vision in the mouse. We have utilized cell culture-based and mouse models to define a new role for miR-34a in this process. Ectopic expression of Arf in cultured cells enhanced the expression of several microRNAs predicted to target Pdgfrβ synthesis, including the miR-34 family. Because miR-34a has been implicated as a p53-dependent effector, we investigated whether it also contributed to p53-independent effects of p19Arf. Indeed, in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking p53, Arf-driven repression of Pdgfraβ and its blockade of Pdgf-B stimulated DNA synthesis were both completely interrupted by anti-microRNA against miR-34a. Ectopic miR-34a directly targeted Pdgfrβ and a plasmid reporter containing wild-type Pdgfrβ 3′UTR sequence, but not one in which the miR-34a target sequence was mutated. Although miR-34a expression has been linked to p53 - a well-known effector of p19 Arf - Arf expression and its knockdown correlated with miR-34a level in MEFs lacking p53. Finally, analysis of the mouse embryonic eye demonstrated that Arf controlled expression of miR-34a, and the related miR-34b and c, in vivo during normal mouse development. Our findings indicate that miR-34a provides an essential link between p19Arf and its p53-independent capacity to block cell proliferation driven by Pdgfrβ. This has ramifications for developmental and tumor suppressor roles of Arf. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.

Nanocomposites consisting of titania nanopar-ticles and metallic platinum were prepared via a soft chemical reduction method. The detailed structural, compositional, and optical characterization and physicochemical properties of the obtained products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. Employing photodegradation of rhodamine B as the model reaction, we found that the as-prepared Pt/TiO 2 nanocomposite showed an excellent photocatalytic oxidation activity under visible light irradiation. On the basis of these results, the intrinsic mechanism of visible light-induced photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds on the platinized titania is proposed and discussed. The superior visible light-driven photocatalytic efficiency of the Pt/TiO 2 nanocomposite photocatalyst can be ascribed to the high efficiency of charge-pair separation due to the presence of deposited Pt serving as electron sinks to retard the rapid e --h + couple recombination; the good photoabsorption capacity in the visible light region; and the higher concentration of surface hydroxyl groups, which are able to effectively scavenge photogenerated valence band holes. Accumulation of the holes at the catalyst surface increases the probability of the formation of OH· as a reactive species that readily oxidizes the organic dye molecule. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Zhang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University
South African Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2012

Silver-deposited nano-ZnO samples with different Ag loadings were prepared by a one-pot solvothermal method. The structure, physico-chemical and optical properties of the products were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence spectra (PLS). The experimental results show that the prepared nanometer zinc oxide powders have a narrowsize distribution of 40-60 nm, and their crystal forms can be assigned to hexagonal wurtzite structures. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of the samples was examined by using photocatalytic oxidation of methylene blue (MB), as a model reaction, and the effects of the noble metal content on the photocatalytic activity were investigated. The results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO nanoparticles can be greatly improved by depositing appropriate amounts of noble metal on their surfaces. In addition, a mechanism was proposed in order to account for the enhanced activity. It is evident that the effective lifetime of photogenerated holes is prolonged by electron-trapping of the metallic silver on the surface of theZnOnanoparticles. The metal deposits serve as electron sinks, which lead to an enhanced rate of dioxygen reduction, facilitating the generation of hydroxyl radicals, and thereby increasing the photocatalytic activity.

Xiong L.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2011

The paper has proposed a new method based on acoustic feature and support vector machine. A sound signal acquisition system is designed based on microcontroller, the power spectra is received for good shell eggs and crack eggs. 4 parameters, such as the average power spectrum area (x1), power spectrum area of range value (x2), the first average formant amplitude (x3) and the first formant amplitude range value (x4), are extracted. These 4 parameters are regarded as input vector for support vector machine (SVM). The advantages and disadvantages for classification performance because of different kernel functions and different training sample size are compared, and ultimately the radial basis function (RBF) function is regarded as the best kernel function for the optimal classification results, and then the penalty coefficient C and the normalization coefficient are optimized, the overall recognition rate reached 97.37% or more, running time is about 0. 3s.The results show that SVM has a perfect performance in eggshell crack detection. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Zhang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University
High Energy Chemistry | Year: 2012

Heterogeneous photocatalytic removal of methyl-red (MR) dye from liquid phase was done using mixed-phase nanocrystalline TiO 2 for enhancement its photochemical decomposition capabilities. The mixed-phase nanocrystalline TiO 2 was characterized using various techniques to investigate its physicochemical properties. The photocatalytic efficiency of mixed-phase nanocrystalline titania was explored by monitoring the photochemical decay of aqueous MR dye. The results showed that the as-prepared mixed-phase nanocrystalline TiO 2 was excellent for degradation of MR molecule, and the impurity of rutile form increases the photochemical activity by a by a factor of 3. The reaction mechanism was proposed and the results demonstrate that the photocatalytic oxidation reaction followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.

King G.J.,Southern Cross University of Australia | King G.J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Crop plants encounter thermal environments which fluctuate on a diurnal and seasonal basis. Future climate resilient cultivars will need to respond to thermal profiles reflecting more variable conditions, and harness plasticity that involves regulation of epigenetic processes and complex genomic regulatory networks. Compartmentalization within plant cells insulates the genomic central processing unit within the interphase nucleus. This review addresses the properties of the chromatin hardware in which the genome is embedded, focusing on the biophysical and thermodynamic properties of DNA, histones and nucleosomes. It explores the consequences of thermal and ionic variation on the biophysical behavior of epigenetic marks such as DNA cytosine methylation (5mC), and histone variants such as H2A.Z, and how these contribute to maintenance of chromatin integrity in the nucleus, while enabling specific subsets of genes to be regulated. Information is drawn from theoretical molecular in vitro studies as well as model and crop plants and incorporates recent insights into the role epigenetic processes play in mediating between environmental signals and genomic regulation. A preliminary speculative framework is outlined, based on the evidence of what appears to be a cohesive set of interactions at molecular, biophysical and electrostatic level between the various components contributing to chromatin conformation and dynamics. It proposes that within plant nuclei, general and localized ionic homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining chromatin conformation, whilst maintaining complex genomic regulation that involves specific patterns of epigenetic marks. More generally, reversible changes in DNA methylation appear to be consistent with the ability of nuclear chromatin to manage variation in external ionic and temperature environment. Whilst tentative, this framework provides scope to develop experimental approaches to understand in greater detail the internal environment of plant nuclei. It is hoped that this will generate a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying genotype × environment interactions that may be beneficial for long-term improvement of crop performance in less predictable climates. © 2015 King.

Zhang C.,China Agricultural University | Wang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang W.,China Agricultural University | Zhang F.,China Agricultural University
Plant and Soil | Year: 2013

Aims: Rice is a well-known silica-accumulating plant. The dumbbell-shaped silica bodies in the silica cells in rice leaf epidermis are formed via biosilicification, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Methods: Leaves at different developmental stages were collected to investigate silica cell differentiation by analyzing structures and silicon localization in the silica cells. Results: Exogenous silicon application increased both shoot and root biomass. When silicon was supplied, silica cells in the leaf epidermis developed gradually into a dumbbell-shape and became increasingly silicified as leaves aged. Silicon deposition in the silica cells was not completed until the leaf was fully expanded. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that lignification of silica cell walls precedes silicon deposition in the lumen of silica cells. The organized needle-like silica microstructures were formed by moulding the inner cell walls and filling up the lumen of the silica cell following leaf maturation. Conclusions: Two processes were involved in silicon deposition: (1) the silica cell wall was lignified and silicified, and then (2) the silicon was deposited gradually in silica cells as leaves aged. Silica body formation was not completed until the leaf was fully mature. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

The guts of metazoans are in permanent contact with the microbial realm that includes beneficial symbionts, nonsymbionts, food-borne microbes and life-threatening pathogens. However, little is known concerning how host immunity affects gut bacterial community. Here, we analyze the role of a dual oxidase gene (BdDuox) in regulating the intestinal bacterial community homeostasis of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis. The results showed that knockdown of BdDuox led to an increased bacterial load, and to a decrease in the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Leuconostocaceae bacterial symbionts in the gut. The resulting dysbiosis, in turn, stimulates an immune response by activating BdDuox and promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that regulates the composition and structure of the gut bacterial community to normal status by repressing the overgrowth of minor pathobionts. Our results suggest that BdDuox plays a pivotal role in regulating the homeostasis of the gut bacterial community in B. dorsalis.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 13 November 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.202. © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology

Zhou J.,Wuhan University | Qi X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Letters in Applied Microbiology | Year: 2011

Aims: To develop a new nano-composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with enhanced antimicrobial activity.Methods and Results: A novel antimicrobial nanocomposite [MWNT-epilson-polylysine (MEPs)] was synthesized via covalent attachment of epilson-polylysine on MWNTs with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as the coupling agent. UV-visible spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) investigations indicate that MEPs is stable, with epilson-polylysine leaching effectively eliminated. When compared to MWNTs, the new nano-composite MEPs exhibits enhanced antimicrobial activities. In 20 mg l-1 suspensions, significant increases of 72.1, 64.5 and 69% against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus can be observed. The deposited film of MEPs also shows improved antibacterial activities and excellent antiadhensive efficacies against Ps. aeruginosa and Staph. aureus.Conclusions: Epilson-polylysine functionalization of MWNTs with HDI as the bridge was found to be useful for improving the biocidal activity of MWNTs.Significance and Impact of the Study: The new nano-composite MEPs with improved antimicrobial activity will substantially facilitate the application of MWNTs as the antimicrobial material such as medical device, food, pharmaceutical process and package. © 2010 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Huang Q.,Wuhan University | Huang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang L.,Wuhan University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2011

A water-insoluble (1 → 3)-α-d-glucan from Poria cocos mycelia was fractionated, followed by phosphorylation with H3PO4 in LiCl/Me2SO containing urea to synthesize water-soluble phosphated derivatives. Their structures and chain conformations were investigated by FTIR, 31P NMR, SEC-LLS and viscometry. The Mark-Houwink equation for the phosphated derivative in 0.15 M aqueous NaCl at 30 °C was established to be η=2.87×10-3Mw0.860.02. On the basis of conformational parameters calculated from wormlike cylinder model, the phosphated derivative existed as a semi-stiff chain in aqueous solution. Compared with unphosphated glucan, water-solubility and chain stiffness of the phosphated derivative increased, as a result of the introduction of phosphate group on main chain. All the phosphated derivatives exhibited significantly stronger anti-tumor activities than that of the unphosphated one, suggesting the effects of solubility and expanded chain conformation on improvement of the anti-tumor activity could not be negligible. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhu M.J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2010

The candidate gene approach is one of the most commonly used methods for identifying genes underlying disease traits. Advances in genomics have greatly contributed to the development of this approach in the past decade. More recently, with the explosion of genomic resources accessible via the public Web, digital candidate gene approach (DigiCGA) has emerged as a new development in this field. DigiCGA, an approach still in its infancy, has already achieved some primary success in cancer gene discovery. However, a detailed discussion concerning the applications of DigiCGA in cancer gene identification has not been addressed. This chapter will focus on discussing DigiCGA in a generalized sense and its applications to the identification of cancer genes, including the cancer gene resources, application status, platform and tools, challenges, and prospects.

Zhang S.-H.,Wuhan University of Technology | Huang Y.,Wuhan University of Technology | Hua Y.-M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

The effects of nitrite concentration, organic carbon and pH on denitrifying dephosphatation over nitrite were studied with batch tests. The results showed that anoxic initial phosphate uptake rate increased as nitrite concentration increased. For an initial phosphate of 8.5 mg P L-1 and an initial COD of 350 mg L-1, a nitrite level of 15.2 mg N (gMLSS)-1 was found to be appropriate. The anaerobic phosphate release rate decreased as anaerobic nitrite addition increased. The results suggest that to ensure effective phosphate release and subsequent phosphate uptake, anaerobic nitrite should be lower than 2 mg N L-1. Very high and very low initial COD concentrations both resulted in an adverse effect on denitrifying dephosphatation. The anaerobic phosphate release with different carbon sources followed the order: acetate > butyric acid > glucose. The suitable pH for anaerobic phosphate release and anoxic phosphate uptake was approximately 7.0 and 8.0, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cheng Y.,Jiangnan University | Lu J.,Jiangnan University | Liu S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhao P.,Nantong University | And 2 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

Porous structured regenerated cellulose films were oxidized by periodate oxidation to obtain 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (DARC) films, which were then reacted with collagen to obtain DARC/Col composite films. The subsequent FT-IR spectra indicated that collagen was immobilized on the DARC matrix via the Schiff base reaction between NH2 in collagen and CHO in DARC backbone. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that DARC/Col exhibited a refined 3D network structure and its porosity and pore size decreased with increasing of collagen concentration. The composite films demonstrated a good equilibrium-swelling ratio, air permeability and water retention properties. The composite films also showed excellent mechanical properties, which was vital for practical application. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the composite film was evaluated using NIH3T3 mice fibroblast cells, the results revealed that DARC/Col composite films have good biocompatibility for use as scaffold material in tissue engineering. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhao Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhou D.-X.,University Paris - Sud
Journal of Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2012

Epigenomes including genome-wide histone modification and DNA methylation profiles are important for genome activity and for defining gene expression patterns of plant development and responses to various environmental conditions. Rice is the most important crop plant and serves as a model for cereal genomics. Rice epigenomic landscape is emerging and the function of chromatin modification regulators in gene expression, transposon repression and plant development is being characterized. Epigenomic variation that gives rise to stable or transgenerational heritable epialleles related to variation of important agronomical traits or stress responses is being characterized in rice. Implication of epigenomic variation in rice heterosis is being exploited. © 2012.

Shi W.,Hunan Agricultural University | Shi W.,International Rice Research Institute | Muthurajan R.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Rahman H.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

High night temperatures (HNTs) can reduce significantly the global rice (Oryza sativa) yield and quality. A systematic analysis of HNT response at the physiological and molecular levels was performed under field conditions. Contrasting rice accessions, N22 (highly tolerant) and Gharib (susceptible), were evaluated at 22°C (control) and 28°C (HNT). Nitrogen (N) and nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) translocation from different plant tissues into grains at key developmental stages, and their contribution to yield, grain-filling dynamics and quality aspects, were evaluated. Proteomic profiling of flag leaf and spikelets at 100% flowering and 12 d after flowering was conducted, and their reprogramming patterns were explored. Grain yield reduction in susceptible Gharib was traced back to the significant reduction in N and NSC translocation after flowering, resulting in reduced maximum and mean grain-filling rate, grain weight and grain quality. A combined increase in heat shock proteins (HSPs), Ca signaling proteins and efficient protein modification and repair mechanisms (particularly at the early grain-filling stage) enhanced N22 tolerance for HNT. The increased rate of grain filling and efficient proteomic protection, fueled by better assimilate translocation, overcome HNT tolerance in rice. Temporal and spatial proteome programming alters dynamically between key developmental stages and guides future transgenic and molecular analysis targeted towards crop improvement. © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

Gao Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2012

To determine the pathogenic bacterium infecting giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). Bacterium was isolated from the liver of diseased Chinese giant salamander and identified by the Biolog Microbial Identification System and molecular biology method. Healthy Chinese giant salamander and crucian carp were used for experimental infection with bacterial suspension. A bacterial strain JZ01 was isolated and identified from diseased giant salamander. Infection with the bacterial suspension to healthy giant salamander could reproduce the diseased symptoms as occurred naturally and the same bacterium could be recovered from these infected giant salamanders. The isolated bacterium also has certain pathogenicity to crucian carp. Identification by the Biolog Microbial Identification System, and further 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the bacterium isolated from diseased giant salamander was Citrobacter freundii. The susceptibility test to antibiotics demonstrated that the bacterial strain JZ01 was susceptible to aztreonam, cefepime and cefotamine. Citrobacter freundii is a pathogen for cultured Chinese giant salamander.

Ultrasound treatment was used to extract carotenoids from tomato waste. Gelatin and gum arabic were applied as coating materials for the encapsulation of carotenoids. The first-order reaction was used to determine the degradation of carotenoids in the microcapsules. The result of controlled release studies showed that microcapsules would protect most of the carotenoids from being released in the stomach. We investigated the modifications induced by an oral administration of carotenoid powder on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and ion status in liver of rat. The 28 day treatment increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase and manganese superoxide dismutase and reduced malondialdehyde concentration in rat liver. The activity of catalase was not affected by treatment and greater iron concentration was found in liver from treatment groups. However, there was no dose-dependent change of antioxidant enzyme activity or malondialdehyde concentration with increasing carotenoid consumption. Furthermore, carotenoid powder was able to be used as forage material for egg-laying hens. The 28 day treatment did not affect the egg performance, but significantly increased yolk colour parameters and lycopene content.

Chai B.,Wuhan Polytechnic University | Li J.,Wuhan Polytechnic University | Xu Q.,Wuhan Polytechnic University | Dai K.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Materials Letters | Year: 2014

Reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/WO3 nanoplates composites were synthesized via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra (DRS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) by the rGO/WO3 composites was investigated and optimized, suggesting the optimal amount of rGO in the composite was 15 wt%. The significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity of rGO/WO3 composites could be attributed to the excellent accepting and transporting electrons properties of rGO. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Sablok G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Nayak K.C.,Institute of Life science | Vazquez F.,University of Basel | Tatarinova T.V.,University of South Wales
Molecular Biotechnology | Year: 2011

We have analyzed factors affecting the codon usage pattern of the chloroplasts genomes of representative species of pooid grass family. Correspondence analysis of relative synonymous codon usages (RSCU) showed that genes on secondary axis were correlated with their GC3S values (all r > 0.3, p < 0.05), indicating mutational bias as an important selective force that shaped the variation in the codon usage among chloroplast genes. The Nc-plot showed that although a majority of the points with low-Nc values were lying below the expected curve, a few genes lied on the expected curve. Nc plot clearly showed that mutational bias plays a major role in codon biology across the monocot plastomes. The hydrophobicity and aromaticity of encoded proteins of each species were found to be other factors of codon usage variation. In the view of above light, besides natural selection, several other factors also likely to be involved in determining the selective constraints on codon bias in plastomes of pooid grass genomes. In addition, five codons (B. distachyon), seven codons (H. vulgare), and four codons (T. aestivum) were identified as optimal codons of the three grass chloroplasts. To identify genes evolving under positive selection, rates of nonsynonymous substitutions (Ka) and synonymous substitutions (Ks) were computed for all groups of orthologous gene pairs. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Liu F.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Sensors and Transducers | Year: 2013

Nowadays, with the rapid development of Internet of Things (IoT) applications, data missing phenomenon becomes very common in wireless sensor networks. This problem can greatly and directly threaten the stability and usability of the Internet of things applications which are constructed based on wireless sensor networks. How to estimate the missing value has attracted wide interest, and some solutions have been proposed. Different with the previous works, in this paper, we proposed a new convolution based missing value estimation algorithm. The convolution theory, which is usually used in the area of signal and image processing, can also be a practical and efficient way to estimate the missing sensor data. The results show that the proposed algorithm in this paper is practical and effective, and can estimate the missing value accurately. © 2013 IFSA.

ZnO-CuO binary oxide photocatalysts were synthesized by the liquid phase coprecipitation method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO-CuO nanocomposites was estimated on the basis of decoloration of methyl orange dye under visible light. The effects of parameters such as calcining temperature, amount of catalyst and pH on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of methyl orange solutions were investigated in detail. The maximum photocatalytic activity was obtained on ZnO-CuO nanocomposites with a calcining temperature of 350 °C, using a catalyst amount of 0.056 g/L and a pH of 7.5. The visible lightdriven capability of ZnO-CuO nanocomposites is much better than that of commercially available TiO2 photocatalysts under comparable conditions. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

Liu S.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG | Year: 2014

The CCCH-type zinc finger proteins comprise a large gene family of regulatory proteins and are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. The CCCH proteins have been implicated in multiple biological processes and environmental responses in plants. Little information is available, however, about CCCH genes in plants, especially in woody plants such as citrus. The release of the whole-genome sequence of citrus allowed us to perform a genome-wide analysis of CCCH genes and to compare the identified proteins with their orthologs in model plants. In this study, 62 CCCH genes and a total of 132 CCCH motifs were identified, and a comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, functional annotations, gene structures and conserved motifs was performed. Distribution mapping revealed that 54 of the 62 CCCH genes are unevenly dispersed on the nine citrus chromosomes. Based on phylogenetic analysis and gene structural features, we constructed 5 subfamilies of 62 CCCH members and integrative subfamilies from citrus, Arabidopsis, and rice, respectively. Importantly, large numbers of SNPs and InDels in 26 CCCH genes were identified from Poncirus trifoliata and Fortunella japonica using whole-genome deep re-sequencing. Furthermore, citrus CCCH genes showed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in different developmental processes and in response to various stress conditions. Our comprehensive analysis of CleC3Hs is a valuable resource that further elucidates the roles of CCCH family members in plant growth and development. In addition, variants and comparative genomics analyses deepen our understanding of the evolution of the CCCH gene family and will contribute to further genetics and genomics studies of citrus and other plant species.

Hassan W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hassan W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | David J.,Free University of Berlin | Abbas F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Catena | Year: 2014

The emission of CO2 from soil to the atmosphere is a major challenge throughout the world in both developed and developing countries, due to its critical role in the intensification of global warming. An incubation experiment was conducted to investigate CO2 emission potentials of Ultisol soils under residues of peanut (green manure) and rice (rice straw) and moisture regimes 60% (W1) and 120% (W2) of water holding capacity at different temperature ranges i.e. low to medium 5-20°C (T1 to T4), medium to high 25-30°C (T5 to T6) and very high 35-45°C (T7 to T9). Comparing two contrasting plant residues, we found that the incorporation of GM (green manure) residue significantly (P<0.05) increased the CO2 emission potential of Ultisol soils at both moisture regimes and all temperature ranges, and this increase tended to improve with the increase of temperature ranges. Conversely, RS residue mixed treatments showed significantly low production and emission of CO2, at all temperature ranges and both water regimes. This indicated that type and quality of plant residues have significant impact on the CO2 production and emission capacity of soils and plant residues with low decomposition, high stability and high lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses compounds can be successfully used as an organic amendment to control the emission and production of CO2 from soil to atmosphere, by converting soils from CO2-C sources to sinks. We revealed that moisture and temperature also had a significant (P<0.05) effect on the CO2 production and emission potential of Ultisol soils, but this effect was indirect through influencing the rate of decomposition of the organic inputs. Our results suggested that applied amendments e.g. addition or incorporation of plant residues are in fact major factors which control the CO2 emission potential of soils by converting soils from CO2-C sources to sinks. On the other hand, other abiotic factors like temperature and moisture are indirect regulator of CO2 production and emission by influencing decomposition of these incorporated organic inputs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Liu Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2010

The objectives of this work were (i) to construct a yeast two-hybrid AD-cDNA library of Astragalus sinicus and provide a fundamental system to screen target proteins involved symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and (ii) to isolate the target proteins interacting with the leghemoglobin. By using the Matchmaker Library Construction & Screening Kit (Clontech), we constructed a yeast AD-cDNA library basing on the total RNA, which was isolated from the root and nodule tissues of A. sinicus at different developmental stages infected by Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R. The quality examination of the AD-cDNA library showed that the transformation efficiency was 1.0 x 10(6) transformants/3 microg pGADT7-Rec DNA, and the average length of cDNA inserts was around 1.0 kb. The library was then screened with the leghemoglobin AsB2510 as bait by yeast two-hybrid system, and 26 positive clones was obtained on SD/-Leu/-Trp/-His/-Ade containing X-gal. 10 of them were individually further confirmed by resuing the plasmid, amplifying the cDNA insert and retesting the protein-interacting phenotype. The cDNA inserts of positive clones were sequenced and undertaken a blast analysis in NCBI database, it was found that clone LY-53 contained a tify domain and divergent CCT motif, which was an important transcription factor needs in-depth investigation.

Hu C.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural Science | Qi Y.-C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2011

Two long-term field experiments, each consisting of three treatments (organic compost treatment, chemical fertilizer treatment and an untreated control) were established in 1993 and 1997, respectively. Soil samples were collected from each plot in June 2004 and 2005 after crop harvest and were used to determine soil physical-chemical properties, biological and biochemical activity, and the nematode community. Soil physicochemical parameters, microbial biomass, biological activities and nematode communities were significantly influenced by long-term application of organic compost. In general, soil total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline-hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium, microbial biomass, basal respiration, urease activities, total number of nematodes and bacterial-feeding nematodes were significantly higher in the compost plots than in the chemical fertilizer and control plots at two experimental sites and two sampling dates. Soil bulk density and pH values were significantly lower in the compost plots. We conclude that soil physical-chemical properties, size and activity of soil microbial biomass, metabolic quotient (qCO2), urease activity, total number of nematodes and bacteria-feeding nematodes could be used as indicators of soil quality. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Babu R.,CIMMYT | Rojas N.P.,CIMMYT | Gao S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yan J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Pixley K.,CIMMYT
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) compromises immune function and is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children in many developing countries. Biofortification, or breeding staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, provides a sustainable way to fight VAD and other micronutrient malnutrition problems. Polymorphisms, with associated molecular markers, have recently been identified for two loci, LcyE (lycopene epsilon cyclase) and CrtRB1 (β-carotene hydroxylase 1) that govern critical steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in maize endosperm, thereby enabling the opportunity to integrate marker-assisted selection (MAS) into carotenoid breeding programs. We validated the effects of 3 polymorphisms (LcyE5′TE, LcyE3′Indel and CrtRB1-3′TE) in 26 diverse tropical genetic backgrounds. CrtRB1-3′TE had a two-ten fold effect on enhancing beta-carotene (BC) and total provitamin A (proA) content. Reduced-function, favorable polymorphisms within LcyE resulted in 0-30 % reduction in the ratio of alpha- to beta-branch carotenoids, and increase in proA content (sometimes statistically significant). CrtRB1-3′TE had large, significant effect on enhancing BC and total ProA content, irrespective of genetic constitution for LcyE5′TE. Genotypes with homozygous favorable CrtRB1-3′TE alleles had much less zeaxanthin and an average of 25 % less total carotenoid than other genotypes, suggesting that feedback inhibition may be reducing the total flux into the carotenoid pathway. Because this feedback inhibition was most pronounced in the homozygous favorable LcyE (reduced-function) genotypes, and because maximum total proA concentrations were achieved in genotypes with homozygous unfavorable or heterozygous LcyE, we recommend not selecting for both reduced-function genes in breeding programs. LcyE exhibited significant segregation distortion (SD) in all the eight, while CrtRB1 in five of eight digenic populations studied, with favorable alleles of both the genes frequently under-represented. MAS using markers reported herein can efficiently increase proA carotenoid concentration in maize. © 2012 The Author(s).

Song C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2011

Correctly identifying bacterial toxin is of great benefit to cell biology and medical research. In order to improve predictive accuracy, based on the concept of pseudo amino acid composition, combined with the methods of approximate entropy and IB1 algorithm, a new method is proposed to predict bacterial toxins in this paper. The improved method gives comprehensive consideration of amino acid composition, side-chain mass of the amino acid, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic characteristics of a protein sequence. The total prediction accuracy of our method was 97.52% for bacterial toxin and nontoxin, and 97.33% for discriminating endotoxins from exotoxins, which were much higher than that of the previous methods. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Yong Y.-C.,East China University of Science and Technology | Yong Y.-C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhong J.-J.,East China University of Science and Technology | Zhong J.-J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2010

N-Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) is a widespread quorum sensing signal molecule in Gram-negative bacteria and has an important role in many biological processes. However, it is still poorly understood whether or not AHL is present in pollutant treatment processes and further, what its role is in biodegradation processes. In this work, an environmental isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa CGMCC 1.860 that is an aromatic degrader and AHL producer was selected. The AHL plate bioassay indicated that AHL was produced by this strain during biodegradation of aromatic compounds including phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxy-benzoate, salicylate, and naphthalene. The AHLs were identified as N-butyryl- l-homoserine lactone (BHL) and N-hexanoyl- l-homoserine lactone (HHL) by using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS/MS) analyses. Furthermore, phenol biodegradation was improved by exogenously added AHL extracts or by endogenously over-produced AHLs, repressed by abolishment of AHLs production, and not affected by the addition of extracts without AHLs. The results indicated that AHL was involved in the process of biodegradation of pollutants. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ghabrial S.A.,University of Kentucky | Caston J.R.,Centro Nacional Biotecnologia CSIC | Jiang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Nibert M.L.,Harvard University | Suzuki N.,Okayama University
Virology | Year: 2015

Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Tao Y.-X.,Auburn University | Liang X.-F.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science | Year: 2014

As critical regulators of almost all physiological processes in the body, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important regulators of glucose homeostasis. Some of the newer drugs for treating diabetes mellitus or in development are also targeting GPCRs. This chapter provides a summary of some of the GPCRs that have been shown to be involved in regulating glucose homeostasis. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Zhao J.,Kansas State University | Zhao J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Devaiah S.P.,Kansas State University | Wang C.,Kansas State University | And 6 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

Pathogen infection of higher plants often induces rapid production of phosphatidic acid (PA) and changes in lipid profiles, but the enzymatic basis and the function of the lipid change in pathogen-plant interactions are not well understood. Infection of phospholipase D β1 (PLDβ1)-deficient plants by Pseudomonas syringae tomato pv DC3000 (Pst DC30000) resulted in less bacterial growth than in wild-type plants, and the effect was more profound in virulent Pst DC3000 than avirulent Pst DC3000 (carrying the avirulence gene avrRpt2) infection. The expression levels of salicylic acid (SA)-inducible genes were higher, but those inducible by jasmonic acid (JA) showed lower expression in PLDβ1 mutants than in wild-type plants. However, PLDβ1-deficient plants were more susceptible than wild-type plants to the fungus Botrytis cinerea. The PLDβ1-deficient plants had lower levels of PA, JA and JA-related defense gene expression after B. cinerea inoculation. PLDβ1 plays a positive role in pathogen-induced JA production and plant resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen B. cinerea, but a negative role in the SA-dependent signaling pathway and plant tolerance to infection with biotrophic Pst DC3000. PLDβ1 is responsible for most of the increase in PA production in response to necrotrophic B. cinerea and virulent Pst DC3000 infection, but contributes less to avirulent Pst DC3000 (avrRpt2)-induced PA production. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

Niu Y.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology | Shen H.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology | Chen J.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology | Xie P.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology | And 4 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2011

PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to explore the relationship between succession of phytoplankton community and temporal variation of bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) in the eutrophic Lake Taihu. Serious Microcystis bloom was observed in July-December 2008 and Bacillariophyta and Cryptophyta dominated in January-June 2009. BCC was characterized by DGGE of 16S rRNA gene with subsequent sequencing. The DGGE banding patterns revealed a remarkable seasonality which was closely related to phytoplankton community succession. Variation trend of Shannon-Wiener diversity index in bacterioplankton community was similar to that of phytoplankton community. CCA revealed that temperature and phytoplankton played key roles in structuring BCC. Sequencing of DGGE bands suggested that the majority of the sequences were affiliated with common phylogenetic groups in freshwater: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The cluster STA2-30 (affiliated with Actinobacteria) was found almost across the sampling time at the two study sites. We observed that the family Flavobacteriaceae (affiliated with Bacteroidetes) tightly coupled to diatom bloom and the cluster ML-5-51.2 (affiliated with Actinobacteria) dominated the bacterioplankton communities during Microcystis bloom. These results were quite similar at the two sampling sites, indicating that BCC changes were not random but with fixed pattern. Our study showed insights into relationships between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton communities at species level, facilitating a better understanding of microbial loop and ecosystem functioning in the lake. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Xiang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Cheng B.,Wuhan University of Technology | Yu J.,King Abdulaziz University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

The production of solar fuel through photocatalytic water splitting and CO2 reduction using photocatalysts has attracted considerable attention owing to the global energy shortage and growing environmental problems. During the past few years, many studies have demonstrated that graphene can markedly enhance the efficiency of photocatalysts for solar-fuel generation because of its unique 2D conjugated structure and electronic properties. Herein we summarize the recent advances in the application of graphene-based photocatalysts for solar-fuel production, including CO2 reduction to hydrocarbon fuel and water splitting to H2. A brief overview of the fundamental principles for splitting of water and reduction of CO2 is given. The different roles of graphene in these graphene-based photocatalysts for improving photocatalytic performance are discussed. Finally, the perspectives on the challenges and opportunities for future research in this promising area are also presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Zhang C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang C.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Cahoon R.E.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Hunter S.C.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center | And 3 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2013

Vitamin E tocotrienol synthesis in monocots requires homogentisate geranylgeranyl transferase (HGGT), which catalyzes the condensation of homogentisate and the unsaturated C20 isoprenoid geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP). By contrast, vitamin E tocopherol synthesis is mediated by homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT), which condenses homogentisate and the saturated C20 isoprenoid phytyl diphosphate (PDP). An HGGT-independent pathway for tocotrienol synthesis has also been shown to occur by de-regulation of homogentisate synthesis. In this paper, the basis for this pathway and its impact on vitamin E production when combined with HGGT are explored. An Arabidopsis line was initially developed that accumulates tocotrienols and homogentisate by co-expression of Arabidopsis hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) and Escherichia coli bi-functional chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase (TyrA). When crossed into the vte2-1 HPT null mutant, tocotrienol production was lost, indicating that HPT catalyzes tocotrienol synthesis in HPPD/TyrA-expressing plants by atypical use of GGDP as a substrate. Consistent with this, recombinant Arabidopsis HPT preferentially catalyzed in vitro production of the tocotrienol precursor geranylgeranyl benzoquinol only when presented with high molar ratios of GGDP:PDP. In addition, tocotrienol levels were highest in early growth stages in HPPD/TyrA lines, but decreased strongly relative to tocopherols during later growth stages when PDP is known to accumulate. Collectively, these results indicate that HPPD/TyrA-induced tocotrienol production requires HPT and occurs upon enrichment of GGDP relative to PDP in prenyl diphosphate pools. Finally, combined expression of HPPD/TyrA and HGGT in Arabidopsis leaves and seeds resulted in large additive increases in vitamin E production, indicating that homogentisate concentrations limit HGGT-catalyzed tocotrienol synthesis. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Liu Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2011

PRDX6, a member of antioxidant protein superfamily, plays an important role in oxidative stress, catabolism of lipids and phospholipid lipisomes. Therefore, we used PRDX6 as an important candidate gene for meat quality according to its physiological and biochemical function. Partial coding sequence of porcine PRDX6 was isolated and two potenial SNPs, one at 417 bp (C/T) and the other at 423 bp (A/G), were found in the fourth exon by comparison of the obtained sequence from different pig breeds. In order to explore the relationship between PRDX6 polymorphism and meat quality, genetic variation and trait association of these two SNPs were separately performed in 6 purebred pig population and 247 F2 "Large White x Meishan" resource population by pyrosequencing. The results showed that allele C was predominant in western pig breeds, while allele T was predominant in Chinese indigenous breeds at 417 bp (C/T). This SNP was significantly associated with the intramuscular fat and water moisture (P < 0.05). The A/G mutation at 423 bp was significantly associated with drip water rate, water holding capacity, intramuscular fat, and water moisture (P < 0.05). Allele A was predominant in western pig breeds, while allele G was predominant in Chinese indigenous breeds. These two SNPs were likely to be important markers affecting meat quality traits (especially the muscle tenderness).

Guan J.Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae) is a leaf vegetable and a medicinal herb througout much of Asia. Cytomixis and meiotic abnormalities during microsporogenesis were found in two populations of H. cordata with different ploidy levels (2n = 38, 96). Cytomixis occurred in pollen mother cells during meiosis at high frequencies and with variable degrees of chromatin/chromosome transfer. Meiotic abnormalities, such as chromosome laggards, asymmetric segregation and polyads, also prevailed in pollen mother cells at metaphase of the first division and later stages. They were caused by cytomixis and resulted in very low pollen viability and male sterility. Pollen mother cells from the population with 2n = 38 showed only simultaneous cytokinesis, but most pollen mother cells from the population with 2n = 96 showed successive cytokinesis; a minority underwent simultaneous cytokinesis. Cytomixis and irregular meiotic divisions appear to be the origin of the intraspecific polyploidy in this species, which has large variations in chromosome numbers.

Huang S.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Many natural product biosynthetic gene clusters are too large to be entirely cloned into one cosmid for heterologous expression. Because bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors are well known for their capacity of cloning large DNA fragments, we constructed a new BAC vector for cloning and heterologous expression of natural product biosynthesis gene clusters in Streptomyces. The chloramphenicol resistance gene on the original BAC vector pCUGIBAC1 was substituted with a streptomycin resistance gene via lambda RED-mediated PCR-targeting technique. The streptomycin resistance gene was then excised by digestion with NheI and the left gap was filled with the origin of transfer (oriT), the phiC31 integrase gene, the integrating attP site, and an apramycin resistance gene. We achieved the final BAC vector pMSBBACs. To test the newly established vector, pMSBBACs was used to build up a genomic BAC library of Streptomyces U27. The average size of inserts in the library is about 100kb. A 140 kb BAC plasmid as a representative was successfully introduced into heterologous hosts, S. lividans and S. albus, by either conjugation or protoplast transformation. It demonstrated that the BAC plasmids constructed by pMSBBACs could be integrated into chromosomes via site-specific recombination for heterologous expression. The newly constructed pMSBBACs was verified to be a good BAC vector for cloning of large DNA fragments and heterologous expression in Streptomyces.

Yao Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yao Y.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Sun H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xu F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Planta | Year: 2011

In an attempt to determine the adaptation strategy to phosphorous (Pi) deficiency in oilseed rape, comparative proteome analyses were conducted to investigate the differences of metabolic changes in two oilseed rape genotypes with different tolerance to low phosphorus (LP). Generally in either roots or leaves, there existed few low phosphorus (LP)-induced proteins shared in the two lines. The LP-tolerant genotype 102 maintained higher Pi concentrations than LP-sensitive genotype 105 when growing hydroponically under the 5-μM phosphorus condition. In 102 we observed the downregulation of the proteins related to gene transcription, protein translation, carbon metabolism, and energy transfer in leaves and roots, and the downregulation of proteins related to leaf growth and root cellular organization. But the proteins related to the formation of lateral root were upregulated, such as the auxin-responsive family proteins in roots and the sucrose-phosphate synthase-like protein in roots and leaves. On the other hand, the LP-sensitive genotype 105 maintained the low level of Pi concentrations and suffered high oxidative pressure under the LP condition, and stress-shocking proteins were pronouncedly upregulated such as the proteins for signal transduction, gene transcription, secondary metabolism, universal stress family proteins, as well as the proteins involved in lipid oxygenation and the disease resistance in both leaves and roots. Although the leaf proteins for growth in 105 were downregulated, the protein expressions in roots related to glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were enhanced to satisfy the requirement of organic acid secretion. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

BACKGROUND: FAE1 (fatty acid elongase1) is the key gene in the control of erucic acid synthesis in seeds of Brassica species. Due to oil with low erucic acid (LEA) content is essential for human health and not enough LEA resource could be available, thus new LEA genetic resources are being sought for Brassica breeding. EcoTILLING, a powerful genotyping method, can readily be used to identify polymorphisms in Brassica. RESULTS: Seven B. rapa, nine B. oleracea and 101 B. napus accessions were collected for identification of FAE1 polymorphisms. Three polymorphisms were detected in the two FAE1 paralogues of B. napus using EcoTILLING and were found to be strongly associated with differences in the erucic acid contents of seeds. In genomic FAE1 sequences obtained from seven B. rapa accessions, one SNP in the coding region was deduced to cause loss of gene function. Molecular evolution analysis of FAE1 homologues showed that the relationship between the Brassica A and C genomes is closer than that between the A/C genomes and Arabidopsis genome. Alignment of the coding sequences of these FAE1 homologues indicated that 18 SNPs differed between the A and C genomes and could be used as genome-specific markers in Brassica. CONCLUSION: This study showed the applicability of EcoTILLING for detecting gene polymorphisms in Brassica. The association between B. napus FAE1 polymorphisms and the erucic acid contents of seeds may provide useful guidance for LEA breeding. The discovery of the LEA resource in B. rapa can be exploited in Brasscia cultivation.

Liu Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

Pinellia ternata is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant. Its different populations in China have various ploidy levels, based on x = 13, as well as extensive aneuploid series. The microsporogenesis process was observed in specimens from three populations from three regions of Hubei Province; they were characterized by normal and abnormal meiotic divisions in pollen mother cells (PMCs) at all stages simultaneously. Meiotic abnormalities including univalents/multivalents, chromosomal laggards/bridges and micronuclei appeared in about 50% of the PMCs, together with abnormal cytokinesis. Chromatin/chromosome transfer between meiocytes occurred only during the first division, at low frequency; this might contribute to these meiotic abnormalities. Although the remaining 50% of the PMCs presented normal cytological behavior, pollen fertility was only about 2%. These results provide cytological explanations for its low seed-set and the general use of asexual reproduction through tubers and bulbils; it also explains the wide variations in chromosome number.

Ren J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2012

We compared bacterial and archaeal diversity and community structure of mangrove soil under different vegetation, and to reveal better understanding of microbial resources. Bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed and analyzed for soils under Kandelia candel trees, Sonneratia apetala trees, and naked tideland, in Dongzhaigang Mangrove National Nature Reserve of Hainan Island. Template DNA was directly extracted from soil samples. PCR were amplified using primers 27F/1492R (bacterial) and Arch21F/Arch958R (archaeal). A total of 16 phyla dominated by Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were detected in bacterial libraries, and 6 groups of Crenarchaeota and 7 groups of Euryarchaeota, predominated by Marine Benthic Group C and Marine Benthic Group D, respectively were found in archaeal libraries. Shannon-Wiener index (H') and S(chao1) estimator indicated that soil microbial diversity under the introduced species Sonneratia apetala was much lower than indigenous species Kandelia candel, even lower than naked tidal flat sediment near mangrove. Distinct differences in microbial community structure under different vegetation were observed. Soil microbial community structure under Kandelia candel was much similar with that of naked tideland. Mangrove soil contained rich population of bacteria and archaea; there existed distinct differences in mangrove soil microbial community structure and diversity among different vegetation.

Xiong T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Bao Y.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Hu Z.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Chiong R.,University of Newcastle
Information Sciences | Year: 2015

Interval time series prediction is one of the most challenging research topics in the field of time series modeling and prediction. In view of the remarkable function approximation capability of fully complex-valued radial basis function neural networks (FCRBFNNs), we set out to investigate the possibility of forecasting interval time series by denoting the lower and upper bounds of the interval as real and imaginary parts of a complex number, respectively. This results in a complex-valued interval. We then model the resulted complex-valued interval time series via a FCRBFNN. Furthermore, we propose to evolve the FCRBFNN by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) and discrete PSO for joint optimization of the structure and parameters. Finally, the proposed interval time series prediction approach is tested with simulated interval time series data as well as real interval stock price time series data from the New York Stock Exchange. Our experimental results indicate that it is a promising alternative for interval time series forecasting. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

With the rapid development of the Internet of things based smart hardware technology and computer engineering, combination of computer techniques with general expanded training exercise is the irreversible trend. In this paper, we propose the security enhanced smart hardware assisted regression analysis and the health monitoring technique based expanded training exercise effect evaluation model. Our research is composed of the following parts. (1) We review state-of-the-art smart hardware device organization and security enhancement countermeasures to serve as the foundation for the further modelling. (2) We propose novel mathematical regression analysis paradigm and optimized prediction model based on the neural network theory and convex optimization to assisting the later evaluation work. (3) We propose the new health monitoring device with the enhanced security to real-time monitor the movement and physical data. (4) We compare the proposed algorithm with the other popular adopted approaches and conduct comparison experiment. The experimental result proves that our model gets the higher prediction precision which enhance the traditional precision from 87% to 96.5% and the robustness is strengthened as well. In the future, we will combine more mathematical model to modify the current model to achieve the better performance. © 2016 SERSC.

Liu J.H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Nakajima I.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | Moriguchi T.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science
Biologia Plantarum | Year: 2011

Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seedlings grown in vitro were treated with either 200 mM NaCl or 350 mM mannitol for 7 d. Both salinity and osmotic stress caused significant increase in electrolyte leakage. From the three commonly occurring free polyamines (PA), only conspicuous accumulation of putrescine was found in the NaCl-treated seedlings. Four PA biosynthetic genes encoding arginine decarboxylase (pVvADC), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (pVvSAMDC), spermidine synthase (pVvSPDS) and spermine synthase (pVvSPMS) were successfully isolated. While induction of pVvADC was observed from the 1st day of salt treatment, pVvSAMDC and pVvSPMS were induced only at late stage of stress. As for expression levels of genes in the mannitol-treated seedling, either temporary (pVvADC at day 1) or late (pVvSPMS at days 5 and 7) induction was observed. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Tan C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2012

Photosynthesis is the unique source of energy for plant. Flag leaf contributed the majority of photosynthate after rice flowering. Ghd7 is a pleiotropic gene, which can significantly increase rice production. In order to study the genetic effects of Ghd7 on the flag leaf morphology, we made quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for flag leaf length (FLL), flag leaf width (FLW), and flag leaf area (FLA) using a Ghd7-BC2F2 population of 190 plants. In the BC2F2 population, the frequency distribution of FLL, FLW, and FLA were bimodal and in agreement with single Mendelian segregation ratio (3:1). FLL, FLW, and FLA were positively correlated with grains per panicle in the population. One QTL was mapped to the in-terval between markers RM3859 and C39 on chromosome 7, which explained 73.3%, 62.3%, and 71.8% of the variations for FLL, FLW, and FLA, and co-segregated with Ghd7. Two near-isogenic lines of NIL (mh7) and NIL (tq7) were devel-oped using Zhenshan 97 as the recurrent parent and Minghui 63 and Teqing as the donor parent, respectively. Both NILs significantly increased the phenotypic values of FLL, FLW, and FLA as compared with Zhenshan 97. FLL, The values of FLW and FLA for Ghd7 over-expression transgenic plants were 8.9 cm, 0.5 cm, and 17.8 cm2 larger than its recipient Heji-ang 19. These results demonstrated that Ghd7 plays an important role in controlling the flag leaf area in rice.

Zhu C.Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015

To study the effects of urban lake wetlands with different areas (WA), geometry (landscape shape index, LSI), and location with reference to a defined city center (DIST), and surrounding a non-built-up area proportion around 500 m of wetland (PB) on air temperature and relative humidity in summer, fourteen urban lake wetlands in central areas of Wuhan were selected. The temperature and relative humidity in summer were measured using small-scale quantitative measurement methods. Furthermore, the relationships between air temperature, relative humidity of urban lake wetlands, and WA, LSI, DIST, and PB were investigated to provide a scientific background for the construction of urban lake wetlands. The results showed that (1) the air temperature was negatively correlated with WA and DIST (P < 0.05), and positively correlated with LSI. The air relative humidity was positively correlated with WA, DIST, and PB, and negatively correlated with LSI(P < 0.05).The area of the lake wetland had the greatest effect on variations in temperature and relative humidity. (2) The benefits of urban lake wetland on temperature and relative humidity were associated with the areas of fourteen lake wetlands. Furthermore, the order was lake wetlands 11 —14 > lakes 6—10 > lakes 1—5. The urban lake wetlands that had an area of 9.2—12.2 ha had an obvious effect on the decrease in temperature and increase in humidity. When the area of wetland was around 308.4 ha, its effect on the decrease of temperature was stable; and for the increase in humidity, the area was around 67.6 ha (P < 0.05). When the urban lake wetland area reached a certain critical value, it would have an obvious effect on the decrease in air temperature and increase in humidity with dispersive lake wetlands in the urban environment. © 2015, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.

Deng Z.,Shaanxi Normal University | Zhu H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Peng B.,University Utrecht | Chen H.,Shaanxi Normal University | And 4 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2012

This paper describes a simple, mild, and environmentally friendly approach to synthesize polystyrene/Ag (PS/Ag) nanocomposite spheres, which makes use of both reducing and stabilizing functions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in aqueous media. In this approach, monodisperse polystyrene (PS) spheres, which are used as templates for the synthesis of core-shell nanocomposite spheres, are sulfonated first. Then, [Ag(NH 3) 2] + ions are adsorbed onto the surface of the PS template spheres via electrostatic attraction between -SO 3H groups (grafted on the surface of the PS template spheres) and [Ag(NH 3) 2] + ions. [Ag(NH 3) 2] + ions are then reduced by and simultaneously protected by PVP. In this way, the PS/Ag nanocomposite spheres in aqueous media are obtained through a so-called one-pot method. Neither additional reducing agents nor toxic organic solvents are utilized during the synthesis process. Furthermore, the coverage degree and the particle size of Ag nanoparticles on PS/Ag nanocomposite spheres is easily tuned by changing the concentration of [Ag(NH 3) 2] + ions in aqueous media. Moreover, these PS/Ag nanocomposite spheres can be used as catalyst for the reduction of organic dyes and as antibacterial agents against Salmonella and Escherichia coli. In the present study, these PS/Ag nanocomposite spheres exhibit excellent catalytic properties (both in efficiency and recyclability) for the reduction of organic dyes, and the preliminary antibacterial assays indicate that these PS/Ag nanocomposite spheres also possess extraordinary antibacterial abilities against Salmonella and Escherichia coli. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Sun L.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Match | Year: 2010

The Balaban index of a connected (molecular) graph G is denned as J{G) = mμ+1 Σuv∈E(G) (D uDv)-1/2. In this paper, sharp upper and lower bounds on the Balaban index of trees are reported.

Zhang Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Manganese oxides are a type of high-reactive minerals that play an important role in biogeochemical cycling of many major and trace elements. Bacteria are crucial in bio-catalyzing the formation of most naturally occurring Mn minerals. Currently, a variety of bacterial strains isolated from various habitats such as oceans, fresh waters, soils and ores have exhibited the distinctive bio-oxidation activities to convert the soluble Mn (II) oxides to the insoluble Mn (IV) ones. Here we review the research advances regarding the structures and characterization of several classes of bacterial manganese (II)-oxidizing genes, their expression regulations, the structures as well as functions of multicopper oxidases they encoded. Some raised mechanistic questions and the future research prospects are also discussed.

Wang G.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2011

It was discovered that there are certain microorganisms that can use the extraordinary toxic metalloid arsenic (As) to gain energy for their growth, even use arsenic instead of phosphorus to grow. In this article, we reviewed recent advanced research achievements and summarized these microbial arsenic metabolisms in the following 6 aspects: 1. Gaining energy by chemolithoautotrophic As (III) oxidation; 2. Gaining energy by chemoorganoheterotrophic As (III) oxidation; 3. Gaining energy by respiratory As (V) reduction; 4. As (III) oxidation coupling with photosynthesis; 5. The interactions among As (III) oxidation, As (V) reduction and As (III) oxidation coupling with photosynthesis; 6. Growth using As (V) instead of phosphorus. Gaining information of microbial arsenic metabolisms is fundamental important for better understanding of life creation, biodiversity, evaluation, biogeochemical cycle and bioremediation.

Zhao W.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2010

This paper was aimed to solve the connectivity absence of evaluation objects attribution. Lattice-order theory was employed to develop a framework to assess economic, social and ecological environment benefits of land consolidation projects. In the proposed model, lattice order structure was applied to reflect the preference level and Hausdorff measure was used to calculate the generalized distance from evaluation objects to their virtual boundary. The assessment result is one kind linear extension of lattice order structure under the effect of decision-maker preference relation. A case study of several typical land consolidation projects in Hubei Province was carried out to evaluate the selected attribute index, which were cropland area increased per 104 RMB, invest per area, invest per increased cropland area, labor productivity increasing, food production capacity increasing, annual net income increasing per capita, green vegetation area increasing, and forest protection area. Moreover, the assessment result was verified by attributes reduction approach, which demonstrated the availability of the advised model.

Yang Y.,Cornell University | Qiang X.,Cornell University | Qiang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Owsiany K.,Cornell University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2011

Cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers is a costly problem for the food industry. To systematically identify the proteins associated with this process, we employed a comparative proteomics approach using isobaric, stable isotope coded labels to compare the proteomes of potato tubers after 0 and 5 months of storage at 5 °C. We evaluated both high pH reverse phase (hpRP) liquid chromatography (LC) and off-gel electrophoresis (OGE) as first dimension fractionation methods followed by nanoLC-MS/MS, using two high performance mass spectrometry platforms (Q-TOF and Orbitrap). We found that hpRP-LC consistently offered better resolution, reduced expression ratio compression, and a more MS-compatible workflow than OGE and consistently yielded more unique peptide/protein identifications and higher sequence coverage with better quantification. In this study, a total of 4463 potato proteins were identified, of which 46 showed differential expressions during potato tuber cold storage. Several key proteins important in controlling starch-sugar conversion, which leads to cold-induced sweetening, as well as other proteins that are potentially involved in this process, were identified. Our results suggest that the hpRP-RP shotgun approach is a feasible and practical workflow for discovering potential protein candidates in plant proteomic analysis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Zhang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A | Year: 2015

Photocatalytic oxidation of organic contaminants under UV light irradiation in aqueous solution was studied using Ag-TiO2/activated carbon (AC) photocatalyst. Rhodamine B (RhB) and Methyl Orange (MO) were selected as the model compounds. The Ag-TiO2/AC composites with a single-phase (anatase) framework was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using titanium isopropoxide as a TiO2 precursor and depositing metal Ag on the surface of TiO2 nanostructures via a facile chemical reduction process. The asobtained composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption measurements (BET), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). As compared with the pristine TiO2, the Ag-TiO2/AC hybrid material exhibited improved photocatalytic efficiency (90%) for the UV-light photooxidation of RhB and MO. Investigations demonstrated that the enhancement can be attributed to the increase of the adsorption effect of activated carbon and the efficient separation and preventing of the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the hydroxyl radical was detected as the main active species generated in the oxidation reaction of RhB or MO over Ag-TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst. A corresponding mechanism was also proposed for the photocatalysis process. © 2015 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Shi W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lei A.,Wuhan University
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2014

Conjugated diynes have attracted more and more attention not only for their unique rod like structures and wide existence in nature product, but also the abundant properties and derivations of them. Although oxidative dimerization of alkynes or Cadiot-Chodkiewicz reactions were the main pathway and have achieved great success in the synthesis of diynes, oxidative cross coupling, FBW rearrangement as well as diyne metathesis emerged rapidly recently. Moreover, diynes could be precursors of basic heterocycles, which represented an emerging research area. This Letter will cover the recent progresses in the synthesis and further derivations of diynes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Guo X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Proceedings - 2014 IEEE Workshop on Advanced Research and Technology in Industry Applications, WARTIA 2014 | Year: 2014

In the process of program analysis, the error detection usually gathers the information of the target position from the path sensitive analysis, which would include some useless dataflow information, thus leading to low analysis efficiency. In this process, the states of the target position usually are combined to solve the path explosion problem, but this would result to high time consumption and fault positive and fault negative. Aiming to this problem, a method based on dataflow information and program slicing is proposed to deal with the path sensitive analysis. This method creates the slicing criteria via path condition, and obtains the sliced program which is equal to the source program, which can improve the analysis efficiency. We have implemented the analysis demon and the experimental results demonstrate that this method has high detection efficiency and can reduce the fault positive. © 2014 IEEE.

Shi L.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

The establishment of high-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation techniques could improve the production of Dioscorea zingiberensis, a medicinal species with a high diosgenin content. We co-cultivated embryogenic calli induced from mature seeds with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105. A binary vector, pCAMBIA1381, which contains the gfp and hpt genes under the control of the ubiquitin promoter and the CaMV 35S promoter, respectively, was used for transformation. Pre-culture, basic medium, acetosyringone, and bacterial density were evaluated to establish the most efficient protocol. The optimal conditions consisted of MS medium without CaCl(2) for pre- and co-cultivation, three days for pre-culture, addition of 200 μM AS, and an OD(600) of 0.5. The transgenic plants grown under selection were confirmed by PCR analysis and Southern blot analysis. This protocol produced transgenic D. zingiberensis plants in seven months, with a transformation efficiency of 6%.

Antimony (Sb) and copper (Cu) are toxic heavy metals that are associated with a wide variety of minerals. Sb(III)-oxidizing bacteria that convert the toxic Sb(III) to the less toxic Sb(V) are potentially useful for environmental Sb bioremediation. A total of 125 culturable Sb(III)/Cu(II)-resistant bacteria from 11 different types of mining soils were isolated. Four strains identified as Arthrobacter, Acinetobacter and Janibacter exhibited notably high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Sb(III) (>10 mM),making them the most highly Sb(III)-resistant bacteria to date. Thirty-six strains were able to oxidize Sb(III), including Pseudomonas-, Comamonas-, Acinetobacter-, Sphingopyxis-, Paracoccus- Aminobacter-, Arthrobacter-, Bacillus-, Janibacter- and Variovorax-like isolates. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that the soil concentrations of Sb and Cu were the most obvious environmental factors affecting the culturable bacterial population structures. Stepwise linear regression was used to create two predictive models for the correlation between soil characteristics and the bacterial Sb(III) or Cu(II) resistance. The concentrations of Sb and Cu in the soil was the significant factors affecting the bacterial Sb(III) resistance, whereas the concentrations of S and P in the soil greatly affected the bacterial Cu(II) resistance. The two stepwise linear regression models that we derived are as follows: MIC(Sb(III))=606.605+0.14533 x C(Sb)+0.4128 x C(Cu) and MIC((Cu)(II))=58.3844+0.02119 x C(S)+0.00199 x CP [where the MIC(Sb(III)) and MIC(Cu(II)) represent the average bacterial MIC for the metal of each soil (μM), and the C(Sb), C(Cu), C(S) and C(P) represent concentrations for Sb, Cu, S and P (mg/kg) in soil, respectively, p<0.01]. The stepwise linear regression models we developed suggest that metals as well as other soil physicochemical parameters can contribute to bacterial resistance to metals.

The gene HtNB confers non-lesion resistance to the fungal pathogen Exserohilum turcicum in maize. To map this gene, we developed two F2 populations, P111 (resistant line) x HuangZao 4 (susceptible line) and P111 x B73 (susceptible). HtNB was located on chromosome 8.07 bin, flanked by MAC216826-4 and umc2218 at distances of 3.3 and 3.4 cM, respectively. HtNB appears to be a new gene responsible for resistance to northern corn leaf blight. Functions of the genes in the region between umc1384 and umc2218 were predicted. In addition, several genes were found to be related to disease resistance, such as the genes encoding Ser/Thr protein kinase and protein-like leaf senescence.

Ding Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang S.,China Agricultural University
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2010

The vision navigation control hardware system was set up in the combine harvester and a histogram fusion algorithm for multi-frame navigation lines was put forward. On the basis of kinematics of simplified two-wheel vehicle, model one fuzzy PD controller was constructed. The tests in wheat field show that the rotation and projection algorithm with histogram fusion algorithm is valid to recognize the cut/uncut line, and can improve the precision of the system and robustness, the change of harvesting width is in 0.18 m during the working speed, and it could come back to the right path in 2-5 s when given manual disturbance using steering wheel.

Song Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2012

Mycoplasma wenyonii is a wall-less hemotrophic prokaryote with worldwide distribution. This paper describes the development of a LAMP method targeting 16S rRNA for specific detection of M. wenyonii in its vectors and cattle. The LAMP method is specific for M. wenyonii detection and more sensitive than PCR. A total of 330 blood samples from cattle were tested by LAMP and PCR detection, 71 (21.5 %) samples were positive by the LAMP, while only 62 (18.8 %) were positive by PCR. For detecting transmission vectors, 26 lice, 30 flies, and 26 mosquitoes were collected and 18 lice, 20 flies, and 21 mosquitoes were tested positive by LAMP and PCR. These results indicate that the LAMP assay is a simple and convenient diagnostic tool for M. wenyonii detection and can be used in epidemiological surveys.

Tan J.,Wuhan University | Tan J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Pan R.,Wuhan University | Qiao L.,Wuhan University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The investigation of the dynamics and regulation of virus-triggered innate immune signaling pathways at a system level will enable comprehensive analysis of the complex interactions that maintain the delicate balance between resistance to infection and viral disease. In this study, we developed a delayed mathematical model to describe the virus-induced interferon (IFN) signaling process by considering several key players in the innate immune response. Using dynamic analysis and numerical simulation, we evaluated the following predictions regarding the antiviral responses: (1) When the replication ratio of virus is less than 1, the infectious virus will be eliminated by the immune system's defenses regardless of how the time delays are changed. (2) The IFN positive feedback regulation enhances the stability of the innate immune response and causes the immune system to present the bistability phenomenon. (3) The appropriate duration of viral replication and IFN feedback processes stabilizes the innate immune response. The predictions from the model were confirmed by monitoring the virus titer and IFN expression in infected cells. The results suggest that the balance between viral replication and IFN-induced feedback regulation coordinates the dynamical behavior of virus-triggered signaling and antiviral responses. This work will help clarify the mechanisms of the virus-induced innate immune response at a system level and provide instruction for further biological experiments. © 2012 Tan et al.

Cheng Y.,Fudan University | Zhu W.,Fudan University | Chen Y.,Fudan University | Ito S.,University of Tokyo | And 3 more authors.
eLife | Year: 2014

In Arabidopsis, root hair and non-hair cell fates are determined by a MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex and regulated by many internal and environmental cues. Brassinosteroids play important roles in regulating root hair specification with unknown mechanisms. Here, we systematically examined root hair phenotype in brassinosteroid-related mutants, and found that brassinosteroid signaling inhibits root hair formation through GSK3-like kinases or upstream components. We found that with enhanced brassinosteroid signaling, GL2, non-hair cell fate marker, is ectopically expressed in hair cells, while its expression in non-hair cells is suppressed when BR signaling is reduced. Genetic analysis demonstrated that brassinosteroid-regulated root epidermal cell patterning is dependent on the WER-GL3/EGL3-TTG1 complex. One of the GSK3-like kinases, BIN2, interacted with and phosphorylated EGL3, and EGL3s mutated at phosphorylation sites were retained in hair cell nuclei. BIN2 phosphorylated TTG1 to inhibit the WER-GL3/EGL3-TTG1 activity. Thus, our study provides insights into the mechanism of brassinosteroid regulating root hair patterning.

Cao S.-Q.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Liu L.,Zhejiang Pharmaceutical College | Pan S.-Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Agricultural Sciences in China | Year: 2011

Thermal degradation kinetics of anthocyanins and visual color (Hunter a* value) of blood orange juice were studied at selected temperatures (70-90°C). Results indicated that both the thermal degradation of anthocyanin and visual color all followed first-order reaction kinetics, and they could be expressed by Arrhenius equation. The activation energy values for the anthocyanins degradation and visual color degradation were 55.81 and 47.51 kJ mol-1, respectively. The linear relationship between visual color and anthocyanin content was obtained. Furthermore, during thermal processing of blood orange juice, the formulas about the linear relationships showed no significant difference at selected temperatures. So, the relationships between visual color and anthocyanins content during thermal processing at selected temperatures could be described by the same equation: a*/a0*=0.559(C/C0)+0.43. It might be inferred that visual color measured instantaneously by tristimulus colorimeters for on-line quality control, could be used to predict the anthocyanins degradation during thermal processing of blood orange juice. © 2011 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

He S.,Auburn University | He S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Tao Y.-X.,Auburn University
International Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a Family A G protein-coupled receptor that plays an essential role in regulating energy homeostasis, including both energy intake and expenditure. Mutations leading to a reduced MC4R function confer a major gene effect for obesity. More than 170 distinct mutations have been identified in humans. In addition to the conventional Gs-stimulated cAMP pathway, the MC4R also activates MAPKs, especially ERK1/2. We also showed there is biased signaling in the two signaling pathways, with inverse agonists in the Gs-cAMP pathway acting as agonists for the ERK1/2 pathway. In the current study, we sought to determine whether defects in basal or agonist-induced ERK1/2 activation in MC4R mutants might potentially contribute to obesity pathogenesis in patients carrying these mutations. The constitutive and ligand-stimulated ERK1/2 activation were measured in wild type and 73 naturally occurring MC4R mutations. We showed that nineteen mutants had significantly decreased basal pERK1/2 level, and five Class V variants (where no functional defects have been identified previously), C40R, V50M, T112M, A154D and S295P, had impaired ligand-stimulated ERK1/2 activation. Our studies demonstrated for the first time that decreased basal or ligand-stimulated ERK1/2 signaling might contribute to obesity pathogenesis caused by mutations in the MC4R gene. We also observed biased signaling in 25 naturally occurring mutations in the Gs-cAMP and ERK1/2 pathways. © Ivyspring International Publisher.

Wan X.,University of Zurich | Wan X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Freisinger E.,University of Zurich
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2013

The plant metallothionein2 from Cicer arietinum (chickpea), cic-MT2, is known to coordinate five divalent metal ions such as ZnII or Cd II, which are arranged in a single metal thiolate cluster. When the ZnII form of the protein is titrated with CdII ions in the presence of sulfide ions, an increased CdII binding capacity and concomitant incorporation of sulfide ions into the cluster are observed. The exact stoichiometry of this novel cluster, its spectroscopic properties, and the significantly increased pH stability are analyzed with different techniques, including UV and circular dichroism spectroscopy and colorimetric assays. Limited proteolytic digestion provides information about the spacial arrangement of the cluster within the protein. Increasing the CdII scavenging properties of a metallothionein by additionally recruiting sulfide ions might be an economic and very efficient detoxification strategy for plants. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Chen X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhou D.-X.,University Paris - Sud
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2013

During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Wei X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wei X.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Luo M.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Liu H.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2014

The bifunctional coating with antithrombotic and antimicrobial activity was developed using nattokinase (NK) and nanosilver (AgNPs). Firstly, the adsorption interactions between NK and AgNPs were confirmed, and the composite particles of NK-AgNPs were prepared by adsorption of NK with AgNPs. At 5. FU/mL of NK concentration, the saturation adsorption capacity reached 24.35. FU/mg AgNPs with a high activity recovery of 97%, and adsorption by AgNPs also enhanced the heat stability and anticoagulant effect of NK. Based on the electrostatic force driven layer-by-layer self-assembly, the NK-AgNPs were further assembled with polyethylenimine (PEI) to form coating. UV-vis analysis showed that the self-assembly process was regular, and atom force microscopy analysis indicated that NK-AgNPs were uniformly embedded into the coating. The NK-AgNPs-PEI composite coating showed potent antithrombotic activity and antibacterial activity. This study developed a novel strategy to construct the bifunctional coating with antithrombotic and antimicrobial properties, and the coating material showed promising potential to be applied in the medical device. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Fu Q.L.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban | Year: 2011

A pot experiment with red soil, yellow brown soil, and yellow cinnamon soil was conducted to detect the Bt protein content in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils at different growth stages of transgenic Bt cotton and common cotton by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). With the planting of transgenic Bt cotton, the Bt protein content in rhizosphere soil was significantly higher than that in non-rhizosphere soil; while in common cotton soils, there was no significant difference in the Bt protein content between rhizosphere soil and non-rhizosphere soil. At bud stage of transgenic Bt cotton, the Bt protein content in rhizosphere soil was in the order of yellow cinnamon soil > yellow brown soil > red soil, being 144% 121%, and 238% of that in common cotton rhizosphere soil; at florescence stage of transgenic Bt cotton, the Bt protein content in rhizosphere soil was in the order of yellow brown soil > yellow cinnamon soil > red soil, being 156% , 116% , and 197% of that in common cotton rhizosphere soil, respectively. Regardless of planting Bt cotton or common cotton, the Bt protein content in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils had an initial increase with the growth of cotton, peaked at florescence stage, and then decreased. Throughout the whole cotton growth period, the Bt protein content in transgenic Bt cotton rhizosphere soil was higher than that in Bt cotton non-rhizosphere soil, and also, higher than that in common cotton rhizosphere soil, indicating that transgenic Bt cotton could release its Bt protein to rhizosphere soil.

Zhu Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University
PLoS computational biology | Year: 2011

Although the metabolic networks of the three domains of life consist of different constituents and metabolic pathways, they exhibit the same scale-free organization. This phenomenon has been hypothetically explained by preferential attachment principle that the new-recruited metabolites attach preferentially to those that are already well connected. However, since metabolites are usually small molecules and metabolic processes are basically chemical reactions, we speculate that the metabolic network organization may have a chemical basis. In this paper, chemoinformatic analyses on metabolic networks of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed. It was found that there exist qualitative and quantitative correlations between network topology and chemical properties of metabolites. The metabolites with larger degrees of connectivity (hubs) are of relatively stronger polarity. This suggests that metabolic networks are chemically organized to a certain extent, which was further elucidated in terms of high concentrations required by metabolic hubs to drive a variety of reactions. This finding not only provides a chemical explanation to the preferential attachment principle for metabolic network expansion, but also has important implications for metabolic network design and metabolite concentration prediction.

Cyadox (CYX), 2-formylquinoxaline-1,4-dioxide cyanoacetylhydrazone, is an antimicrobial and growth-promoting feed additive for food-producing animals. To reveal biotransformation of CYX in swine intestine, CYX was incubated with swine intestinal microsomes and mucosa in the presence of an NADPH-generating system and swine ileal flora and colonic flora, respectively. The metabolites of CYX were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/MS-ITTOF). Structural elucidation of the metabolites was precisely performed by comparing their changes in molecular mass, full scan MS/MS spectra and accurate mass measurements with those of the parent drug. Finally, seven metabolites were identified as follows: three reduced metabolites (cyadox 1-monoxide (Cy1), cyadox 4-monoxide (Cy2) and bisdesoxycyadox (Cy4)); hydroxylation metabolite (3-hydroxylcyadox 1-monoxide (Cy3)); hydrolysis metabolite of the amide bond (N-decyanoacetyl cyadox (Cy5)); a hydrogenation metabolite (11,12-dihydro-bisdesoxycyadox (Cy6)) and a side-chain cleavage metabolite (2-hydromethylquinoxaline (Cy7)). Only one metabolite (Cy1) was found in intestinal microsomes. Cy1, Cy2 and Cy4 were detected in intestinal mucosa, ileal and colonic flora. In addition, Cy3 and Cy5 were only obtained from ileal flora, and Cy6 and Cy7 alone were observed in colonic bacteria. The results indicated that N→O group reduction was the main metabolic pathway of CYX metabolism in swine ileal flora, intestinal microsomes and mucosa. New metabolic profiles of hydrogenation and cleavage on the side chain were found in colonic bacteria. Among the identified metabolites, two new metabolites (Cy6, Cy7) were detected for the first time. These studies will contribute to clarify comprehensively the metabolism of CYX in animals, and provide evidence to explain the pharmacology and toxicology effects of CYX in animals. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Amar M.H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Amar M.H.,Deserts Research Center
Biotechnology | Year: 2012

In the present study, we sought to determine whether one simple criterion, sequence divergence, can reasonably guide in phylogenetic across a broad scale in Citrus germplasm. Comparative investigation on the performance of the SSR and SRAP markers was conducted in phylogenetic analysis across sequence analysis of the PCR product in the genus Citrus and its relatives. The maximum composite likelihood model was used for pairwise distance calculation. To determine whether there is a difference depending on the method of choice. Somehow, phylogenetic trees were constructed using two algorithms Neighbor Joining (NJ) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) via MEGA 4 software. In contrast some differences in the positioning of some genotypes were observed in the phylogenetic trees created using the two models and the dendrogram from MP across SRAP sequence was the most congruent with Swingle and Reece's treatment of the subfamily Aurantioideae. The results of the present study suggest that evaluation of SRAP variation at the sequence level can be effective than SSR variation in exploring the evolutionary relationships among Citrus species. These results were the new information for future study on Citrus breeding programs such as germplasm characterization, screening of zygotic and nuclear seedlings and developing sequence divergence in Citrus and its relatives. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Gudbergsdottir S.,Copenhagen University | Deng L.,Copenhagen University | Chen Z.,Copenhagen University | Chen Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2011

The adaptive immune CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophile Sulfolobus were challenged by a variety of viral and plasmid genes, and protospacers preceded by different dinucleotide motifs. The genes and protospacers were constructed to carry sequences matching individual spacers of CRISPR loci, and a range of mismatches were introduced. Constructs were cloned into vectors carrying pyrE/pyrF genes and transformed into uracil auxotrophic hosts derived from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 or Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A. Most constructs, including those carrying different protospacer mismatches, yielded few viable transformants. These were shown to carry either partial deletions of CRISPR loci, covering a broad spectrum of sizes and including the matching spacer, or deletions of whole CRISPR/Cas modules. The deletions occurred independently of whether genes or protospacers were transcribed. For family I CRISPR loci, the presence of the protospacer CC motif was shown to be important for the occurrence of deletions. The results are consistent with a low level of random dynamic recombination occurring spontaneously, either inter-genomically or intra-genomically, at the repeat regions of Sulfolobus CRISPR loci. Moreover, the relatively high incidence of single-spacer deletions observed for S. islandicus suggests that an additional more directed mechanism operates in this organism. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

McOrist S.,The University of Nottingham Ningbo, China | Khampee K.,Knack Kholan Swine Consultancy | Guo A.,Huazhong Agricultural University
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2011

Cyclical oversupply and non-profitability situations have led to pig industry consolidations in the People's Republic of China, with many smaller farmers leaving the industry. In 2007, pork supply worsened due to outbreaks of 'high fever blue-ear disease', a complex disease issue that includes highly virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, porcine circovirus and classical swine fever. Best estimates suggest that 50 million pigs were affected. More recent natural disasters (earthquakes/freezing winters) have also limited pig production in some areas. Overall expansion of the Chinese breeding herd is now continuing at a good pace and is likely to be sufficient to supply the predicted 7% annual increase in demand for pork. High prices of feed ingredients (cereals and soybean) continue to create cost-of-production issues. Authorities have instigated many helpful measures over the past decade, including insurance for farm breeder stock, direct subsidies for farm expansions and breeding programmes, free supplies of some vaccines, and taxation exemptions. Specific challenges remaining include: the high levels of spread, persistence and on-farm impact of key virus infections on single-site farm systems; the variable titre and potency of some local vaccines; the low level of technical capacity in laboratories and the lack of training and expertise among farm staff; and the lack of a distinctive representative voice for pig farmers.

Gu W.-G.,Zunyi Medical University | Zhang X.,Kunming Medical University | Yuan J.-F.,Huazhong Agricultural University
AAPS Journal | Year: 2014

Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is effective in controlling the progression of AIDS, the emergence of drug-resistant strains increases the difficulty of successful treatment of patients with HIV infection. Increasing numbers of patients are facing the dilemma that comes with the running out of drug combinations for HAART. Computational methods play a key role in anti-HIV drug development. A substantial number of studies have been performed in anti-HIV drug development using various computational methods, such as virtual screening, QSAR, molecular docking, and homology modeling, etc. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the application of computational methods to anti-HIV drug development for five key targets as follows: reverse transcriptase, protease, integrase, CCR5, and CXCR4. We hope that this review will stimulate researchers from multiple disciplines to consider computational methods in the anti-HIV drug development process. © 2014 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.

Chen T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang Y.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

In this study, the major factors affecting both cell growth and astaxanthin production of Chlorella zofingiensis under dark were identified and optimized through statistical methods. A Plackett-Burman design was initially used to evaluate seven culture factors, of which glucose, NaNO3, and MgSO4·7H2O were found to be the most important in affecting C. zofingiensis. The central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM) were further used to optimize these factors. The optimized glucose, NaNO3, and MgSO4·7H2O concentrations for cell growth were 46.7, 1.13, and 0.125 g/L MgSO4·7H2O respectively, and for astaxanthin production were 35.2, 0.281, and 0.023 g/L, respectively. After the optimization, a two-stage culture strategy was employed to further maximize astaxanthin production, and the results showed that the astaxanthin yield of C. zofingiensis could reach 15.1 mg/L, which was 74% higher than that achieved in batch culture using the basal medium (i.e., 8.7 mg/L). © 2013 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Wang Y.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research | Chen T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Qin S.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2014

Green microalga Chlorella kessleri was grown in the dark with glucose (100 mmol l-1) and nitrate (10 mmol l-1) as initial carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. During the cultivation, extra exogenous glucose (100 mmol l-1) and nitrate (10 mmol l-1) were singly or simultaneously supplied at interval through different strategies. Results showed that under similar concentration and frequency of glucose recharge, suitable reduction in the frequency of nitrate addition can make cells accumulate more fatty acids, while the dry biomass was still maintained at a high level. As a result, the highest biomass concentration (17.60 g l-1), total fatty acids content (47.67% of dry weight), and total fatty acids yield (8.39 g l-1) could be simultaneously obtained in the same culture, designated as intermittent C-N-feeding culture. On the other hand, since that recharge of other substrates such as fresh medium is not needed, the present intermittent C-N-feeding process is relatively easy-control and low-cost. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhao Y.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology | Xie P.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology | Fan H.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Studies have demonstrated that microcystins (MCs) can act as potential carcinogens and have caused serious risk to public environmental health. The molecular mechanisms of MC-induced susceptibility to carcinogenesis are largely unknown. In this study, we performed for the first time a comprehensive analysis of changes in microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins expression in livers of mice treated with MC-LR. Utilizing microarray and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, we identified 37 miRNAs and 42 proteins significantly altered. Many aberrantly expressed miRNAs were related to various cancers (e.g., miR-125b, hepatocellular carcinoma; miR-21, leukemia; miR-16, chronic lymphocytic leukemia; miR-192, pituitary adenomas; miR-199a-3p, ovarian cancer; miR-34a, pancreatic cancer). Several miRNAs (e.g., miR-34a, miR-21) and proteins (e.g., TGM2, NDRG2) that play crucial roles in liver tumorigenesis were first found to be affected by MC-LR in mouse liver. MC-LR also altered the expression of a number of miRNAs and proteins involved in several pathways related to tumorigenesis, such as glutathione metabolism, VEGF signaling, and MAPK signaling pathway. Integration of post-transcriptomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics reveals that the networks miRNAs and their potential target genes and proteins involved in had a close association with carcinogenesis. These results provide an early molecular mechanism for liver tumorigenesis induced by MCs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Fukao T.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Xiong L.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Both high and low extremes in precipitation increasingly impact agricultural productivity and sustainability as a consequence of global climate change. Elucidation of the genetic basis underlying stress tolerance facilitates development of new rice varieties with enhanced tolerance. Submergence tolerance is conferred by a single master regulator that orchestrates various acclimation responses, whereas drought tolerance is regulated by a number of small-effect loci that are largely influenced by genetic background and environment. Detailed molecular studies have uncovered the functional importance of genes and signaling components which coordinate various morphological and physiological responses to submergence and drought, providing new insight into understanding the complex regulatory mechanisms of stress tolerance in rice. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Goff S.A.,University of Arizona | Zhang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Because of the tremendous advances in functional genomics and the current availability of a large number of superior hybrids, rice is an excellent model crop system for heterosis research. Genetic dissection of yield and yield component traits of an elite rice hybrid using an ultra-high density linkage map identified overdominance as the principal genetic basis of heterosis in this hybrid. This is not an expected finding based on the reported effects of single genes. Here we propose a gene expression and protein quality control hypothesis as one possible explanation for the overdominance in hybrids bred for yield. Future studies will be directed toward the identification of the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying the biology of hybrid vigor. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Feng R.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | Feng R.,Open Key Laboratory of Agro environment and Food Safety of Ministry of Agriculture | Wei C.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Tu S.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

Selenium (Se), an essential element for animals and humans, has also been found to be beneficial to plants. In some countries around the world, such as China and Egypt, Se deficiency in the diet is a common problem. To counteract this problem, Se compounds have been used to increase the Se content in the edible parts of crops, through foliar sprays or base application of fertilizers. Se has also been shown to counteract various abiotic stresses induced in plants by cold, drought, high light, water, salinity and heavy metals (metalloids) (HMs), but the associated mechanisms are rather complicated and still remain to be fully elucidated. In this paper, we have focused on reviewing the effects of Se on HM-induced stress in plants, with an emphasis on the potential roles of Se compounds (e.g., selenite and selenate) in conferring tolerance against abiotic stresses. Numerous studies have implicated Se in the following mechanisms: the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, the inhibition of uptake and translocation of HM, changes in the speciation of HM and finally, rebuilding of the cell membrane and chloroplast structures and recovery of the photosynthetic system. In addition, two other mechanisms may be involved along with the established ones described above. Firstly, it may affect by regulating the uptake and redistribution of elements essential in the antioxidative systems or in maintaining the ion balance and structural integrity of the cell. Secondly, it may interfere with electron transport by affecting the assembly of the photosynthesis complexes. Future relevant studies should be increasingly focused on the changes in the cellular distribution of HM, the formation of Se-HM complexes, the substitution of S by the incorporation of Se into Se-Fe clusters and the relationships between Se, Fe, S and lipid peroxidation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Xiang Q.,Wuhan University of Technology | Xiang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yu J.,Wuhan University of Technology
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2013

Graphene-based photocatalysts have gained increasing interest as a viable alternate to increase photocatalytic H2 production performance in converting solar energy into chemical energy. The use of graphene to enhance the efficiency of photocatalysts has been proved due to its unique two-dimensional conjugated structure and electronic properties. In this Perspective, we have summarized the recent significant advances on the design and applications of graphene-based photocatalytic composites. The rational designs for high-performance photocatalysts using graphene-based materials are described. The applications of the new materials in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution are presented. Finally, the ongoing challenges and opportunities for the future development of graphene-based photocatalysts are also proposed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Wu P.,Zhejiang University | Shou H.,Zhejiang University | Xu G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lian X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Rice is one of the most important cereal crops feeding a large segment of the world's population. Inefficient utilization of phosphate (Pi) fertilizer by the plant in rice production increases cost and pollution. Developing cultivars with improved Pi use efficiency is essential for the sustainability of agriculture. Pi uptake, translocation and remobilization are regulated by complex molecular mechanisms through the functions of Pi transporters (PTs) and other downstream Pi Starvation Induced (PSI) genes. Expressions of these PSI genes are regulated by the Pi Starvation Response Regulator (OsPHR2)-mediated transcriptional control and/or PHO2-mediated ubiquitination. SPX-domain containing proteins and the type I H+-PPase AVP1 involved in the maintenance and utilization of the internal phosphate. The potential application of posttranscriptional regulation of PT1 through OsPHF1 for Pi efficiency is proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Gu Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
BMC genomics | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) has been identified as the causative agent of spring viraemia of carp (SVC) and it has caused significant losses in the cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio) industry. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of the disease remain poorly understood. In this study, deep RNA sequencing was used to analyse the transcriptome and gene expression profile of EPC cells at progressive times after SVCV infection. This study addressed the complexity of virus-cell interactions and added knowledge that may help to understand SVCV.RESULTS: A total of 33,849,764 clean data from 36,000,000 sequence reads, with a mean read length 100 bp, were obtained. These raw data were assembled into 88,772 contigs. Of these contigs, 19,642 and 25,966 had significant hits to the NR and Uniprot databases where they matched 17,642 and 13,351 unique protein accessions, respectively. At 24 h post SVCV infection (1.0 MOI), a total of 623 genes were differentially expressed in EPC cells compared to non-infected cells, including 288 up-regulated genes and 335 down-regulated genes. These regulated genes were primarily involved in pathways of apoptosis, oxidative stress and the interferon system, all of which may be involved in viral pathogenesis. In addition, 8 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were validated by quantitative PCR.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate previously unrecognised changes in gene transcription that are associated with SVCV infection in vitro, and many potential cascades identified in the study clearly warrant further experimental investigation. Our data provide new clues to the mechanism of viral susceptibility in EPC cells.

Rahman S.M.E.,Kangwon National University | Jin Y.-G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Oh D.-H.,Kangwon National University
Food Microbiology | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to determine the synergistic effect of alkaline electrolyzed water and citric acid with mild heat against background and pathogenic microorganisms on carrots. Shredded carrots were inoculated with approximately 6-7 log CFU/g of . Escherichia coli O157:H7 (932, and 933) and . Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19116, and 19111) and then dip treated with alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW), acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW), 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), deionized water (DaIW), or 1% citric acid (CA) alone or with combinations of AlEW and 1% CA (AlEW + CA). The populations of spoilage bacteria on the carrots were investigated after various exposure times (1, 3, and 5 min) and treatment at different dipping temperatures (1, 20, 40, and 50 °C) and then optimal condition (3 min at 50 °C) was applied against foodborne pathogens on the carrots. When compared to the untreated control, treatment AcEW most effectively reduced the numbers of total bacteria, yeast and fungi, followed by AlEW and 100 ppm NaOCl. Exposure to all treatments for 3 min significantly reduced the numbers of total bacteria, yeast and fungi on the carrots. As the dipping temperature increased from 1 °C to 50 °C, the reductions of total bacteria, yeast and fungi increased significantly from 0.22 to 2.67 log CFU/g during the wash treatment (. p ≤ 0.05). The combined 1% citric acid and AlEW treatment at 50 °C showed a reduction of the total bacterial count and the yeast and fungi of around 3.7 log CFU/g, as well as effective reduction of . L. monocytogenes (3.97 log CFU/g), and . E. Coli O157:H7 (4 log CFU/g). Combinations of alkaline electrolyzed water and citric acid better maintained the sensory and microbial quality of the fresh-cut carrots and enhanced the overall shelf-life of the produce. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

BACKGROUND: Citrus shoot tips abscise at an anatomically distinct abscission zone (AZ) that separates the top part of the shoots into basal and apical portions (citrus self-pruning). Cell separation occurs only at the AZ, which suggests its cells have distinctive molecular regulation. Although several studies have looked into the morphological aspects of self-pruning process, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown.RESULTS: In this study, the hallmarks of programmed cell death (PCD) were identified by TUNEL experiments, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemical staining for reactive oxygen species (ROS) during self-pruning of the spring shoots in sweet orange. Our results indicated that PCD occurred systematically and progressively and may play an important role in the control of self-pruning of citrus. Microarray analysis was used to examine transcriptome changes at three stages of self-pruning, and 1,378 differentially expressed genes were identified. Some genes were related to PCD, while others were associated with cell wall biosynthesis or metabolism. These results strongly suggest that abscission layers activate both catabolic and anabolic wall modification pathways during the self-pruning process. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between self-pruning and the expression of hormone-related genes. Self-pruning plays an important role in citrus floral bud initiation. Therefore, several key flowering homologs of Arabidopsis and tomato shoot apical meristem (SAM) activity genes were investigated in sweet orange by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization, and the results indicated that these genes were preferentially expressed in SAM as well as axillary meristem.CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, a model for sweet orange spring shoot self-pruning is proposed, which will enable us to better understand the mechanism of self-pruning and abscission.

Premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) proteins, the major structural proteins of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) each contain single potential N-glycosylation site. In this study, the role of N-glycosylation of these proteins on their folding and activity were investigated. Three mutant prM and/or E (prM-E) genes lacking N-glycosylation sites were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. The effects of the N-glycan on folding, secretion and cytotoxicity of mutant proteins were determined by comparison with their wild type (wt) counterparts. Removal of N-glycan from the prM protein resulted in a complete misfolding of the E protein and failure to form virus-like particles (VLPs). A similar removal of N-glycan from the E protein led to a low efficiency of its folding and VLPs formation. The secretion and cytotoxicity of the E protein was also markedly impaired in case the glycosylation sites in the prM or E or both proteins were removed. These results suggest that the N-glycosylation of the prM protein is critical to the folding of the E protein, which makes it pivotal in the cytotoxicity of JEV particles and their production.

Zhang W.,Fudan University | Liu T.,Fudan University | Ren G.,Fudan University | Hrtensteiner S.,University of Zurich | And 3 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

Phytyl diphosphate (PDP) is the prenyl precursor for tocopherol biosynthesis. Based on recent genetic evidence, PDP is supplied to the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway primarily by chlorophyll degradation and sequential phytol phosphorylation. Three enzymes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are known to be capable of removing the phytol chain from chlorophyll in vitro: chlorophyllase1 (CLH1), CLH2, and pheophytin pheophorbide hydrolase (PPH), which specifically hydrolyzes pheophytin. While PPH, but not chlorophyllases, is required for in vivo chlorophyll breakdown during Arabidopsis leaf senescence, little is known about the involvement of these phytol-releasing enzymes in tocopherol biosynthesis. To explore the origin of PDP for tocopherol synthesis, seed tocopherol concentrations were determined in Arabidopsis lines engineered for seed-specific overexpression of PPH and in single and multiple mutants in the three genes encoding known dephytylating enzymes. Except for modestly increasing tocopherol content observed in the PPH overexpressor, none of the remaining lines exhibited significantly reduced tocopherol concentrations, suggesting that the known chlorophyll-derived phytol-releasing enzymes do not play major roles in tocopherol biosynthesis. Tocopherol content of seeds from double mutants in NONYELLOWING1 (NYE1) and NYE2, regulators of chlorophyll degradation, had modest reduction compared with wild-type seeds, although mature seeds of the double mutant retained significantly higher chlorophyll levels. These findings suggest that NYEs may play limited roles in regulating an unknown tocopherol biosynthesis-related phytol hydrolase. Meanwhile, seeds of wild-type overexpressing NYE1 had lower tocopherol levels, suggesting that phytol derived from NYE1-dependent chlorophyll degradation probably doesn’t enter tocopherol biosynthesis. Potential routes of chlorophyll degradation are discussed in relation to tocopherol biosynthesis. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

He D.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Han C.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Han C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yao J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Proteomics | Year: 2011

Construction of metabolic and regulatory pathways from proteomic data can contextualize the large-scale data within the overall physiological scheme of an organism. It is an efficient way to predict metabolic phenotype or regulatory style. We did protein profiling in the germinating rice seeds through 1-DE via LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy. In total, 673 proteins were identified, and could be sorted into 14 functional groups. The largest group was metabolism related. The metabolic proteins were integrated into different metabolic pathways to show the style of reserves mobilization and precursor preparation during the germination. Analysis of the regulatory proteins indicated that regulation of redox homeostasis and gene expression also play important roles for the rice seed germination. Although transcription is unnecessary for the germination, it could ensure the rapidity and uniformity of germination. On the contrary, translation with the stored mRNA is required for the germination. This study will help us to further understand the metabolic style, regulation of redox homeostasis, and gene expression during rice seed germination. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Gao X.-J.,Jilin University | Guo M.-Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang Z.-C.,Jilin University | Wang T.-C.,Jilin University | And 2 more authors.
Inflammation | Year: 2015

Mastitis is a major disease in humans and other animals and is characterized by mammary gland inflammation. It is a major disease of the dairy industry. Bergenin is an active constituent of the plants of genus Bergenia. Research indicates that bergenin has multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects and mechanism of bergenin on the mammary glands during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis. In this study, mice were treated with LPS to induce mammary gland mastitis as a model for the disease. Bergenin treatment was initiated after LPS stimulation for 24 h. The results indicated that bergenin attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased the concentration of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, which were increased in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, bergenin downregulated the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway proteins in mammary glands with mastitis. In conclusion, bergenin reduced the expression of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways, and it may represent a novel treatment strategy for mastitis. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Nibert M.L.,Harvard University | Ghabrial S.A.,University of Kentucky | Maiss E.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Lesker T.,Leibniz University of Hanover | And 3 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2014

Phylogenetic analyses have prompted a taxonomic reorganization of family Partitiviridae (encapsidated, bisegmented dsRNA viruses that infect plants, fungi, or protozoa), the focus of this review. After a brief introduction to partitiviruses, the taxonomic changes are discussed, including replacement of former genera Partitivirus, Alphacryptovirus, and Betacryptovirus, with new genera Alphapartitivirus, Betapartitivirus, Gammapartitivirus, and Deltapartitivirus, as well as redistribution of species among these new genera. To round out the review, other recent progress of note in partitivirus research is summarized, including discoveries of novel partitivirus sequences by metagenomic approaches and mining of sequence databases, determinations of fungal partitivirus particle structures, demonstrations of fungal partitivirus transmission to new fungal host species, evidence for other aspects of partitivirus-host interactions and host effects, and identification of other fungal or plant viruses with some similarities to partitiviruses. Some outstanding questions are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang D.J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban | Year: 2011

By using river sand and mixed soil as growth media, and treating with different concentration IBA, ETH, and NAA, this paper studied the root-hair development of Poncirus trifoliate seedlings, and the development cycle and distribution pattern of the root-hairs under phosphorus deficiency in sand culture. The root-hairs had a development cycle of about 4 days, and formed block-shaped and clumped, mainly around root, and with uneven distribution. Sand culture gave rise to the production of more root hairs, with an average of 486.3 per tap root, and treating with 1.0 micromol x L(-1) of IBA and ETH notablypromoted root-hair development. The phosphorous deficiency in sand culture induced more roothair formation (636.3 per tap root). Mixed soil culture produced lesser root-hairs (212.3 per taproot), and all the test growth regulators had no obvious effects on the root-hair development.

Hassan W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | David J.,Free University of Berlin
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2013

Purpose: Lead (Pb) pollution is appearing as an alarming threat nowadays in both developed and developing countries. Excessive Pb concentrations in agricultural soils result in minimizing the microbiological activities which leads to the decrease in crop production. A pot experiment was conducted with the purpose to examine the deleterious effect of Pb on microbiological index under spinach cultivation. Materials and methods: Pb was added to 5 kg soil in each pot (with 6 seeds/pot) using Pb(NO3)2 at the rate of 0, 150, 300, 450, and 600 mg kg-1 with three replications in completely randomized design. All soil microbial, enzymatic, and chemical properties and plant growth parameters and nutrient uptake were measured by standard methods. Results and discussion: Both soil and plant measured parameters decreased after the addition of Pb (150, 300, 450, and 600 mg Pb kg-1 soil) treatments with the passage of time (from 15 to 60 days) compared with control (CK). However, high Pb levels had more suppressive effect, therefore, highest Pb level (600 mg Pb kg-1 soil) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the microbial biomass carbon (5.59-fold); microbial biomass nitrogen (N; 11.71-fold); microbial biomass phosphorus (P; 25.1-fold); dehydrogenase (4.02-fold); phosphatase (9.40-fold); urease (9.26-fold); pH (1.40-fold); spinach shoot (2.17-fold) and root (2.54-fold) length; shoot (2.36-fold) and root (2.69-fold) fresh weight; shoot (3.90-fold) and root (3.50-fold) dry weight; chlorophyll content (5.60-fold); carotenoid content (4.29-fold); plant macronutrients uptake, i.e., N (4.38- and 2.97-fold), P (3.88- and 6.58-fold), K (3.88- and 4.6-fold), Ca (6.60- and 6.70-fold), and Mg (5.57- and 4.45-fold); and plant micronutrient uptake, i.e., Zn (2.39- and 3.05-fold), Cu (3.70- and 2.62-fold), Fe (4.13- and 3.23-fold), and Mn (4.17- and 4.09-fold) in spinach shoot and root, respectively. Conversely, highest Pb level, i.e., 600 mg Pb kg-1 soil significantly (P < 0.05) increased the biomass carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) (4.69-fold) and C/P (6.01-fold) ratios, soil extractable Pb (5.87-fold), and Pb uptake in spinach shoot (3.58-fold) and root (4.38-fold), respectively, at the end of the experiment, i.e., day 60. Conclusions: Pb contamination significantly decreased the soil microbial and enzymatic activities, pH, spinach plant growth, and nutrients uptake in all the samples spiked with Pb. The degree of the influence increased with the increased Pb concentrations and incubation time, showing that Pb threshold is strongly associated with the extent of Pb concentration and time to accumulate. The soil microbial biomass, enzymatic activities, pH, and spinach physiological indices, could be used as a sensitive indicators to reflect environmental stress in soil ecosystems. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zhai R.,Huazhong Agricultural University
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2015

This paper proposes a new approach on digital building detection through the integration of LiDAR data and aerial imagery. It is known that most building rooftops are represented by different regions from different seed pixels. Considering the principals of image segmentation, this paper employs a new region based technique to segment images, combining both the advantages of LiDAR and aerial images together. First, multiple seed points are selected by taking several constraints into consideration in an automated way. Then, the region growing procedures proceed by combining the elevation attribute from LiDAR data, visibility attribute from DEM (Digital Elevation Model), and radiometric attribute from warped images in the segmentation. Through this combination, the pixels with similar height, visibility, and spectral attributes are merged into one region, which are believed to represent the whole building area. The proposed methodology was implemented on real data and competitive results were achieved.

Hu H.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2011

To construct the recombinant Pichia pastoris KM71 in which Porcine beta-defensin-2(pBD-2) mature peptide could be stably expressed and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated. According to the requirement of yeast codon bias for protein expression, three pairs of primers were designed for development of SOE-PCR to amplify the genes coding pBD-2 mature peptide. The resultant genes were cloned into pPIC9k and pPIC9k-Gultathione S Transferase (GST) vectors to yield the recombinant expressing vector, pPIC9K-pBD-2 and pPIC9k-GST-pBD-2. The two recombinant plasmids were linearized, followed by transformation with Pichia pastoris KM71 cells to produce the positive clones of recombinant yeasts. The expression conditions were continuously optimized to produce mature peptide of pBD-2. Gene fragments for GST-fusion PBD-2 and pBD-2 alone were amplified and integrated into genomic chromosome of the yeast KM71, respectively, and the recombinant yeasts were obtained; GST-fusion pBD-2 peptide and singular pBD-2 peptide were successfully expressed. The mature peptide of pBD-2 showed a certain inhibition effect on the growth of the Salmonella choleraesuis C500- strain. The pBD-2 was expressed successfully and casted a light for massive production of the pig defensin, a new antimicrobial agent.

Xu J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2012

The increased nitrogen loading from anthropogenic sources has affected aquatic ecosystems and has cascaded through food webs worldwide. Therefore, the evaluation of ecological impacts of anthropogenic nitrogen has become increasingly important. In this paper, we investigated the effect of nutrient enrichment in the planktonic and benthic food webs of a hypereutrophic urban lake using stable nitrogen isotope analysis. The stable isotope mixing model revealed that zooplanktons rely mainly on planktonic nitrogen, and that Chironomus and Oligochaete rely mainly on benthic nitrogen. The stable nitrogen isotope signatures of seston and the sediment organic matter can be a sensitive indicator, because they are correlated with the nitrogen content of water and sediment. Furthermore, the relationships between the stable nitrogen isotope values of primary production and primary consumers indicate that polluted nitrogen has transferred through the planktonic and benthic food webs, respectively. For primary consumers, the stable nitrogen isotope values of zooplanktons were correlated to nitrogen concentrations of water, and the stable nitrogen values of Chironomus and Oligochaete were correlated to the nitrogen content of sediment, respectively. This finding indicates that these primary consumers can be used as promising bioindicators of the anthropogenic nitrogen input in planktonic and benthic food webs, respectively. Our results suggest that stable nitrogen isotope of primary consumers can act as bioindicators to detect the dispersal patterns of anthropogenic contamination and understand the incorporation into and movement of waste nitrogen in pelagic and benthic food chains. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Pan D.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Two heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria, P2 and P9 isolated from piggery wastewater, were studied for their capacity of nitrification and nitrogen removal. Physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences of strains P2 and P9 were analyzed. The ammonia removal characteristics of strains P2 and P9 were investigated. Furthermore, nitrogen removal ability of strains P2 and P9 individually or mixed were evaluated in the treatment of actual piggery wastewater. Strains P2 and P9 were identified as Paracoccus sp. and Shinella sp., respectively. Heterotrophic nitrification could occur by the strains when they utilized organics. After cultivation of 24 h, the ammonia removal rates by the strains were up to 80% approximately; meanwhile, there was almost no nitrite and nitrate accumulation. However, aerobic denitrification could not occur by the strains when NO3- or NO2- was provided as the sole nitrogen source, respectively. For heterotrophic nitrification, with strains P2 and P9, the optimal carbon source was sodium succinate, and the optimal C/N ratio was 9. Besides, the pH values rose from 6.8 to 8.9 in the whole ammonia removal process. The growth and nitrogen removal ability of the two strains depended much on the quantity of small molecule carbon source, and the nitrogen removal capability of strains P2 or P9 in wastewater with small molecule carbon source was improved evidently. The effect was strengthened especially when the two strains were mixed together. Nitrogen removal ability of strains P2 and P9 was relatively strong, and they may exhibit broad application prospects in wastewater treatment.

Ye Y.-Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Proceedings - 2013 International Conference on Computational and Information Sciences, ICCIS 2013 | Year: 2013

Topology control technology has important effect on the performance of wireless sensor network. Based on local minimum spanning tree algorithm, this paper proposes topology control algorithm based on energy equilibrium. The algorithm synthetically consider the communication energy consumption between nodes and the node's residual energy, which can not only make the local total energy consumption close to minimize, and can also make node's energy balance. The simulation results show that our algorithm can ensure lower end-to-end delay, higher throughput and delivery rate and so on, and effectively prolong the network life time. © 2013 IEEE.

Ma H.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban | Year: 2010

Based on the 2007 Landsat TM images and the dominant environmental factors of shelter forest, the forest sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area were classified, and by using multiple objective grey situation decision model, three indices including water conservation amount, biomass, and stand productivity were selected to make the spatial optimum allocation of the present four kinds of shelter forest (coniferous forest, broadleaf forest, mixed coniferous-broadleaf forest, and shrub) in the Area. The forest sites in the Area in 2007 could be classified into 40 types, and after the optimization of spatial allocation, the proportion of coniferous forest, broadleaf forest, mixed coniferous-broadleaf forest, and shrub would be 32.55%, 29.43%, 34.95%, and 3.07%, respectively. Comparing with that before optimization, the proportion of coniferous forest and shrub after optimization was reduced by 8.79% and 28.55%, while that of broadleaf forest and mixed coniferous-broadleaf forest was increased by 10.23% and 27.11%, respectively. After the optimization of spatial allocation, the amount of water conservation, biomass, and stand productivity of the shelter forests in the area would be increased by 14.09 x 10(8) m3, 0.35 x 10(8) t, and 1.08 x 10(6) t, respectively.

Chen H.X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2011

A dwarf mutant C6PS, which has the similar phenotype as the recessive mutant Dwarf1 (d1), was produced from tissue-cultured plants of Zhonghua 11. In its progeny (T2), the ratio of tall to dwarf plants was in agreement with the expected segregation ratio (3:1) of a single Mendelian inheritance gene, which indicated that the variation of plant height is caused by a single gene. To locate the mutation, C6PS was crossed with Zhenshan 97 and Mudanjiang 8 for producing two F2 populations of F2 (CM) and F2 (CZ), respectively. The plant height in each F2 population also showed the same segregation pattern as that in T2 generation. SSR marker RM430 closely linked to Dwarf1 was preferentially used to genotype the F2 (CZ) population because C6PS showed the similar phenotype to d1 mutant. RM430 was significantly associated with plant height, which indicated that the mutant gene might be D1. Comparative sequencing of D1 between C6PS and Zhonghua 11 showed a 6 bp deletion occurred in the splice site of its ninth exon. The marker C6PS-D1L/R designed on the 6 bp deletion was co-segregated with plant height in T2 generation. The results indicated that C6PS was a new mutant of D1. This mutation led to a 26 bp deletion of the transcript and resulted in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon in C6PS, which could not translate the functional Gα protein. C6PS was weakly sensitive to Brassinolide based on the leaf inclination angle test.

Tao Y.-X.,Auburn University | Yuan Z.-H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xie J.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science | Year: 2013

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are versatile regulators of physiological processes. They are also important drug targets. Many of the molecules controlling energy homeostasis act through GPCRs. This article summarizes the regulators of energy homeostasis in the central nervous system: those secreted by the gastrointestinal peptides and those secreted by the endocrine pancreas. Some examples of orphan GPCRs are also given. The regulation of energy homeostasis is conserved in other mammals, including those species relevant in veterinary medicine, and fish. Finally, the genetics of human obesity is briefly summarized. Genetic susceptibility in the current obesogenic environment is likely causing the obesity pandemic. A better understanding of the regulation of energy homeostasis will lead to novel pharmacotherapy for obesity treatment. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Baumann H.,Chalmers University of Technology | Arvidsson R.,Chalmers University of Technology | Tong H.,Chalmers University of Technology | Wang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2013

Social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) has been discussed for some years in the LCA community. We raise two points of criticism against current S-LCA approaches. First, the development of S-LCA methodology has not, to date, been based on experience with actual case studies. Second, for social impacts to be meaningfully assessed in a life cycle perspective, social indicators need to be unambiguously interpreted in all social contexts along the life cycle. We here discuss an empirically based approach to S-LCA, illustrated by a case study of an automobile airbag system. The aim of the case study is to compare the injuries and lives lost during the product life cycle of the airbag system (excluding waste handling impacts) with the injuries prevented and lives saved during its use. The indicator used for assessing social impacts in this study is disability-adjusted life years (DALY). The results from this study indicate that the purpose of an airbag system, which is to save lives and prevent injuries, is justified also in a life cycle perspective. © 2013 by Yale University.

You L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Johnson M.,International Food Policy Research Institute
Agricultural Economics | Year: 2010

The 11 countries of East and Central Africa have diverse but overlapping agroclimatic conditions, and could potentially benefit from spillovers of agricultural technology across country borders. This article uses high-resolution spatial data on actual and potential yields for 15 major products across 12 development domains to estimate the total benefits available from the spread of new agricultural technologies around the region. Market responses and welfare gains are estimated using the Dynamic Research Evaluation for Management model, taking account of current and future projections of local and international demand. Results suggest which crops, countries, and agroclimatic regions offer the largest total benefits. Downloadable data and program files permit different assumptions and additional information to be considered in the ongoing process of strategic priority setting. © 2010 International Association of Agricultural Economists.

Wang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jin G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ahn D.U.,Iowa State University | Zhang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Ninety green turkey hams were equally divided into 3 groups and cured with 3 g/100 g, 4 g/100 g or 5 g/100 g salt. Cured hams were then dry-ripened by following the same procedure as dry-cured pig ham with some modifications. The effect of curing salt on lipids' oxidation and volatile compounds formation by dry-cured turkey hams was studied. The TBARS values and the total content of volatile compounds in ripened turkey hams decreased significantly as salt concentration increased (p < 0.05). The amount of curing salt was positively correlated with total aldehydes content (r = 0.982), but negatively correlated with alcohols, ketones and alkanes contents (r = -0.975, -0.649 and -0.807, respectively). Principal component analysis results showed that the first principal component (PC1) was dominated by aldehydes, alkanes and some alcohols, and explained 69% of total variance. These results indicated that reduced curing salt level result in increased formation of flavour-active volatiles in dry-cured turkey hams. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Wei K.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wei K.,Victoria University of Wellington | Wood A.R.,Victoria University of Wellington | Gardner J.P.A.,Victoria University of Wellington
Marine Biology | Year: 2013

A pronounced north-south multitaxon genetic discontinuity occurs in central New Zealand (NZ). Polymorphic microsatellite markers have been used to test the location and structure of this discontinuity in the endemic greenshell mussel, Perna canaliculus. Nine neutral loci revealed limited evidence of genetic structure, but one outlier locus (Pcan1-27) which may be under selection provided evidence of the discontinuity in central NZ. Whilst the limited multilocus evidence of structure is assumed to result from high levels of gene flow among populations of this continuously distributed species, assignment tests indicated high to very high mean levels of self-recruitment within the 14 populations and the north and south regions. The nine neutral loci were unable to provide further clarification as to the geographic location of the discontinuity, whereas the Pcan1-27 locus was particularly informative. These results highlight a tension between limited evidence of genetic structure and presumptive high gene flow among populations versus high levels of self-recruitment and pronounced structure depending on microsatellite loci and analyses in question. Evidence from all 10 loci indicates that the genetic discontinuity is maintained by high levels of self-recruitment, and evidence from Pcan1-27 suggests that selection may also be important in explaining the existence of the discontinuity. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Wei K.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wei K.,Victoria University of Wellington | Wood A.R.,Victoria University of Wellington | Gardner J.P.A.,Victoria University of Wellington
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2013

Polymorphic microsatellite markers were employed to assay genetic variation in 14 populations of the endemic New Zealand greenshell mussel Perna canaliculus, which is continuously distributed across ~11.5° of latitude. Previous population genetics assessments of this species have identified a pronounced and ~1.3 million year old genetic discontinuity at ~42°S, just south of Cook Strait, the major break between the North and South islands. In addition to this genetic structuring, the present seascape genetics analysis of 7 environmental and 3 geospatial variables revealed that sea surface temperature (SST) explains far more genetic variation (among populations and individuals) than any other variable. Genetic variation across the full distributional range of P. canaliculus is, therefore, best explained by SST, which suggests that a contemporary temperature-related selective force is acting on greenshell mussels from the subtropical north to the cold temperate south. The identification of this association between environmental and genetic variation highlights how previously unrecognised patterns of genetic structure may be revealed by the examination of environmental variation and provides important leads for new research directions. Copyright © Inter-Research 2013.

Zhang H.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhang H.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology | Guan D.,Sun Yat Sen University | Guan D.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology | Song M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Forest plantations represent an important carbon sink. In the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in Southern China, fast-growing Eucalyptus and Acacia are favoured plantation species, but little is known regarding their efficiency with respect to biomass production, partitioning and dynamics with stand age, or the contribution made by the understory, litter and coarse woody debris (CWD) to the volume of biomass and fixed carbon. Here, a set of 21 plantations of various ages were monitored for the pattern of biomass accumulation and partitioning. A continuous biomass expansion factor (BEF) method was applied to a set of forest inventory data (FID) over the periods 1989-2003 to estimate biomass accumulation, carbon storage and its pattern of change over time. The accumulation of biomass increased with stand age, reaching, respectively, 207.45 and 189.35tha -1 in mature Eucalyptus and Acacia plantations. The contribution of secondary biomass from the understory, litter layer and CWD accounted for, respectively, up to 10.2% and 20.3% of the total biomass in the two types of plantation, highlighting the significance of secondary biomass. At a similar growth stage, the ranking of the contribution to secondary biomass in the Eucalyptus plantations was litter>herbaceous plants>shrubs>CWD, while in the Acacia plantations, it was litter>CWD>shrubs>herbaceous plants. The Eucalyptus and Acacia plantations in the PRD accumulated some 2.66-7.84Mt of biomass and sequestered 1.33-3.92Mt of carbon. For both species, the bulk of the plantations (Eucalyptus 82.1%, Acacia 89.3%) were at the young to middle-aged stage. The Acacia plantations generated a higher biomass density than the Eucalyptus plantations. Forest management intensification and reforestation programmes, especially targeting Acacia or mixed Eucalyptus/Acacia forests, offer good potential for future carbon sequestration. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

He Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | He Y.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Cox R.J.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Cox R.J.,University of Bristol
Chemical Science | Year: 2016

The individual steps of citrinin 1 biosynthesis in Monascus ruber M7 were determined by a combination of targeted gene knockout and heterologous gene expression in Aspergillus oryzae. The pathway involves the synthesis of an unreduced trimethylated pentaketide 10 by a non-reducing polyketide synthase (nrPKS) known as CitS. Reductive release yields the keto-aldehyde 2 as the first enzyme-free intermediate. The nrPKS appears to be assisted by an as-yet cryptic hydrolysis step catalysed by CitA which was previously wrongly annotated as an oxidase. CitB is a non-heme iron oxidase which oxidises the 12-methyl of 2 to an alcohol. Subsequent steps are catalysed by CitC which oxidises the 12-alcohol to an aldehyde and CitD which converts the 12-aldehyde to a carboxylic acid. Final reduction of C-3 by CitE yields citrinin. The pathway rules out alternatives involving intramolecular rearrangements, and fully defines the molecular steps for the first time and corrects previous errors in the literature. The activity of CitB links the pathway to fungal tropolone biosynthesis and the observation of aminated shunt products links the pathway to azaphilone biosynthesis. Production of citrinin by coordinated production of CitS + CitA-CitE in the heterologous host A. oryzae, in which each gene was driven by a constitutive promoter, was achieved in high yield. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

Wang H.,South China Normal University | Hu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2015

Background: Nuclear receptors (NRs) form a large family of ligand-inducible transcription factors that regulate gene expressions involved in numerous physiological phenomena, such as embryogenesis, homeostasis, cell growth and death. These nuclear receptors-related pathways are important targets of marketed drugs. Therefore, the design of a reliable computational model for predicting NRs from amino acid sequence has now been a significant biomedical problem. Results: Conjoint triad feature (CTF) mainly considers neighbor relationships in protein sequences by encoding each protein sequence using the triad (continuous three amino acids) frequency distribution extracted from a 7-letter reduced alphabet. In addition, chaos game representation (CGR) can investigate the patterns hidden in protein sequences and visually reveal previously unknown structure. In this paper, three methods, CTF, CGR, amino acid composition (AAC), are applied to formulate the protein samples. By considering different combinations of three methods, we study seven groups of features, and each group is evaluated by the 10-fold cross-validation test. Meanwhile, a new non-redundant dataset containing 474 NR sequences and 500 non-NR sequences is built based on the latest NucleaRDB database. Comparing the results of numerical experiments, the group of combined features with CTF and AAC gets the best result with the accuracy of 96.30% for identifying NRs from non-NRs. Moreover, if it is classified as a NR, it will be further put into the second level, which will classify a NR into one of the eight main subfamilies. At the second level, the group of combined features with CTF and AAC also gets the best accuracy of 94.73%. Subsequently, the proposed predictor is compared with two existing methods, and the comparisons show that the accuracies of two levels significantly increase to 98.79% (NR-2L: 92.56%; iNR-PhysChem: 98.18%; the first level) and 93.71% (NR-2L: 88.68%; iNR-PhysChem: 92.45%; the second level) with the introduction of our CTF-based method. Finally, each component of CTF features is analyzed via the statistical significant test, and a simplified model only with the resulting top-50 significant features achieves accuracy of 95.28%. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrate that our CTF-based method is an effective way for predicting nuclear receptor proteins. Furthermore, the top-50 significant features obtained from the statistical significant test are considered as the "intrinsic features" in predicting NRs based on the analysis of relative importance. © 2015 Wang and Hu.

Hong Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang X.,University of Missouri-St. Louis | Wang X.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2010

The activity of phospholipase D (PLD) in plants increases under different hyperosmotic stresses, such as dehydration, drought, and salinity. Recent results begin to shed light onto the involvement of PLD in response to water deficits and salinity. Different PLDs have unique and overlapping functions in these responses. PLD. α1 promotes stomatal closure and reduces water loss. PLD. α1 and PLD. δ are involved in seedling tolerance to salt stress. PLD. α3 and PLD. ε enhance plant growth and hyperosmotic tolerance. The different PLDs regulate the production of phosphatidic acid (PA) that is a key class of lipid mediators in plant response to environmental stresses. Further studies on the upstream regulators that activate different PLDs and the downstream effectors of PLDs and PA have the potential to unveil the linkage between the stimulus perception at the cell membrane to intracellular responses to drought and salinity stresses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Zhu Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

Research the application of nano materials in tennis rackets. This paper reviews the material development for tennis rackets and analyzes the differences of performance and price of various materials. It then summarizes the current application of nano material in tennis rackets and its pros and cons, and finally proposes reasonable usages of nano material, providing reference for the scientific development of nano tennis rackets. We can draw the conclusion that the application of nano materials in tennis has improves the performance of tennis rackets and promotes the scientific, personalized and humanized development of tennis, but the trend is to develop safer and more desirable nano tennis rackets with appropriate nano materials. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

Ji W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Jia H.,Jilin University | Tong J.,Jilin University
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2012

In order to examine the power consumption and working quality, the bionic blades for soil-rototilling and stubble-breaking (bionic blade for short), national standard rototilling blades and common stubble-breaking blades were mounted respectively on rototilling-stubble-breaking machine to perform soil-rototilling and stubble-breaking tests. The power consumption of the three kinds of blades were tested by electric measurement method respectively, and the working qualities were tested in accordance with national standards. Because of the difference of blades' soil-cutting range, the power consumption of unit area of soil-cutting was taken as test index. The results showed that the power consumption of unit area of soil-cutting of bionic blade was less than that of national standard rototilling blade, and the working quality of bionic blade was better than that of the national standard rototilling blade. The power consumption of unit area of soil-cutting of biomimetic blade were less than that of common stubble-breaking blade, and the working quality of stubble-breaking of biomimetic blade was little worse than that of the common stubble-breaking blade, but it met the requirement of national standard of China. The research provided a reference to achieve soil-rototilling and stubble-breaking by using one kind of blade.

Dong A.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Xie J.,Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural science | Wang W.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Yu L.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

A novel method was proposed to prepare amino starch by reacting ethylenediamine with previously synthesized dialdehyde starch. Different factors affecting the preparation, i.e., ethylenediamine concentration, ethylenediamine:dialdehyde starch molar ratio, pH, duration and temperature have been studied. The modified starch was characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The amino starch derivatives were evaluated as adsorbents. The adsorption activity for heavy metals such as Cu(II) and Cr(VI) by crosslinked amino starch was studied in terms of adsorption amount, kinetics and isotherm; and adsorbent reuse were also studied. Adsorption processes for Cu(II) and Cr(VI) on crosslinked amino starch fit a Langmuir isotherm, and adsorption for Cu(II) and Cr(VI) from aqueous solution was endothermic reactions. Crosslinked amino starch was very effective for the adsorption of Cu(II) and Cr(VI), and efficient in capacity, recycled. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Wei W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wei W.,Central China Normal University | Zheng X.-P.,Central China Normal University
Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2012

The recent observation of the pulsar PSR J1614-2230 with a mass of 1.97±0.04 Mȯ gives a strong constraint on the equation of state (EoS) of the dense matter in compact stars. In this work, we calculate the maximum mass of quark stars with the density-dependent quark mass model, and explore the parameter ranges for this model fully, by considering the constraints of absolute stability of strange quark matter and the mass of PSR J1614-2230. Without the color-superconductivity, the maximum mass of unpaired quark stars is more sensitive to the parameter C, and complies with the constraints within the range of 96MeVfm -3≲C≲130MeVfm -3. The largest mass can reach 2.25 Mȯ at C≃96.54MeVfm -3 and ms0≃145MeV. For the quark stars composed of the quark matter in color-flavor locked (CFL) phase, we can obtain quite large maximum masses at a sufficiently high gap value, but the value of ms0 is very important in deciding the maximum mass of the CFL quark stars. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hu D.,CAS Shenzhen Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering | Sheng Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Gong P.,CAS Shenzhen Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering | Zhang P.,CAS Shenzhen Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering | Cai L.,CAS Shenzhen Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering
Analyst | Year: 2010

In this paper, we report a new homogeneous assay for rapid, highly selective and sensitive detection of Hg2+ in aqueous solution based on the induced photoluminescence (PL) quenching of BSA-modified gold nanoclusters (BSA-Au NCs). There was a linear correlation between the expression (I0 - I)/I0 and the concentrations of Hg2+ over the ranges of 0.4-43.2 μM, and the corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 80 nM. The relative standard deviation of 5 replicate measurements was 1.4% for 1.0 × 10-5 mol L-1 Hg2+. Moreover, this method has excellent selectivity over metal ions and anions. The feasibility of the BSA-Au NCs sensor for Hg2+ in different aqueous samples was demonstrated with satisfactory results. Moreover, the possible sensing Hg2+ mechanism was also discussed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

Fu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ballantyne L.,Charles Sturt University | Lambkin C.,Queensland Museum
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Emeia, a new genus of Luciolinae fireflies, is described from males, flightless females and unusual trilobite-like larvae for a single species pseudosauteri (Geisthardt) transferred from Curtos Motschulsky. Flashing patterns and ecological data are presented. A phylogenetic analysis covering 143 Luciolinae species uses 436 morphological characters of males, females and larvae to support the erection of the new genus. A generic redescription of Curtos Motschulsky from a restricted number of species is given. A key to genera and certain species groups using males is provided. Copyright © 2012 Magnolia Press.

Li D.Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2010

In pig industry, fat deposition related traits such as back fat thickness and fat rate are of great economic importance. Thus, research on genes related with fat deposition can offer many useful values theoretically and practically. Gene FIT1 (Fat-inducing transcript 1) plays an important role in packaging lipid droplets. Here, we used FIT1 gene as the candidate gene for fat deposition. Sequence comparison revealed that an insertion/deletion mutation occurred at 590~595 bp of the second exon. We then carried out PCR-SSCP analysis followed by association analysis in F2 "Large white xMeishan" resource family. In all the individuals tested, all Meishan pigs possessed the insertion, which was designated allele A, while most Large white pigs possessed the deletion and was named as allele B. Association analysis in F2 resource family showed that this site was highly associated with fat percentage (FP), 6-7 rib fat thickness (RFT), buttock fat thickness (BFT), leaf fat weigh (LFW), total internal fat weigh (TFW), and internal fat rate (IFR) (Plt;0.01). These results indicated that FIT1 gene may have some important values for application. Further and deep research is necessary for revealing more information on this gene in order to provide a new marker for molecular marker-assisted selection breeding.

Dai H.-L.,Jiangsu University | Liu X.-W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li X.-D.,Nanjing University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2016

We use the evolutionary population synthesis method to investigate the statistical properties of the wind-fed neutron-star (NS) compact (Porb < 10 d) high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) in our Galaxy, based on different spin-down models. Model 1 assumes that the surrounding material is treated as forming a quasi-static atmosphere. Model 2 assumes that the characteristic velocity of matter and the typical Alfvén velocity of material in the magnetospheric boundary layer are comparable to the sound speed in the external medium. We find that the spin-down rate in the supersonic propeller phase in either model 1 or model 2 is too low to produce the observed number of compact HMXBs. Model 3 assumes that the infalling material is ejected with the corotation velocity at the magnetospheric radius when the magnetospheric radius is larger than the corotation radius. Model 4 uses simple integration of the magnetic torque over the magnetosphere. Both models 3 and 4 have a larger spin down rate than that given by model 1 or 2. We also find that models 3 and 4 can predict a reasonable number of observed windfed NS compact HMXBs. By comparing our calculated results with the observed particular distributions of wind-fed NS compact HMXBs in a Ps versus Porb diagram, we find that the subsonic propeller phase may not exist at all. However, the spin-down rates in models 3 and 4 both seem reasonable to produce the observed distribution of wind-fed NS compact HMXBs in the Ps versus Porb diagram. We cannot find which spin-down rate seems more reasonable from our calculations. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Niu L.,Ohio State University | Li G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lin S.,Ohio State University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Chromatin interactions mediated by a protein of interest are of great scientific interest. Recent studies show that protein-mediated chromatin interactions can have different intensities in different types of cells or in different developmental stages of a cell. Such differences can be associated with a disease or with the development of a cell. Thus, it is of great importance to detect protein-mediated chromatin interactions with different intensities in different cells. A recent molecular technique, Chromatin Interaction Analysis by Paired-End Tag Sequencing (ChIA-PET), which uses formaldehyde cross-linking and paired-end sequencing, is able to detect genome-wide chromatin interactions mediated by a protein of interest. Here we proposed two models (One-Step Model and Two-Step Model) for two sample ChIA-PET count data (one biological replicate in each sample) to identify differential chromatin interactions mediated by a protein of interest. Both models incorporate the data dependency and the extent to which a fragment pair is related to a pair of DNA loci of interest to make accurate identifications. The One-Step Model makes use of the data more efficiently but is more computationally intensive. An extensive simulation study showed that the models can detect those differentially interacted chromatins and there is a good agreement between each classification result and the truth. Application of the method to a two-sample ChIA-PET data set illustrates its utility. The two models are implemented as an R package MDM (available at http://www.stat.osu.edu/ ∼statgen/SOFTWARE/MDM).

Yin T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yin T.,Oregon State University | Park J.W.,Oregon State University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Gelation properties of Alaska pollock surimi as affected by addition of nano-scaled fish bone (NFB) at different levels (0%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%) were investigated. Breaking force and penetration distance of surimi gels after setting increased significantly as NFB concentration increased up to 1%. The first peak temperature and value of storage modulus (G′), which is known to relate to the unfolding and aggregation of light meromyosin, increased as NFB concentration increased. In addition, 1% NFB treatment demonstrated the highest G′ after gelation was completed. The activity of endogenous transglutaminase (TGase) in Alaska pollock surimi increased as NFB calcium concentration increased. The intensity of myosin heavy chain cross-links also increased as NFB concentration increased indicating the formation of more ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine covalent bond by endogenous TGase and calcium ions from NFB. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zellerhoff N.,RWTH Aachen | Zellerhoff N.,University of Cologne | Himmelbach A.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Dong W.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2010

Nonhost resistance protects plants against attack by the vast majority of potential pathogens, including phytopathogenic fungi. Despite its high biological importance, the molecular architecture of nonhost resistance has remained largely unexplored. Here, we describe the transcriptional responses of one particular genotype of barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare 'Ingrid') to three different pairs of adapted (host) and nonadapted (nonhost) isolates of fungal pathogens, which belong to the genera Blumeria (powdery mildew), Puccinia (rust), and Magnaporthe (blast). Nonhost resistance against each of these pathogens was associated with changes in transcript abundance of distinct sets of nonhost-specific genes, although general (not nonhost-associated) transcriptional responses to the different pathogens overlapped considerably. The powdery mildew- and blast-induced differences in transcript abundance between host and nonhost interactions were significantly correlated with differences between a near-isogenic pair of barley lines that carry either the Mlo wild-type allele or the mutated mlo5 allele, which mediates basal resistance to powdery mildew. Moreover, during the interactions of barley with the different host or nonhost pathogens, similar patterns of overrepresented and underrepresented functional categories of genes were found. The results suggest that nonhost resistance and basal host defense of barley are functionally related and that nonhost resistance to different fungal pathogens is associated with more robust regulation of complex but largely nonoverlapping sets of pathogen-responsive genes involved in similar metabolic or signaling pathways. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Yan S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yan S.,Zhejiang University | Fang M.,Zhejiang University | Wang Z.,Zhejiang University | Luo Z.,Zhejiang University
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

In order to give a better understanding for the selection of suitable absorbents for the novel membrane vacuum regeneration technology (MVR) which has the potential to reduce CO2 energy requirement by utilizing the waste heat or low-grade energy, an experimental study to determine the relationships between chemical structure and vacuum regeneration behavior of CO2 absorbents at 70°C and 10kPa was performed. Eleven typical absorbents with different functional groups in their chemical structures were investigated in terms of vacuum regeneration efficiencies. Results showed that the regeneration efficiency decreased with an increase of number of activated hydrogen atom in amine group and decreased with the number of hydroxyl group. Especially, more attention should be paid to these alkanolamines with one hydrogen atom in amine group and two or more hydroxyl groups in the structures due to their better comprehensive performance in regeneration, absorbent loss and CO2 absorption aspects. Increasing the carbon chain length and amine groups in the absorbent structure contributed to the improvement of regeneration performance and reduction of absorbent volatile loss. These absorbents with a four carbon chain length bonded at amine group might be more attractive to MVR. Furthermore, polyamines were superior to monoamines in terms of higher regeneration efficiencies and lower absorbent losses. Additionally, the individual effects of the potassium carboxylate group and hydroxymethylene group were also compared in this study. Results showed that amino acid salts were more appropriate for MVR due to their advanced regeneration performance, negligible absorbent losses and higher surface tensions. In this study, the regeneration performance of the same absorbents was also investigated by using the conventional heating regeneration method at 75°C and ambient pressure (HRM). It could be found that although longer regeneration time and relatively higher regeneration temperature were given for HRM, it was still inferior to MVR in terms of its lower regeneration efficiency. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang R.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Zhang J.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Hu Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Bioelectrochemistry | Year: 2011

This work demonstrates that liquid phase deposition (LPD) technique provides a novel approach to the immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) in TiO2 film for studying the direct electron transfer of Hb. Using the LPD process, a hybrid film composed of Hb, TiO2 and sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) is successfully prepared on the electrode surface. The surface morphology of as-deposited Hb/SDS/TiO2 film shows a flower-like structure. The cyclic voltammetric measurement indicates that the LPD hybrid film facilitates the electron transfer of Hb, which yields a pair of redox peaks prior to the characteristic voltammetric peaks of TiO2. Due to the electrocatalytic activity of Hb towards H2O2, the Hb/SDS/TiO2 hybrid LPD film can be utilized as an H2O2 sensor, showing a sensitive response linearly proportional to the concentration of H2O2 in the range of 5.0×10-7-4.0×10-5mol/L. At the same time, the Hb/SDS/TiO2 hybrid film preserves the photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2. The photovoltaic effect on the electrochemical behavior of Hb/SDS/TiO2 film is observed after long-time UV irradiation on the film, which could improve the calibration sensitivity for H2O2. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Fang M.,Zhejiang University | Wang Z.,Zhejiang University | Yan S.,Zhejiang University | Yan S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2012

Aiming to achieve lower regeneration energy consumption and less absorbent loss, membrane vacuum regeneration technology was developed as the novel regeneration technology for CO 2 enrichment in the chemical absorption process. In this study, monoethanolamine (MEA) was selected as absorbent and polypropylene (PP) hollow fiber membrane contactors were used to test the regeneration performance. Two different operating modes, solution flowing in tube side (mode A) and in shell side (mode B) of membrane module were compared by investigating mass transfer individual resistances and the influences of key operating parameters on CO 2 desorption flux for both modes. The experimental results showed that mode A was superior to mode B, and liquid side resistance was dominant in overall mass transfer resistance for both modes when membrane was gas-filled. By optimizing the operating condition, better regeneration performance could be achieved to CO 2 desorption flux 2.2×10 -4mol/m 2s and lower total equivalent work compared to thermal regeneration. In addition, amine loss problem, MEA concentration variation after regeneration and pressure drop on liquid side were also discussed, it showed MEA loss could be limited at 0.5g MEA/kg CO 2 in Mode A. However, after the long-term running of membrane vacuum regeneration, it was also supposed that risk of membrane wetting will be increased due to the increase of membrane pore size. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Ruiz-Agudo E.,University of Munster | Putnis C.V.,University of Munster | Wang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Putnis A.,University of Munster
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2011

The mechanisms by which background electrolytes modify the kinetics of non-equivalent step propagation during calcite growth were investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), at constant driving force and solution stoichiometry. Our results suggest that the acute step spreading rate is controlled by kink-site nucleation and, ultimately, by the dehydration of surface sites, while the velocity of obtuse step advancement is mainly determined by hydration of calcium ions in solution. According to our results, kink nucleation at acute steps could be promoted by carbonate-assisted calcium attachment. The different sensitivity of obtuse and acute step propagation kinetics to cation and surface hydration could be the origin of the reversed geometries of calcite growth hillocks (i.e., rate of obtuse step spreading

Qiu G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Qiu G.,University of Connecticut | Dharmarathna S.,University of Connecticut | Zhang Y.,University of Connecticut | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

Copper oxides have been widely used as catalysts, gas sensors, adsorbents, and electrode materials. In this work, CuO nanomaterials were synthesized via a facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal process in Cu(CH 3COO) 2(0.1 M)/urea(0.5 M) and Cu(NO 3) 2(0.1 M)/urea(0.5 M) aqueous systems at 150 °C for 30 min. The formation processes of copper oxides were investigated, and their catalytic activities were evaluated by the epoxidation of alkenes and the oxidation of CO to CO 2. Their electrochemical properties were compared as supercapacitor electrodes using cyclic voltammetry. Experimental results indicated that copper acetate solution could be hydrolyzed to form urchin-like architectured CuO, and the addition of urea accelerated this transformation. CuO nanoparticles were formed and aggregated into spheroidal form (CuO-1) in Cu(CH 3COO) 2/urea aqueous solution. Cu 2(OH) 2CO 3 was formed as an intermediate, and then thermally decomposed into CuO nanorods (CuO-2) in the Cu(NO 3) 2/urea aqueous system. The synthesized copper oxide nanomaterials exhibited excellent catalytic activities for the epoxidation of alkenes, the oxidation of CO, and pseudocapacitance behavior in potassium hydroxide solution. The increase of specific surface area promoted the catalytic activities and conversions for olefins and CO. CO was oxidized to CO 2 when the applied temperature was higher than 115 °C, and conversion of 100% was obtained at 130 °C. CuO-1 showed higher catalytic activities and capacitance values than those of CuO-2 likely due to the former having a larger specific surface area. This work facilitates the preparation of nanosized CuO materials with excellent catalytic and electrochemical performance. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Wang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ruiz-Agudo E.,University of Munster | Putnis C.V.,University of Munster | Putnis A.,University of Munster
CrystEngComm | Year: 2011

In situ AFM observations of calcite growth in the presence of Li + show that the site-selective mechanism of Li+-surface interactions leads to morphology changes as a result of the stabilization of the energetically unfavourable (0001) face. Selective stabilization of an unexpressed face in pure growth systems in turn alters the density of other structurally distinct steps during growth. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Liu R.,University of South Carolina | Liu R.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hu J.,University of South Carolina
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2013

Accurate prediction of DNA-binding residues has become a problem of increasing importance in structural bioinformatics. Here, we presented DNABind, a novel hybrid algorithm for identifying these crucial residues by exploiting the complementarity between machine learning- and template-based methods. Our machine learning-based method was based on the probabilistic combination of a structure-based and a sequence-based predictor, both of which were implemented using support vector machines algorithms. The former included our well-designed structural features, such as solvent accessibility, local geometry, topological features, and relative positions, which can effectively quantify the difference between DNA-binding and nonbinding residues. The latter combined evolutionary conservation features with three other sequence attributes. Our template-based method depended on structural alignment and utilized the template structure from known protein-DNA complexes to infer DNA-binding residues. We showed that the template method had excellent performance when reliable templates were found for the query proteins but tended to be strongly influenced by the template quality as well as the conformational changes upon DNA binding. In contrast, the machine learning approach yielded better performance when high-quality templates were not available (about 1/3 cases in our dataset) or the query protein was subject to intensive transformation changes upon DNA binding. Our extensive experiments indicated that the hybrid approach can distinctly improve the performance of the individual methods for both bound and unbound structures. DNABind also significantly outperformed the state-of-art algorithms by around 10% in terms of Matthews's correlation coefficient. The proposed methodology could also have wide application in various protein functional site annotations. DNABind is freely available at http://mleg.cse.sc.edu/DNABind/. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ma F.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2011

The study was carried out to construct and characterize Salmonella choleraesuis vaccine strain expressing immunogenic genes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and to test its immunogenicity in mice. We made p36, p46, p65 and p97R1-Nrdf, the main immunogenic genes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, to insert into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pYA3493. Then these recombinant plasmids and pYA3493 were electroporated into C500 asd-mutant, resulting in the recombinant Salmonella choleraesuis vaccine strains C36 (pYA-36), C46 (pYA-46), C65 (pYA-65), C97R1-Nrdf(pYA-97R1-Nrdf) and CpYA(pYA3493). We characterized these recombinant Salmonella choleraesuis vaccine strains and tested the immunogenicity in mice by intramuscular injection or orally immunized. The results of the immunogenicity in mice indicated that the group orally immunized with C36, C46, C65, C97R1-Nrdf showed significantly higher Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody than both the group orally immunized with C36, C46, C65 and the group intramuscular injected with the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin (M + PAC) (P < 0.01). The group intramuscular injected with C36, C46, C65 showed higher IFN-gamma production than the group injected with the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin (M + PAC) (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the group orally immunized with C36, C46, C65 and the group orally immunized with C36, C46, C65, C97R1-Nrdf (P > 0.05). The highest level of IL-4 was found in the group orally immunized with C36, C46, C65; higher levels of IL-4 was observed in the group orally immunized with C36, C46, C65, C97R1-Nrdf than the group injected with the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin (M + PAC); and the lowest IL-4 level was found in the group injected with C36, C46, C65. There were no significant differences among them (P > 0.05). The Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody, IFN-gamma or IL-4 production of the each group was obviously higher than the control group (P < 0.01). The attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis vaccine strain expressing immunogenic genes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae which has immunogenicity in mice especially by intramuscular injection could probably serve as a vaccine against mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine.

Ding X.,The Hong Kong Institute of Education | Ding X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ho W.,The Hong Kong Institute of Education | Shang J.,Central China Normal University | Zhang L.,Central China Normal University
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2016

In this study, we demonstrated that the reactive species generation of Bi2MoO6 under visible light can be regulated by Bi self-doping via a simple soft-chemical method. Density functional theory calculations and systematical characterization results revealed that Bi self-doping could not only promote the separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs of Bi2MoO6 but also alter the position of valence and conduction band without changing its preferential crystal orientations, morphology, visible light absorption as well as band gap energy. The photocatalytic removal of NO and products determination revealed that the enhanced generation of superoxide could improve the oxidation of NO to NO2 while OH and photogenerated holes mainly contributed to the further oxidation of NO2 to NO3 -. Photostability and NO absorbtion tests demonstrated that NO3 - on the surface of catalysts occupied the NO absorption sites and caused the deactivation of catalysts. This study provides new insight into the different effects of photogenerated reactive species on NO removal and sheds light on the design of highly efficient visible light-driven photocatalysts for NO removal. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Hu C.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural Science | Qi Y.C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Helminthologia | Year: 2010

Summary: Nematode abundance and diversity from different types of organic manure soil treatments were investigated in a longterm field experiment carried out in Qu-Zhou experimental station, China Agricultural University. The composts used in the experiment were a traditional compost (C) (60 % straw, 30 % livestock dung, 5 % cottonseed-pressed trash and 5 % brans), traditional compost and chicken dung compost (60 % straw, 30 % chiken dung, 5 % cottonseedpressed trash and 5 % brans) added with effective microorganisms, EMC and EMCDC respectively. Six treatments were arranged according to a randomized block design with three replicates per treatment. Treatments were incorporation into the soil of compost EMC, EMCDC, and C each at the rates of 7.5 and 15 t/ha. Plots were sown with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) every year from 1997 to 2004. Overall, 28 nematode genera were found. Seven genera were bacterivores, 3 genera were fungivores, 13 genera were plantparasites and 5 genera were omnivores-predators. The Rhabditis, Cephalobus, Helicotylenchus were dominant genera in the present study. The bacterivores and plantparasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic groups except in C treatment. Nematode abundance per 100 g dried soil ranged from 372 to 553. Addition of effective microorganism increased the number and proportion of bacterivorous nematodes and decreased the number and proportion of plant-parasitic nematodes compared to traditional compost C. Total number of nematode was significantly influenced by compost amount, but didn't significantly influence by EM agent. Total abundance of nematode was positively correlated with the content of soil organic matter, total N, available P and K. The long-term addition of EM agent hasn't adverse effect on soil nematode community. © 2010 Parasitological Institute of SAS.

Potassium (K) is one of the essential nutrients for crops, and K+ deficiency highly restricts crop yield and quality. Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an economically important crop that often suffers from K+ deficiency. To elucidate the underlying tolerance mechanism of watermelon to K+ deficiency and to improve K efficiency of watermelon and other crops in the future, two watermelon genotypes, namely, YS and 8424, that exhibit contrasting K efficiencies were studied to compare their response mechanisms to K+ deficiency. YS was more tolerant of K+ deficiency and displayed less inhibited root growth than 8424. Roots of YS and 8424 seedlings with or without K+ supply were harvested at 6 and 120 h after treatment (HAT), and their transcriptomes were analyzed by Illumina RNA sequencing. Different regulation mechanisms of the root K+-uptake genes for short- and long-term stress were observed. Genes involved in jasmonic acid and reactive oxygen species production; Ca2+ and receptor-like kinase signaling; lignin biosynthesis; and other stress-related genes were repressed in YS, whereas a large number of such stress-related genes were induced in 8424 at 120 HAT. These results suggested that repressed defense and stress response can save energy for better root growth in YS, which can facilitate K+ uptake and increase K efficiency and tolerance to K+ deficiency. This study presents the first global root transcriptome in watermelon and provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to K+ deficiency of K-efficient watermelon genotypes.

Hu C.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural Science | Qi Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
European Journal of Soil Biology | Year: 2010

Nematode density and biodiversity in maize field soil treated with compost, chemical fertilizer and with no amendments were investigated in a multi-year field experiment at the Qu-Zhou experimental station, China Agricultural University. The soils were collected from the upper (0-20 cm) soil layer during the maize growing stages in 2004. The results demonstrated that significant differences for the total nematode density, bacterivores, fungivores, plant parasites and omnivores-predators density were found between treatments and between dates. The total nematode density and bacterivores density were greater in compost-treated soil than in chemical fertilizer-treated soil, and were greater in chemical fertilizer-treated soil than in control soil during all sampling periods. The total nematodes density ranged from 106 to 657 individuals per 100 g dry soil in the present study. Total 40 nematode genera were found in all treatments and sampling periods, and 12 genera were bacterivores, 4 genera were fungivores, 16 genera were plant parasites and 8 genera were omnivores-predators. Cephalobus, Rhabditis, Tylenchorhynchus, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus and Rotylenchus were dominant genera in present study. The plant parasites and bacterivores were dominant trophic groups. The ratio of bacterivores plus fungivores to plant parasites was higher in compost-treated soil compared to chemical fertilizer-treated soil except October. Maturity index and combined maturity index were lower in compost-treated soil compared to chemical fertilizer-treated and control soil except July. The plant parasite index was higher in compost-treated soil compared to chemical fertilizer-treated soil except July. The multi-year application of compost and chemical fertilizer had effected on soil nematode population density and community structure. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Huang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zeng X.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2010

Based on the experiments of laser-induction hybrid cladding by powder feeding, the cracking behavior of Ni-based coating and solidification characteristic in molten pool were investigated. The results indicate that the hybrid cladding is effective to prevent from cracking in Ni-based coating. With the increase of induction energy density, the tensile stress and crack rate decrease obviously. When the induction energy density arrives at 36 J/mm2, the free-cracks coating can be achieved. In laser-induction hybrid cladding, the martensite can be eliminated in the heat affected zone and the phase transformation stress is little. Moreover, the molten pool is solidified through two directions such as the coating surface and coating/substrate interface, i.e., firstly the top and bottom in molten pool are solidified, and then the middle in molten pool is solidified. Therefore, in hybrid cladding, the peak value of tensile stress is located in the middle of coating, which is different from that in laser cladding. This distribution status of residual stress is greatly helpful to restrict the cracks of Ni-based coating in laser-induction hybrid cladding. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Shen J.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Chen S.,Huazhong Agricultural University
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control | Year: 2016

This paper addresses the asymptotic stability and L∞-gain analysis problem for a class of nonlinear positive systems with both unbounded discrete delays and distributed delays. With the assumption that the nonlinear function is strictly increasing, we first give a characterization on the positivity of the nonlinear system. Then, with some mild assumptions on the delays, a necessary and sufficient condition to ensure the asymptotic stability is presented. Moreover, an explicit expression of the L∞-gain of such nonlinear positive systems is given in terms of the system matrices. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the theoretical results. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Zhang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The Ni/TiO2 nanoparticles with different Ni dopant content were prepared by a modified sol-gel method. The structure and photoinduced charge properties of the as-prepared catalysts were determined using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and surface photovoltage spectroscopy techniques, and the photocatalytic efficiency of these catalysts was tested using an organic dye. It was shown that Ni modification could greatly enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of these nanocomposite catalysts by taking the photodegradation of methyl orange as a model reaction. With appropriate ratio of Ni and TiO2, Ni/TiO 2 nanocomposites showed the superior photocatalytic activity than the single TiO2 nanoparticles. Surface photovoltage spectra demonstrated that Ni modification could effectively inhibit the recombination of the photoinduced electron and holes of TiO2. This electron-hole pair separation conditions are responsible for the higher photocatalytic performance of Ni/TiO2 nanocomposites in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Li L.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2011

Morphological classification of Bagridae fishes is relatively difficult due to various kinds and similar shape, and the phyletic evolution is not very clear in some species. To provide basic data to the classification of Bagridae and Siluriformes fishes, the complete mitochondrial genome of Pelteobagrus vachelli was obtained by PCR based on 16 primers, which were designed on the basis of related species mtDNA sequences. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16 527 bp in length, including 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and a non-coding control region. The organization and location of genes in the mitochondrial genome of Pelteobagrus vachelli were consistent with Siluriformes fishes published in GenBank. It has high homology with other families, such as Pseudobagrus Bleeker (91%) within Siluriformes. The phylogenetic analysis of Bagridae fishes was made from the level of mitochondria genome based on 9 species of 6 genera, which belong to 4 families of the Siluriformes, combining with 3 outgroups' complete mitochondrial genomes sequences. The result indicated that Pelteobagrus vachelli, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Pelteobagrus nitidus and Pseudobagrus tokiensis of the Bagridae formed a monophyletic group; the Pseudobagrus Bleeker and Pelteobagrus Bleeker formed a sister group. Moreover, Pelteobagrus vachelli was more relative to Pelteobagrus nitidus than Pelteobagrus fulvidraco in Pelteobagrus Bleeker.

Wang H.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Digital Information Management | Year: 2013

Supply chain demand prediction plays a very important role for enterprises to realize sales and markets management target effectively, especially for fresh agricultural product enterprises. A new model for supply chain demand prediction for fresh agricultural product enterprises is presented based on improved BP neural network. First the advantages and disadvantages of BP neural network algorithm are analyzed when it is used in supply chain demand prediction; Second, Legendre wavelets algorithm is used to speed up the convergence and improve the prediction accuracy of original BP neural network algorithm and based on this the paper advances a new supply chain demand prediction model for fresh agricultural product enterprises. Finally, certain fresh agricultural product enterprise is taken for example to verify the validity and feasibility of the model and the experimental results show that the model can improve prediction accuracy and decrease the calculation time and can be used for supply chain demand prediction practically.

Schellhorn N.A.,CSIRO | Parry H.R.,CSIRO | Macfadyen S.,CSIRO | Wang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zalucki M.P.,University of Queensland
Insect Science | Year: 2015

Areawide management has a long history of achieving solutions that target pests, however, there has been little focus on the areawide management of arthropod natural enemies. Landscape ecology studies that show a positive relationship between natural enemy abundance and habitat diversity demonstrate landscape-dependent pest suppression, but have not yet clearly linked their findings to pest management or to the suite of pests associated with crops that require control. Instead the focus has often been on model systems of single pest species and their natural enemies. We suggest that management actions to capture pest control from natural enemies may be forth coming if: (i) the suite of response and predictor variables focus on pest complexes and specific management actions; (ii) the contribution of "the landscape" is identified by assessing the timing and numbers of natural enemies immigrating and emigrating to and from the target crop, as well as pests; and (iii) pest control thresholds aligned with crop development stages are the benchmark to measure impact of natural enemies on pests, in turn allowing for comparison between study regions, and generalizations. To achieve pest control we will need to incorporate what has been learned from an ecological understanding of model pest and natural enemy systems and integrate areawide landscape management with in-field pest management. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

To elucidate the genes involved in the formation of white and black plumage in ducks, RNA from white and black feather bulbs of an F(2) population were analyzed using RNA-Seq. A total of 2,642 expressed sequence tags showed significant differential expression between white and black feather bulbs. Among these tags, 186 matched 133 annotated genes that grouped into 94 pathways. A number of genes controlling melanogenesis showed differential expression between the two types of feather bulbs. This differential expression was confirmed by qPCR analysis and demonstrated that Tyr (Tyrosinase) and Tyrp1 (Tyrosinase-related protein-1) were expressed not in W-W (white feather bulb from white dorsal plumage) and W-WB (white feather bulb from white-black dorsal plumage) but in B-B (black feather bulb from black dorsal plumage) and B-WB (black feather bulb from white-black dorsal plumage) feather bulbs. Tyrp2 (Tyrosinase-related protein-2) gene did not show expression in the four types of feather bulbs but expressed in retina. C-kit (The tyrosine kinase receptor) expressed in all of the samples but the relative mRNA expression in B-B or B-WB was approximately 10 fold higher than that in W-W or W-WB. Additionally, only one of the two Mitf isoforms was associated with plumage color determination. Downregulation of c-Kit and Mitf in feather bulbs may be the cause of white plumage in the duck.

Jin L.,Wuhan University | Xin J.,Wuhan University | Huang Z.,Wuhan University | Huang Z.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Transmetalation is the rate-limiting step! The transmetalation between arylzinc reagents and ArNi IIR was confirmed as the rate-limiting step in the nickel-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions. It was proved to be an excellent model allowing the first quantitative measurement of the kinetic rate constants of transmetalation from a live catalytic system. Rate constants from 0.04 to 0.31 M -1 s -1 were obtained for different arylzinc reagents under the conditions, and the activation enthalpy ΔH † was 14.6 kcal/mol for PhZnCl. The substituent effect on the transmetalation was also gained for the first time from the catalytic reaction. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Fan B.,Iowa State University | Fan B.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Onteru S.K.,Iowa State University | Du Z.-Q.,Iowa State University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: The recent completion of the swine genome sequencing project and development of a high density porcine SNP array has made genome-wide association (GWA) studies feasible in pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using Illumina's PorcineSNP60 BeadChip, we performed a pilot GWA study in 820 commercial female pigs phenotyped for backfat, loin muscle area, body conformation in addition to feet and leg (FL) structural soundness traits. A total of 51,385 SNPs were jointly fitted using Bayesian techniques as random effects in a mixture model that assumed a known large proportion (99.5%) of SNPs had zero effect. SNP annotations were implemented through the Sus scrofa Build 9 available from pig Ensembl. We discovered a number of candidate chromosomal regions, and some of them corresponded to QTL regions previously reported. We not only have identified some well-known candidate genes for the traits of interest, such as MC4R (for backfat) and IGF2 (for loin muscle area), but also obtained novel promising genes, including CHCHD3 (for backfat), BMP2 (for loin muscle area, body size and several FL structure traits), and some HOXA family genes (for overall leg action). The candidate regions responsible for body conformation and FL structure soundness did not overlap greatly which implied that these traits were controlled by different genes. Functional clustering analyses classified the genes into categories related to bone and cartilage development, muscle growth and development or the insulin pathway suggesting the traits are regulated by common pathways or gene networks that exert roles at different spatial and temporal stages. Conclusions/Significance: This study is one of the earliest GWA reports on important quantitative traits in pigs, and the findings will contribute to the further biological function analysis of the identified candidate genes and potential utilization of them in marker assisted selection. © 2011 Fan et al.

Wang Q.,Wuhan University | Hu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Du Y.,Wuhan University | Kennedy J.F.,Institute of Advanced Science and Technology
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

Fibers of alginate and starch, with salicylic acid (SA) as model drug incorporated in different concentrations, were obtained by spinning their solution through a viscose-type spinneret into a coagulating bath containing aqueous CaCl2 and ethanol. Chemical, morphological and mechanical properties characterization was carried out, as well as the studies of the factors that influence the drug releasing from alginate/starch fibers. The results of controlled release tests showed that the amount of SA released increased with an increase in the proportion of starch present in the fiber. Moreover, the release rate of drug decreased as the amount of drug loaded in the fiber increased, but the cumulative release amount is increasing. The alginate/starch fibers were also sensitive to pH and ionic strength. All the results indicated that the alginate/starch fiber was potentially useful in drug delivery systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gong Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Guo X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
FEBS Letters | Year: 2013

Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) plays a pivotal role in triacylglycerol (TAG) formation in some oleaginous organisms. We describe here the identification of a type 2 DGAT (PtDGAT2B) in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum that contains four putative type 2 acyl-CoA:DGATs, sharing little sequence similarity with each other. TAG synthesis and lipid body formation could be completely restored in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae TAG-deficient quadruple mutant by expressing PtDGAT2B. Up-regulation of PtDGAT2B precedes the accumulation of TAG. Functional analysis of enzyme activity in vivo demonstrated that expression of PtDGAT2B can increase the proportion of unsaturated C 16 and C18 fatty acids in yeast TAG. © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Glinka E.M.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Liao Y.-C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Fungal Biology | Year: 2011

Fusarium asiaticum is the predominant causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in China. When grown in liquid cultures containing potato tuber extract as the sole carbon source, F. asiaticum (strain 7071) from wheat (China) produced pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), and pectin lyase (PNL). The activity of these pectolytic enzymes was detected by a gel diffusion assay. Three forms of PME were identified in a culture filtrate of F. asiaticum. Two forms of PME with molecular weights of 31 kDa and 42.5 kDa, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), were purified using a combination of chromatographic techniques. These PMEs did not bind to Concanavalin A (Con A), which was confirmed by rechromatography using a Con A agarose column. The 31 kDa purified PME was thermostable in a temperature range of 25-55 °C. The optimal pH for the PME of F. asiaticum was 6.5. This research provides the basis for future investigations of pectolytic enzymes from F. asiaticum. © 2011 British Mycological Society.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that trigger innate immune response and mediate acquired immunity. Evidence has shown that SARM1 (sterile-α and TIR motif containing protein 1) is one of five TIR domain-containing adaptor proteins involved in TLRs signaling transduction. In the present study, a full-length cDNA sequence was cloned for the porcine SARM1 gene, which contains nine exons. Using the radiation hybrid mapping approach, we assigned the porcine gene to SSC12 q13. Under the normal condition, porcine SARM1 was highly expressed in brain and spleen. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)) weakly induced the porcine SARM1 expression in the early stimulation. We found that porcine SARM1 protein is localized in mitochondria and attenuates NF-κB activation induced by stimulation and infection. The quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) analysis showed that the expression of porcine SARM1 significantly decreased in several tissues of Tongcheng pigs infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). Gene-interaction network analysis for porcine SARM1 in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) showed that down-regulation of SARM1 gene in infected Tongcheng pig may modulate TRIF-depend TLRs signaling and regulate the expression of disease-resistant genes and inflammatory genes. Our findings provide evidence that porcine SARM1 may play an important role in immune regulation with PRRSV infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Li C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Developmental and comparative immunology | Year: 2013

MiR-155 plays very important roles in host inflammation and immunity. However, few studies have focused on miR-155 in livestock. In this study, the molecular characterisation of miR-155 and its functional roles in TLR3/TLR4 signalling pathways were investigated in pigs. The results indicated that miR-155 was highly expressed in the spleen and fat tissues of the pig. In PK-15 cells, miR-155 was up-regulated 4h after LPS stimulation and up-regulated 12h and 24h after poly (I:C) stimulation. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-155 significantly activated the TLR3/TLR4 signalling pathways, and the inhibition of miR-155 suppressed these pathways. Thus, miR-155 played positive regulatory roles in TLR3/TLR4 signalling pathways. Additionally, one T/C SNP of miR-155 was significantly associated with basophil percentage (BA%), absolute eosinophili value (EO) and the distribution width of the least squares mean of CD3-CD4-CD8+ T cells (DWT) in pigs. Our study offers new evidence on the immune function of miR-155 in pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Li J.,Montana State University | Li J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu G.,Montana State University | Feng W.,Montana State University | And 4 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2014

Pathogen mutants arise during infections. Mechanisms of selection for pathogen variants are poorly understood. We tested whether neutrophils select mutations in the two-component regulatory system CovRS of group A Streptococcus (GAS) during infection using the lack of production of the protease SpeB (SpeB activity negative [SpeBA-]) as a marker. Depletion of neutrophils by antibodies RB6-8C5 and 1A8 reduced the percentage of SpeBA- variants (SpeBA-%) recovered from mice infected with GAS strain MGAS2221 by >76%. Neutrophil recruitment and SpeBA-%among recovered GAS were reduced by 95% and 92%, respectively, in subcutaneous MGAS2221 infection of CXCR2-/- mice compared with control mice. In air sac infection with MGAS2221, levels of neutrophils and macrophages in lavage fluid were reduced by 49% and increased by 287%, respectively, in CXCR2-/- mice compared with control mice, implying that macrophages play an insignificant role in the reduction of selection for SpeBA- variants in CXCR2-/- mice. One randomly chosen SpeBA- mutant outcompeted MGAS2221 in normal mice but was outcompeted by MGAS2221 in neutropenic mice and had enhancements in expression of virulence factors, innate immune evasion, skin invasion, and virulence. This and nine other SpeBA- variants from a mouse all had nonsynonymous covRS mutations that resulted in the SpeBA- phenotype and enhanced expression of the CovRS-controlled secreted streptococcal esterase (SsE). Our findings are consistent with a model that neutrophils select spontaneous covRS mutations that maximize the potential of GAS to evade neutrophil responses, resulting in variants with enhanced survival and virulence. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the critical contribution of neutrophils to the selection of pathogen variants. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.

Despite the accumulation of data on the genetic and molecular understanding of heterosis, there is little information on the regulation of heterosis at the physiological level. In this study, we performed a quantitative analysis of endogenous gibberellin (GA) content and expression profiling of the GA metabolism and signaling genes to investigate the possible relationship between GA signaling and heterosis for seedling development in rice (Oryza sativa). The materials used were an incomplete diallele set of 3 × 3 crosses and the six parents. In the growing shoots of the seedlings at 20 d after sowing, significant positive correlations between the contents of some GA species and performance and heterosis based on shoot dry mass were detected. Expression analyses of GA-related genes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that 13 out of the 16 GA-related genes examined exhibited significant differential expression among the F1 hybrid and its parents, acting predominantly in the modes of overdominance and positive dominance. Expression levels of nine genes in the hybrids displayed significant positive correlations with the heterosis of shoot dry mass. These results imply that GAs play a positive role in the regulation of heterosis for rice seedling development. In shoots plus root axes of 4-d-old germinating seeds that had undergone the deetiolation, mimicking normal germination in soil, the axis dry mass was positively correlated with the content of GA29 but negatively correlated with that of GA19. Our findings provide supporting evidence for GAs playing an important regulatory role in heterosis for rice seedling development.

Yuan S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li M.,Tsinghua University
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology | Year: 2012

A new method (BSSVM) using binary tree and sphere-structured support vector machines (SSVM) is presented for fault diagnosis. It constructs the hyper-planes step by step according to binary tree, partitions a class in every step and eliminates blind areas which are not insuperable for other multi-class methods of SVM. 4 common faults are created by a test-bed of rotor, their vibration signals are collected and transformed to frequency domain by FFT, then the spectrum energy in 8 bands divided by their total energy are taken as the energy distributions. With PCA, the 8-dimensional energy distributions are converted to 2-dimensional fault samples which can hold more than 80% useful information of the primary data. With the fault samples, the new method is tested and compared with several other multiclass methods of SVM, and experimental results show that the new method has higher speed and better accuracy than other similar ones. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Kang C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu Z.,University of Maryland University College
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new class of regulatory molecules with roles in diverse biological processes. While much effort has been invested in the analysis of lncRNAs from established plant models Arabidopsis, maize, and rice, almost nothing is known about lncRNAs from fruit crops, including those in the Rosaceae family. Results: Here, we present a genome-scale identification and characterization of lncRNAs from a diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca, based on rich RNA-seq datasets from 35 different flower and fruit tissues. 5,884 Fve-lncRNAs derived from 3,862 loci were identified. These lncRNAs were carefully cataloged based on expression level and whether or not they contain repetitive sequences or generate small RNAs. About one fourth of them are termed high-confidence lncRNAs (hc-lncRNAs) because they are expressed at a level of FPKM higher than 2 and produce neither small RNAs nor contain repetitive sequence. To identify regulatory interactions between lncRNAs and their potential protein-coding (PC) gene targets, pairs of lncRNAs and PC genes with positively or negatively correlated expression trends were identified based on their expression; these pairs may be candidates of cis- or trans-acting lncRNAs and their targets. Finally, blast searches within plant species indicate that lncRNAs are not well conserved. Conclusions: Our study identifies a large number of tissue-specifically expressed lncRNAs in F. vesca, thereby highlighting their potential contributions to strawberry flower and fruit development and paving the way for future functional studies. © 2015 Kang and Liu.

Xiong T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Bao Y.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Hu Z.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2014

Highly accurate interval forecasting of electricity demand is fundamental to the success of reducing the risk when making power system planning and operational decisions by providing a range rather than point estimation. In this study, a novel modeling framework integrating bivariate empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) and support vector regression (SVR), extended from the well-established empirical mode decomposition (EMD) based time series modeling framework in the energy demand forecasting literature, is proposed for interval forecasting of electricity demand. The novelty of this study arises from the employment of BEMD, a new extension of classical empirical model decomposition (EMD) destined to handle bivariate time series treated as complex-valued time series, as decomposition method instead of classical EMD only capable of decomposing one-dimensional single-valued time series. This proposed modeling framework is endowed with BEMD to decompose simultaneously both the lower and upper bounds time series, constructed in forms of complex-valued time series, of electricity demand on a monthly per hour basis, resulting in capturing the potential interrelationship between lower and upper bounds. The proposed modeling framework is justified with monthly interval-valued electricity demand data per hour in Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection, indicating it as a promising method for interval-valued electricity demand forecasting. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Donggang H.,Huazhong Agricultural University
International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications | Year: 2012

Potato shape is an important index of potato feature detection. Therefore, the paper give a fast and accurate potato starch form of nondestructive testing methods potato mechanization classification and deep processing is of great significance. According to the requirements of the national standard of classification of potatoes is proposed based on a partial least squares fitting potato chips elliptical shape measuring classification method. Firstly extracted potatoes boundary point, through the robust direct least squares elliptic fitting elliptical path that long a, b, elliptical short size centrifugal rate e, to draw the fitting elliptic binary image and potatoes original binary image, the two images that logic operation after fitting elliptical image and potato binary of the original image not intersecting part area value S. Through the training set observation that the threshold value of potato level, and then through the setting of the threshold to verify the set for verification test potatoes. Test results show that the method can be used for potato long form, the oval, circular potatoes, potato malformation can accurately classification, classification accuracy can meet the requirements of the actual inspection. At last, this paper gives the research and application prospect in Land Science about the curve fitting method.

Li W.,Wuhan University of Technology | Zhang S.,Wuhan University of Technology | Chen G.,Wuhan University of Technology | Hua Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

The influences of hydraulic retention time, temperature and free buffer on the performance of short-cut denitrifying microbial fuel cell were investigated after it was successfully started up using nitrite as the cathodic electron acceptor. The results revealed that a power density of 8.3±0.5Wm-3NC was obtained after 15days operation. The desirable hydraulic retention time was found in this study to be 8h, with a COD removal rate of 2.117±0.006kgm-3NCd-1 and a total nitrogen removal rate of 0.041±0.002kgm-3NCd-1, respectively. It demonstrated that temperature had different effects on the electricity generation and pollutant removal performance of microbial fuel cell. The suitable temperature for power generation and pollutant removal was found to be 20°C and 25°C, respectively. Free buffer led to 50% decrease of both total nitrogen removal rate and power density of microbial fuel cell compared to that with phosphate buffer solution addition. The optimal total nitrogen removal rate obtained in the case with sodium azide addition (0.075±0.008kgm-3NCd-1) increased by 50% as compared to that without sodium azide addition. It suggested that abolishing oxygen or inhibiting nitrite oxidizing bacteria would favor nitrogen removal. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhu Z.-H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Sun Y.-L.,Wuhan University
Dianli Xitong Baohu yu Kongzhi/Power System Protection and Control | Year: 2010

Aimed at problems of multiple solutions in the used optimizing models for grid fault diagnosis, an improved model is established considering the influence of the reclosure, the different protection and joint influence between main and backup protections. Also, quantum immune algorithm is presented for fault model in order to overcome many populations and slow convergence of genetic algorithm. Quantum immune algorithm codes the chromosome by quantum bit probability, and makes the populations evolve by clonal selection and quantum rotation gate, which makes current best individual information can be easily extended to the next generation, so rapid convergence, small populations and good global search capability are the characteristics of the quantum immune algorithm. Test results show that, the improved model is logical and quantum immune algorithm has better comprehensive performance than genetic algorithm, which proves that the algorithm is feasible.