Wuhan, China

Huazhong Agricultural University is a multi-disciplinary comprehensive university giving priority to agriculture, characterized by life science and supplemented by the combination of agriculture, basic science, engineering, liberal arts, law, economic trade, and management. HAU, one of the first groups of universities in China which are authorized to confer Ph.D. and M.A. degrees, has produced the new China's first doctor majoring in agronomy. Firmly adhering to the two central tasks like teaching and scientific research, HAU maintains its management by levels and flexible forms. As far as education quality and academic level, HAU ranks first among the agricultural universities in China. In addition, it has been converted into a nationally important base for training senior special agricultural personnel and developing agricultural science and technology. Wikipedia.

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Liu N.-L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shen H.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Wuli Huaxue Xuebao/ Acta Physico - Chimica Sinica | Year: 2017

The dissociation and photoionization dynamics of C3H5Cl were studied at 200, 400, and 800 nm with femtosecond laser pulses. The time-of-flight mass spectra, laser power index and photoelectron images were recorded. At short wavelength (200 nm), ionization of the parent molecule was found to be the dominant channel, while other ions were generated by the dissociation of C3H5Cl+. With the shift to long wavelength (e.g., 800 nm), fragment ions became dominant, and were generated through the multiphoton ionization of neutral fragments after the photodissociation of C3H5Cl. These results imply that photodissociation plays a significant role at long wavelength, because neutral fragments are supposed to be generated from the intermediate states reached by 800 nm photons. At 400 nm, the dissociation on the intermediate states is also critical, but is not as high as that at 800 nm. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the dissociation/ionization behaviors of allyl chloride are wavelength-dependent, and reveal the complex dynamics of allyl chloride at 200, 400 and 800 nm. © Editorial office of Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica.

Zhu C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ji P.,Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University | Li S.,Tsinghua University
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management | Year: 2017

As urbanization increases, designing green space that offers ecological benefits is an increasingly important goal of urban planning. As a linear green space in an urban environment, green belts lower air temperature, increase relative humidity, and improve air quality. To quantify the ecological effects of urban green belts and to identify a critical width for effective urban green belts, we analysed the width of urban green belts in terms of their effects on air temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), concentration of negative air ions (NAI) and bacteria rate (BR). The air T, RH and NAI from 8:00 to 18:00 and BR at 9:00 over seven days were investigated on six widths of green belts (0–10 m, 10–20 m, 20–30 m, 30–40 m, 40–50 m and over 50 m) along the west Fourth Ring Road of Beijing in April, July, October and December 2009. We found that (1) the T-RH benefits increased with the width of the green belts, and the 6 m belt had the smallest effect on T-RH, followed by the 16 m and 27 m belts, whereas the effect was obvious with the 34 m belt and conspicuous and stable with the 42 m belt (approximately 80% green coverage) (P < 0.05); (2) the critical width reference value of urban green belts for an obvious effect on the increase in NAI concentration was approximately 42 m (approximately 80% green coverage) (P < 0.05) and the NAI concentration increased with the width of green belts even in July; and (3) the positive effect on the decrease in the BR was greater than the negative effect, the BR decreased with the green belt width and the changes in the BRs were stable with the 34 m belt. The results of this study may help urban planners and designers achieve urban green space designs that optimize ecological effects and cultural benefits. © 2017 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press.

Feng W.,Wuhan University | Mao Z.,Wuhan University | Liu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu Z.,Wuhan University
Talanta | Year: 2017

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a kind of gaseous signalling molecule that plays pivotal role in various biological processes. So far, it is still a challenge to develop convenient and reliable methods for H2S detection in lysosomes. Herein, we developed a novel ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe LR-H2S for imaging H2S in lysosomes. Upon the addition of H2S (using Na2S as a donor) to LR-H2S in buffer solution, the azide group is reduced to amino group and subsequently the carbamate ester is cleaved by 1,6-elimination, resulting in a fluorescence emission increase at 541 nm and a concomitant emission decrease at 475 nm. Under two-photon excitation of 840 nm, an 80-fold fluorescence ratio (F541/F475) enhancement was observed with a wide linear range of 25–2500 μM. The detection limit was calculated to be 0.70 μM based on 3σ/k method, indicating that the probe can detect H2S with a high sensitivity. The probe also shows excellent selectivity toward H2S among other biological interference species and features with low cytotoxicity and favorable two-photon properties. Furthermore, LR-H2S can easily localize in lysosomes and vividly illuminate endogenous/exogenous H2S level and distribution in lysosomes of living SGC-7901 cells. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Xiao W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xiao W.,Hengyang Normal University
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience | Year: 2016

Risk prediction problem of citrus not only has dynamic characteristic, but also has static characteristic. Put forward a kind of management scheme of risk prediction problem of citrus based on BP neural network improved by canonical correlation analysis (CCA) in order to improve the accuracy rate of distinguishing plant diseases and insect pests of citrus in early period. Firstly, analyze BP neural network and improve it by making use of the method of canonical correlation analysis to enhance network identification ability. Secondly, collect data of plant diseases and insect pests of citrus plantation in somewhere in Hunan and predict plant diseases and insect pests of citrus by using BP neural network algorithm (CCA) improved by canonical correlation analysis to enhance management level of risk prediction of citrus plantation. At last, verify validness of mentioned algorithm by experiment. © 2016 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Ding C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li Z.,Innovis
Materials Science and Engineering C | Year: 2017

The most common methods used for drug administrations are pills, injections, lotions and suppositories. The preferred means is oral dosage forms as it is simple, painless and self-administered. However, the drugs are usually degraded within gastrointestinal tract or not absorbed in sufficient quality to be effective. Over the years, a variety of other administration means have evolved to show specific advantages for particular agents and certain diseases. In this review, various nano-delivery systems consisting of different covalent linkages to conjugate the therapeutic molecules as well as those that carry the unmodified drug molecules by encapsulating or complexation are summarized, including ester, amide/peptide, disulfide, hydrazone, hypoxia-activated and self-immolative linkages. The mechanisms for controlled drug release are also discussed. In addition, the new mechanism of the recently developed photochemistry or thermolysis to trigger controlled drug release and the applications are also covered. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Chen S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shen J.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing | Year: 2017

This paper considers the effect of multiple quantizers and channel packet dropouts in state estimation of networked system. Taking into account the limit capacity of the quantizer, multiple quantizers in the networked system with respect to the multichannels are modeled firstly. In addition, channel packet dropouts with different packet loss probabilities in different channels are also proposed in this paper. To minimize the effect of the quantizers and the disturbances, state estimators are constructed under a given performance requirement. Finally, a simulation example is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Chen X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang R.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang F.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2017

The present study investigated the impact of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton on several aspects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Funneliformis mosseae. The results showed that Bt cotton significantly inhibited spore germination and pre-symbiotic hyphal growth. The appressorium density, arbuscule frequency and colonization intensity in Bt roots were also decreased. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the transformation event resulted in the inhibition of hyphal development and colonization. The reduced interaction between AM fungi and plants could affect nutrient uptake and transportation in plant-fungus symbiosis. The mechanism might involve the direct toxicity of Bt toxins or the interference of signal perception between AM fungus and Bt cotton. © 2017, Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

Shi L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lu J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2017

In the process of maize breeding, the development degree of maize ear is one of the most important parameters for yield related traits. In order to improve the degree of automation and accuracy of maize ear development degree detection, a measurement method was proposed based on machine vision technology. An identification model was constructed on the basis of random forest principal at first. The model was composed of a group of weak classifiers which were independent and identically distributed. The weak classifiers selected samples from the input training samples randomly along columns and rows. The experiment which compared random forest model with decision tree model on the classification effect showed that random forest classifier could not only avoid over-fitting and local convergence effectively but also have good generalization ability. Then, in order to determine the optimal number of weak classifiers, six random forest models were built. Their weak classifier number were separately one-eightieth, one-fortieth, one-twentieth, one-tenth, one-fifth, one-fourth of training samples count. The results showed that the model had good accuracy and stability when the number of weak classifiers was one-twentieth of training samples count. Finally, the optimal random forest model was used as the classifier to build the automatic maize ear development degree detection method. The experiment results showed that the measurement accuracy on length of each area was more than 95% and the measurement speed was more than 30 maize ears per minute. © 2017, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Wang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li B.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li B.,China University of Technology
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2017

Colon specific delivery is one promising way to enhance the bioavailability of anthocyanins. Herein, chitin microspheres with average diameter of 80 μm fabricated via a new way were found to load anthocyanins with predicted capacity based on Langmuir isotherm as much as 2718 ± 54 mg/g under the optimal condition of pH 4, which is the largest amount ever reported. Electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions were proved to be the main driving forces for the load of anthocyanins by chitin microspheres. Moreover, less than 30% of the loaded anthocyanins ± were released under the investigated pH range from 1.2 to 6 because of the strong interaction between chitin microspheres and anthocyanins. Finally, it was found about 40% of the loaded anthocyanins was released in the simulated gastrointestinal tract for chitin microspheres. Moreover, after coating the anthocyanins loaded chitin microspheres with a layer of ethyl cellulose, more than 85% loaded anthocyanins were delivered to the colon. All the results revealed that new chitin microspheres were promising carriers for colon specific delivery of bioactive compounds. This work demonstrated an effective new way to utilize original chitin, which is abundant but less researched in the field of food science. © 2016

Ma J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Planta | Year: 2017

Main conclusion: Our study demonstrated that Zn alleviated Cd toxicity in the presence of Si in the cell walls by Zn2+binding to ligands through the formation of the [Si-hemicellulose matrix]Zn complexes that restrict the uptake of Cd.The plant cell wall exhibits preferential sites for the accumulation of metals at toxic concentrations. Through modification of wall polysaccharide components, elements, such as silicon (Si) and zinc (Zn), may play active roles in alleviating the toxicity of heavy metals, including cadmium (Cd). However, enhanced tolerance for Cd stress may rely on synergistic effects between nutrient elements. Here, we cultured Si-accumulating suspension cells of rice (Oryza sativa) exposed to Cd and Zn treatments, either separately or in combination, and investigated cells using noninvasive microtest technology (NMT), inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found that Zn alleviated Cd toxicity in the presence of Si in the cell walls by binding of Zn2+ to ligands through the formation of the [Si-hemicellulose matrix]Zn complexes and co-precipitates to greatly inhibit Cd2+ uptake into cells. This, in turn, induced the lower expression of Cd-related transporters. This synergistic effect could be decisive for the survival of cells under conditions of high Cd concentrations. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Minkenberg B.,Pennsylvania State University | Xie K.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yang Y.,Pennsylvania State University
Plant Journal | Year: 2017

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system depends on a guide RNA (gRNA) to specify its target. By efficiently co-expressing multiple gRNAs that target different genomic sites, the polycistronic tRNA-gRNA gene (PTG) strategy enables multiplex gene editing in the family of closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) genes in Oryza sativa (rice). In this study, we identified MPK1 and MPK6 (Arabidopsis AtMPK6 and AtMPK4 orthologs, respectively) as essential genes for rice development by finding the preservation of MPK functional alleles and normal phenotypes in CRISPR-edited mutants. The true knock-out mutants of MPK1 were severely dwarfed and sterile, and homozygous mpk1 seeds from heterozygous parents were defective in embryo development. By contrast, heterozygous mpk6 mutant plants completely failed to produce homozygous mpk6 seeds. In addition, the functional importance of specific MPK features could be evaluated by characterizing CRISPR-induced allelic variation in the conserved kinase domain of MPK6. By simultaneously targeting between two and eight genomic sites in the closely related MPK genes, we demonstrated 45-86% frequency of biallelic mutations and the successful creation of single, double and quadruple gene mutants. Indels and fragment deletion were both stably inherited to the next generations, and transgene-free mutants of rice MPK genes were readily obtained via genetic segregation, thereby eliminating any positional effects of transgene insertions. Taken together, our study reveals the essentiality of MPK1 and MPK6 in rice development, and enables the functional discovery of previously inaccessible genes or domains with phenotypes masked by lethality or redundancy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Society for Experimental Biology.

Zheng H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ni D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yu Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liang P.,China Jiliang University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2017

A kind of graphene oxide/silver (GO/Ag) nanocomposites with high Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity were fabricated via a facile and green liquid phase reduction method. The synthesized materials were characterized in detail using various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. In this method, the GO sheets worked as a holder which makes silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) aggregate to a particular morphology, and under a suitable dosage of silver ions, well-dispersed AgNPs on the surface of GO were obtained, which could generate more “hot spots” of SERS. Moreover, SERS technique based on the obtained GO/Ag nanocomposites was used as an effective way to detect L-Theanine. The detection limit was estimated to be as low as 10−7 M, and a multivariate linear regression model for the concentration of L-Theanine was established. The optimal fitting equation is Y = 5.6765 + 0.0307X1458 − 0.0267X1251. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Tang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shi J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Dong W.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Agri Gene | Year: 2016

Yeast one- (Y1H) and two-hybrid (Y2H) assays are widely used to study transcription factors (TFs) and protein-protein interactions (PPIs), respectively. Here we combined the Y1H and Y2H into a yeast library-hybrid (YLH) assay, which can systematically screen transcription factors (TFs) and PPIs in one experimental pipeline. In typical TFs, the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and activation domain (AD) evolved separately, but were covalently linked. In the YLH assay, TFs are identified based on functionally conserved ADs, whereas in various Y1H assays TFs are identified based on DBDs. Using the YLH method, we isolated 51 pairs of maize-Rhizoctonia PPIs and 38 novel Rhizoctonia solani TFs. TFs and PPIs related to pathogen virulence and plant resistance responses were isolated by the YLH assay. Our results show that 57.75% of isolated TFs contain typical DBDs such as Zn2Cys6, nucleic acid-binding OB-fold, winged helix repressor DNA-binding, and zinc finger CCHC-type. Key PPI pairs related to major functional categories such as metabolism and cellular signalling were obtained. The percentage of verified PPIs is 69.39%. We proved that common TFs have nonspecific or broad-spectrum activities in the yeast plasmid gene expression system. YLH screening can be conducted on library scales to systematically reveal possible TFs and PPIs at the same time. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Tan Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ai P.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of the Energy Institute | Year: 2016

Due to the high content of CO2 (40-50 mol%) in biogas, it is highly important to upgrade biogas. The usual methods for upgrading biogas involve the separation of CO2 from it. Alternatively, this paper reports the development of a new method for upgrading biogas, which is the CO2 reforming of biogas for gliding arc plasma-assisted production of synthesis gas. This work primarily includes four parts: (1) Basic discharge characteristics: the discharge characteristics of gliding arc plasma during the process of CO2 reforming of biogas can be divided into four stages. (2) The effects of input voltage: with the increase of input voltage, the volume fractions of CH4 and CO2 are reduced while those of H2 and CO are increased. (3) The effects of reaction time: with the extension of reaction time, the conversion rates of CH4 and CO2 are hugely increased from 30% to 34%, respectively, at 15 min to 90% and 84%, respectively, at 75 min; and the concentrations of H2 and CO are also obviously increased from 19.5 mol% to 13.08 mol%, respectively, at 15 min to 41.76% and 45.15%, respectively, at 75 min. (4) Lastly, the optimal power density in this work is 11 kW/(L/s) under the working conditions of 15 min and 7955 V, which is a notably good value for CO2 reforming of biogas with the assistance of plasma. Therefore, this paper is highly important for biogas upgrading. © 2016 Energy Institute.

Wang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Huang J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zou T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yin P.,Huazhong Agricultural University
RNA Biology | Year: 2017

Cellular RNAs with diverse chemical modifications have been observed, and N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is one of the most abundant internal modifications found on mRNA and non-coding RNAs, playing a vital role in diverse biologic processes. In humans, m6A modification is catalyzed by the METTL3-METTL14 methyltransferase complex, which is regulated by WTAP and another factor. Three groups have recently and independently reported the structure of this complex with or without cofactors. Here, we focus on the detailed mechanism of the m6A methyltransferase complex and the properties of each subunit. METTL3 is predominantly catalytic, with a function reminiscent of N6-adenine DNA methyltransferase systems, whereas METTL14 appears to be a pseudomethyltransferase that stabilizes METTL3 and contributes to target RNA recognition. The structural and biochemical characterization of the METTL3-METTL14 complex is a major step toward understanding the function of m6A modification and developing m6A-related therapies. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Yin N.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Agriculture (Switzerland) | Year: 2017

This paper probes effects of the evolvement of labor resources on technical efficiency in crop production in rural China. Based on twelve years of data on crop production of 30 provinces in China, a stochastic frontier production function model is used to measure crop production efficiency in three crop-functional areas—the production area, the consumption area, and the balanced area. Then effects of both quantity and quality change in labor force on technical efficiency in different regions of China are analyzed. Results show that rural China generally has an increasing number of employees shifted to non-agricultural sectors and a decreasing trend of the stock of human capital. However, both these two changes in rural labor force have significantly positive effects on improving crop production efficiency. In addition, China’s technical inefficiency is at an average of 22.2%. Dynamically, the technical efficiencies show a tendency to rise steadily throughout China and in three areas, while the consumption area possesses the highest technical efficiency. Those results may lend some experience for other countries that are currently experiencing rural labor force and economic transition. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Wang B.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Peng B.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2017

This work aims to investigate the potential of fiber-optic Fourier transform-near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectrometry associated with chemometric analysis, which will be applied to monitor time-related changes in residual sugar and alcohol strength during kiwi wine fermentation. NIR calibration models for residual sugar and alcohol strength during kiwi wine fermentation were established on the FT-NIR spectra of 98 samples scanned in a fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometer, and partial least squares regression method. The results showed that R2 and root mean square error of cross-validation could achieve 0.982 and 3.81 g/L for residual sugar, and 0.984 and 0.34% for alcohol strength, respectively. Furthermore, crucial process information on kiwi must and wine fermentations provided by fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometry was found to agree with those obtained from traditional chemical methods, and therefore this fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometry can be applied as an effective and suitable alternative for analyses and monitoring of those processes. The overall results suggested that fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometry is a promising tool for monitoring and controlling the kiwi wine fermentation process. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®

Zhang S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Cheng Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Tan Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2017

Detection and classification of the bruising degree for fruit can provide useful information for appropriate postharvest handling and storage operations. However, the detection of early small bruises, which are hardly to detect directly by vision alone, remains a challenge. In this study, we investigated the optical properties of apple flesh with different bruising degree and combined principal component analysis and support vector machine to discriminate and classify the degree of bruising of apples. The apples were divided into three groups and dropped at heights of 0 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm. The optical properties of each group were measured in 400–1050 nm. The measurements of optical properties were performed using an integrating sphere setup and the results were assessed using the inverse adding-doubling method. Based on the measured optical properties, a discriminant model that combines PCA with SVM to classify and predict the bruise degree of apples was established. The accuracy of the model for bruise degree classification was as high as 92.5%. Overall, this study demonstrated it is feasible to detect the early small bruising degree of apples based on optical properties. It also laid a foundation for future studies about detecting early small bruising with non-destructive measurement of optical properties, which is a promising method for rapid and convenient classification of bruise degree of apples. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Ye C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Guo Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Cai C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Geomorphology | Year: 2017

Herbaceous species, especially their roots, are believed to have an important role in enhancing soil strength and protecting soil against erosion. This study evaluated the effects of root distribution characteristics on soil shear resistance and soil detachment rates, correlations among root mechanical properties, root chemical composition and root parameters, and whether the Wu-Waldron model can accurately estimate soil reinforcement by roots. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) was planted in planter boxes by overlapping four rectangle frames (0.4 × 0.1 × 0.1 m). A series of laboratory tests of direct shear strength and soil detachment were conducted on two soils that were derived from granite and shale with different soil depths and sowing densities. The results indicated that soil aggregate stability was positively correlated with root characteristics. Over 70% of the total measured root parameters were distributed in the upper 20 cm of the soil, and they decreased with increasing soil depth and decreasing sowing density. The tensile properties (root tensile strength and root tensile force) were significantly correlated with root diameter. The contents of root main chemical compositions were significantly correlated with root diameter while hemicellulose showed no obvious trend with root diameter (P = 0.12). Root tensile strength and root tensile force were also significantly correlated with the contents of these four compositions, except hemicellulose. The relative soil detachment demonstrated a significant negative correlation with root parameters with sowing densities from 5 to 30 g m− 2, and it remained at a relatively low value when the sowing density was > 20 g m− 2. The soil detachment rate, erodibility factor and critical flow shear stress were well correlated with the root area ratio, sowing density, and soil depth. The Wu-Waldron model was found to be inappropriate for these soils, as it overestimated additional soil shear strength due to roots by 152–366% in the upper 20 cm, and 11–48% in deeper soil layers. This study demonstrated that the root area ratio was a more suitable root characteristic parameter that contributes to soil reinforcement. © 2017 The Authors

Peng J.,Hubei University | Chen H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhou Y.,University of Macau | Li L.,Hubei University
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing | Year: 2017

This paper proposes an ideal regularized composite kernel (IRCK) framework for hyperspectral image (HSI) classification. In learning a composite kernel, IRCK exploits spectral information, spatial information, and label information simultaneously. It incorporates the labels into standard spectral and spatial kernels by means of the ideal kernel according to a regularization kernel learning framework, which captures both the sample similarity and label similarity and makes the resulting kernel more appropriate for specific HSI classification tasks. With the ideal regularization, the kernel learning problem has a simple analytical solution and is very easy to implement. The ideal regularization can be used to improve and to refine state-of-the-art kernels, including spectral kernels, spatial kernels, and spectral-spatial composite kernels. The effectiveness of the proposed IRCK is validated on three benchmark hyperspectral datasets. Experimental results show the superiority of our IRCK method over the classical kernel methods and state-of-the-art HSI classification methods. © 2017 IEEE.

Khalid A.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yasir M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li F.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2017

Small RNAs regulate a large set of gene expression in all plants and constitute a natural immunity against viruses. Small RNA based genetic engineering (SRGE) technology had been explored for crop protection against viruses for nearly 30 years. Viral resistance has been developed in diverse crops with SRGE technology and a few viral resistant crops have been approved for commercial release. In this review we summarized the efforts generating viral resistance with SRGE in different crops, analyzed the evolution of the technology, its efficacy in different crops for different viruses and its application status in different crops. The challenge and potential solution for application of SRGE in crop protection are also discussed. © 2017 Khalid, Zhang, Yasir and Li.

Xiao Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wu L.,Henan Agricultural University | Warburton M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Yan J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Molecular Plant | Year: 2017

Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has become a widely accepted strategy for decoding genotype-phenotype associations in many species thanks to advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Maize is an ideal crop for GWAS and significant progress has been made in the last decade. This review summarizes current GWAS efforts in maize functional genomics research and discusses future prospects in the omics era. The general goal of GWAS is to link genotypic variations to corresponding differences in phenotype using the most appropriate statistical model in a given population. The current review also presents perspectives for optimizing GWAS design and analysis. GWAS analysis of data from RNA, protein, and metabolite-based omics studies is discussed, along with new models and new population designs that will identify causes of phenotypic variation that have been hidden to date. The joint and continuous efforts of the whole community will enhance our understanding of maize quantitative traits and boost crop molecular breeding designs. © 2016 The Author

Deng W.,Hechi University | Zheng Z.,Shaanxi Normal University | Lei C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2017

Taxonomy of a tetrigid genus Saussurella Bolivar is reviewed. One new species, Saussurella brachycornis sp. nov. is described from China and an updated identification key to all known species of the genus is given, as well as brief comments on phylogenetic relationships and distributions of the genus. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Jing Y.,Shandong University | Gao J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu C.,Shandong University | Zhang D.,Shandong University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2017

To better understand the efficient transformation of glucose to fructose catalyzed by chromium chlorides in imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), density functional theory calculations have been carried out on a model system which describes the catalytic reaction by CrCl2 in 1,3-dimethylimidazolium chlorine (MMImCl) ionic liquid (IL). The reaction is shown to involve three fundamental processes: ring opening, 1,2-H migration, and ring closure. The reaction is calculated to exergonic by 3.8 kcal/mol with an overall barrier of 37.1 kcal/mol. Throughout all elementary steps, both CrCl2 and MMImCl are found to play substantial roles. The Cr center, as a Lewis acid, coordinates to two hydroxyl group oxygen atoms of glucose to bidentally rivet the substrate, and the imidazolium cation plays a dual role of proton shuttle and H-bond donor due to its intrinsic acidic property, while the Cl- anion is identified as a Bronsted/Lewis base and also a H-bond acceptor. Our present calculations emphasize that in the rate-determining step the 1,2-H migration concertedly occurs with the deprotonation of O2-H hydroxyl group, which is in nature different from the stepwise mechanism proposed in the early literature. The present results provide a molecule-level understanding for the isomerization mechanism of glucose to fructose catalyzed by chromium chlorides in imidazolium chlorine ILs. (Chemical Equation Presented). © 2017 American Chemical Society.

Yan Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Gao Y.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology | Year: 2016

The changes in the quality of Nansi Lake water due to the building of the new channel of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal are studied. The relationship between algae growth and environmental factors is analyzed. This relationship has practical significance and guiding value for Nansi Lake, it helps to prevent the outbreaks of water bloom effectively and ensure the stable development of economy, society and environment in the regions covered with the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. It is established that the use of the new channel of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal causes the following variations in the lake water: water temperature increases, while the values of pH, TP, and TN decrease. Besides, the content of Fe2+ in water depends on regional and seasonal peculiarities; the trend towards the stabilization of SiO3 2 is observed. The new channel construction led to variations in chlorophyll-a content mainly due to changed water temperature and pH. Besides, riverbed digging and intense ship traffic also affect water characteristics. © 2016, Allerton Press, Inc.

Turvey C.G.,Cornell University | Xiong X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Agribusiness | Year: 2017

This letter examines the state of financial inclusion in rural China. It shows that despite China's efforts at being financially inclusive there is substantial variability across and within provinces. With strong reliance on electronic technologies, China's rural and farm communities use internet technologies only half as much as all users, and less than 2% access credit through the internet. From a policy perspective, China should address problems of financial education and rural credit access. © 2017 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Shao P.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Zhu Y.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Jin W.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2017

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of Ulva fasciata polysaccharide (UFP) on the physical and chemical characteristics of β-carotene oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. The β-carotene (O/W) emulsions were prepared by combining 95 wt% UFP (1–5%, wt/wt) solutions with 5 wt% soybean oil containing β-carotene (0.05 wt% in the final emulsion). The stability of β-carotene emulsions was evaluated by droplet size and distribution, viscosity, zeta-potential, visual phase separation, light microscopy imaging and β-carotene degradation of the emulsions during storage. In addition, the influences of ionic strength and pH on physical stabilities of emulsions were characterized. Emulsions stabilized with high concentration (>2% wt/wt) of UFP had an average droplet size (D [3, 2]) less than 1.0 μm, and the average droplet size significantly decreased until the polysaccharide concentration reached 3%. Light microscopy images and emulsion zeta-potentials demonstrated 3% (wt/wt) UFP to be the optimum emulsifying agent concentration. UFP revealed better emulsifying properties and improved physical stabilities of β-carotene emulsions when compared to other commercial polysaccharides, including gum Arabic and beet pectin. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Ansari A.R.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ansari A.R.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Liu H.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis | Year: 2017

Acute thymic involution (ATI) is usually regarded as a virulence trait. It is caused by several infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi) and other factors, including stress, pregnancy, malnutrition and chemotherapy. However, the complex mechanisms that operate during ATI differ substantially from each other depending on the causative agent. For instance, a transient reduction in the size and weight of the thymus and depletion of populations of T cell subsets are hallmarks of ATI in many cases, whereas severe disruption of the anatomical structure of the organ is also associated with some factors, including fungal, parasitic and viral infections. However, growing evidence shows that ATI may be therapeutically halted or reversed. In this review, we highlight the current progress in this field with respect to numerous pathological factors and discuss the possible mechanisms. Moreover, these new observations also show that ATI can be mechanistically reversed. © 2017 L. Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wroclaw, Poland

Xiong Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ma M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2017

To improve the interfacial properties, a phosphorylation modification of OVA was performed through dry-heating at three different pH values (5.0, 7.0 and 9.0) in the presence of sodium tripolyphosphate. X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies confirmed that phosphate groups were successfully grafted onto the ovalbumin backbone through covalent interaction to form O[sbnd]P bond. Additionally, 23, 21 and 18 phosphorylation sites were identified in the OVA that had been phosphorylated at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 (P-OVA5, P-OVA7 and P-OVA9) respectively by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. More phosphorylated peptides and possible phosphorylation sites were found here than in previous studies with the reaction time reduced to 12 h. As a result, the iso-electric point (pI) of P-OVA shifted to lower pH, improving the stability of the P-OVA-included system over a wider pH range. The dynamic interfacial tension, which depends on the phosphorylation-induced conformational change, was explored by Fourier-transform Raman and circular dichroism spectroscopies, and the equilibrium interfacial tension decreased from 17.359 mNm−1 for natural OVA (N-OVA) to 15.969 mNm−1 for P-OVA9. Furthermore, P-OVA was applied to O/W emulsions, resulting in a narrower size distribution with a smaller particle size in P-OVA-stabilized emulsions than in N-OVA-stabilized emulsions. The increase rate of mean particle diameter after 60-min storage decreased from 72.37% for N-OVA to 7.97% for P-OVA5, implying a significant improvement of emulsion stability by preventing aggregation and coalescence. The results from this work demonstrated that the natural biopolymer can be applied to O/W emulsions by enhancing interfacial properties with phosphorylation. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Fang R.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhao J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2017

Background: Avian coccidiosis is an intracellular intestinal parasitic disease, caused by intracellular intestinal parasites from the genus Eimeria, among which Eimeria tenella is one of the most pathogenic species and causes great economic losses. Frequent applications of anticoccidial drugs have resulted in the development of drug-resistance in E. tenella. In the present study, we sought to determine the genetic diversity of E. tenella isolates prevalent in chicken farms in Hubei Province of China and examine their sensitivity to three anticoccidial drugs. The results provide useful information for the prevention and control of coccidiosis in this region. Methods: Eimeria tenella oocysts were isolated from faecal samples collected from different commercial broiler production farms in Hubei Province, China. After oocyst sporulation and animal inoculation for expansion of the field isolates, DNA and RNA were extracted from excysted sporozoites for molecular characterization. Species identification of field isolates were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of ribosomal DNA. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used for population genetic analysis. Subsequently, sequences of the major sporozoite surface antigen (SAG), micronemal protein 2 (MIC-2) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes from genomic DNA, and the Eimeria tenella cation-transport ATPase (EtCat ATPase) gene from cDNA were obtained for genotyping using multi-sequence alignments. Finally, sensitivity of the field isolates to three commonly used anticoccidial drugs (diclazuril, decoquinate and maduramycin) were tested to assess the prevalence of drug resistance in E. tenella in Hubei Province of China. Results: Analysis of the ITS1 sequences indicated that all the isolates were E. tenella. RAPD analysis and multi-sequence alignments of the SAG, MIC-2, EtCat ATPase and cytb showed genetic diversity among these isolates. Finally, drug sensitivity tests demonstrated that all field isolates were sensitive to diclazuril but resistant to decoquinate (except for the isolates from eastern Hubei) and maduramicin. Conclusions: Population genetic analysis indicated that genetic polymorphisms among field isolates were closely related with their regional distributions. Drug sensitivity testing demonstrated that E. tenella isolates in Hubei Province were sensitive to diclazuril, but resistant to maduramycin and decoquinate. The results presented here provide important information for the control and preventions of coccidiosis in the Hubei Province of China. © 2017 The Author(s).

Zhang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Nie P.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology | Lin L.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Genome Announcements | Year: 2016

Flavobacterium columnare is the etiologic agent of columnaris disease, a devastating fish disease prevailing in worldwide aquaculture industry. Here, we describe the complete genome of F. columnare strain Pf1, a highly virulent strain isolated from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) in China. © 2016 Zhang et al.

Tan Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lin C.S.K.,City University of Hong Kong | Ji X.,Lulea University of Technology | Rainey T.J.,Queensland University of Technology
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2017

Biochar generated from thermochemical conversion of biomass reduces greenhouse gas emissions and is useful for improving ecological systems in agriculture. However, certain biochars function well in improving soil, and other biochars do not. Why? Because it is not clear how to prepare the best biochar for soil. There is a disconnect between biochar preparation and returning the biochar to the soil. To elucidate this relationship, this paper reviews (i) technologies for preparing biochar, (ii) how preparation conditions affect biochar properties, and (iii) the effects on soil physical and chemical properties. In addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, biochar improves the physicochemical and microbial properties of soil and absorbs poisonous and pernicious substances. Therefore, as biochar is produced by pyrolysis, optimizing processing conditions to improve its properties for agricultural use is a key issue explored in this article. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Huang H.,Donghua University | Huang H.,McGill University | Liu Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe | Year: 2017

Improving the accuracy of forecasting is crucial but complex in the clothing industry, especially for new products, with the lack of historical data and a wide range of factors affecting demand. Previous studies more concentrate on sales forecasting rather than demand forecasting, and the variables affecting demand remained to be optimized. In this study, a two-stage intelligent retail forecasting system is designed for new clothing products. In the first stage, demand is estimated with original sales data considering stock-out. The adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is introduced into the second stage to forecast demand. Meanwhile a data selection process is presented due to the limited data of new products. The empirical data are from a Canadian fast-fashion company. The results reveal the relationship between demand and sales, demonstrate the necessity of integrating the demand estimation process into a forecasting system, and show that the ANFIS-based forecasting system outperforms the traditional ANN technique. © 2017, Institute of Biopolymers and Chemical Fibres. All rights reserved.

Ding C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2016

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral ranges is a widely used technique for nondestructive inspection of biological tissues. The optical properties, such as absorption and scattering coefficients, can be inversely deduced from the measured quantities and then be used to speculate on some related chemical and physical properties of the tissue. Most studies consider biological tissues as homogeneous semi-infinite turbid media or infinitelywide planar layered turbid media. However, the biological tissues have various geometries, and nearly all of them have curved surfaces. The position and direction of the incident light relative to the tissue surface affect the diffuse reflectance. In this work, we study the influence of incident light offset on the measured diffuse reflectance signals based on the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The MC method are regarded as golden standard for light propagation in turbid media and can be used without the limitations of complex tissue geometries. A model for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurement using optic fiber probe is built. The incident light is assumed to be an infinitely narrow photon beam. The tissue under detection is assumed to be spherical described by its curvature radius. A series of Monte Carlo simulation are carried out with varying incident directions. Simulation results are analyzed and discussed to assess the influence on the measurements for tissues with different curvature radii. This study may aid in achieving more accurate and effective measurement without extensive experiments. © 2016 SPIE.

Tamba C.L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Tamba C.L.,Egerton University | Ni Y.-L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang Y.-M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang Y.-M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2017

Genome-wide association study (GWAS) entails examining a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a limited sample with hundreds of individuals, implying a variable selection problem in the high dimensional dataset. Although many single-locus GWAS approaches under polygenic background and population structure controls have been widely used, some significant loci fail to be detected. In this study, we used an iterative modified-sure independence screening (ISIS) approach in reducing the number of SNPs to a moderate size. Expectation-Maximization (EM)-Bayesian least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (BLASSO) was used to estimate all the selected SNP effects for true quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) detection. This method is referred to as ISIS EM-BLASSO algorithm. Monte Carlo simulation studies validated the new method, which has the highest empirical power in QTN detection and the highest accuracy in QTN effect estimation, and it is the fastest, as compared with efficient mixed-model association (EMMA), smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD), fixed and random model circulating probability unification (FarmCPU), and multi-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model (mrMLM). To further demonstrate the new method, six flowering time traits in Arabidopsis thaliana were re-analyzed by four methods (New method, EMMA, FarmCPU, and mrMLM). As a result, the new method identified most previously reported genes. Therefore, the new method is a good alternative for multi-locus GWAS. © 2017 Tamba et al.

Yang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hu X.-P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ma B.-G.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Molecular BioSystems | Year: 2017

Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens is a rhizobium able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium by establishing mutualistic symbiosis with soybean. It has been recognized as an important parent strain for microbial agents and is widely applied in agricultural and environmental fields. In order to study the metabolic properties of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the differences between a free-living cell and a symbiotic bacteroid, a genome-scale metabolic network of B. diazoefficiens USDA110 was constructed and analyzed. The metabolic network, iYY1101, contains 1031 reactions, 661 metabolites, and 1101 genes in total. Metabolic models reflecting free-living and symbiotic states were determined by defining the corresponding objective functions and substrate input sets, and were further constrained by high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic data. Constraint-based flux analysis was used to compare the metabolic capacities and the effects on the metabolic targets of genes and reactions between the two physiological states. The results showed that a free-living rhizobium possesses a steady state flux distribution for sustaining a complex supply of biomass precursors while a symbiotic bacteroid maintains a relatively condensed one adapted to nitrogen-fixation. Our metabolic models may serve as a promising platform for better understanding the symbiotic nitrogen fixation of this species. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Zhang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Huang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ma M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2017

Phosvitin is a unique highly phosphorylated protein that plays a role in the regulation of mineralization. This study investigated the role of phosphorylation of phosvitin in the phase transformation of calcium phosphate in the mineralization solution. Partially dephosphorylated phosvitins (T1, T2, T3 and T4) were prepared with 2.98, 19.46, 43.39 and 71.07% of phosphate released from native phosvitin, respectively. And their effect on regulating the phase transformation was investigated, the characterization and composition analysis was performed by circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that phosvitin in the acceleration effect of phase transformation was dose-concentration effect by pH-stat titration. With lower dephosphorylation degree of phosvitin (<20%), the acceleration effect was weaker than native phosvitin, since phosphorylation and random structure of phosvitin were reduced. However, with higher dephosphorylation degree of phosvitin (>40%), the acceleration effect was enhanced compared to native phosvitin, in which the β-sheet structure was increased and phosvitin was partially hydrolyzed to phosphopeptides. The acceleration effect of phase transformation was as follows: T4 > T3 > phosvitin > T1 > T2 > Control. This study clearly demonstrated that phosphorylation of phosvitin played an important role in the regulation of mineralization. © 2017

Shen C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Jin X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhu D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lin Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
BMC Genomics | Year: 2017

Background: Cotton (Gossypium spp.), as the world's most utilized textile fibre source, is an important, economically valuable crop worldwide. Understanding the genomic variation of tetraploid cotton species is important for exploitation of the excellent characteristics of wild cotton and for improving the diversity of cotton in breeding. However, the discovery of DNA polymorphisms in tetraploid cotton genomes has lagged behind other important crops. Results: A total of 111,795,823 reads, 467,735 specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) tags and 139,176 high-quality DNA polymorphisms were identified using specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), including 132,880 SNPs and 6,296 InDels between the reference genome (TM-1) and the five tetraploid cotton species. Intriguingly, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that a number of significant terms were related to reproduction in G. barbadense acc. 3-79. Based on the new data sets, we reconstructed phylogenetic trees that showed a high concordance to the phylogeny of diploid and polyploid cottons. A large amount of interspecific genetic variations were identified, and some of them were validated by the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method, which will be applied in introgression genetics and breeding with G. hirsutum cv. Emian22 as the receptor and the other species as donors. Conclusions: Using SLAF-seq, a large number of DNA polymorphisms were identified. The comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphisms provided invaluable insights into the different tetraploid cotton species. More importantly, the identification of numerous interspecific genetic variations provides the basis and is very practical for future introgression breeding. The results presented herein provide a valuable genomic resource for new insights into the genetics and breeding of cotton. © 2017 The Author(s).

Wang J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Gong Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2017

Many studies have suggested the important role of estrogen in ovarian differentiation and development of vertebrates including chicken. Cytochrome P450 aromatase, encoded by CYP19A1, is a key enzyme in estrogen synthesis, but the mechanism of CYP19A1 regulation in chicken remains unknown. Here, we found that CYP19A1 was only expressed in the theca cell layers of chicken ovary follicles. Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1, also named as nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 1, NR5A1), a potential regulators, was expressed in both the theca cell layers and granulosa cell layers. Forkheadbox L2 (FOXL2), another potential regulator, was only expressed in the granulosa cell layers. Using luciferase assays in vitro, we found that SF-1 could activate the promoter of CYP19A1 by binding to the nuclear receptor half-site (5′-TCAAGGTCA-3′) from −280 to −271 base pairs. FOXL2 did not activate the promoter of chicken CYP19A1 gene in either 293T or DF-1 cells. Overexpression of SF-1 in DF-1 cells upregulated aromatase expression, but FOXL2 could not. Taken together, our results indicated that SF-1 activates CYP19A1 mRNA expression via a conserved binding site in chicken ovary, but FOXL2 may not affect the expression of CYP19A1. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Dawar F.U.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Tu J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Khattak M.N.K.,Hazara University | Mei J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lin L.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Current Issues in Molecular Biology | Year: 2017

Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a key member of immunophilins that has peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. Besides acting as a cellular receptor for immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA), CypA is involved in various cellular activities. CypA has an important role in viral infection which either facilitates or inhibits their replication. Inhibition of CypA via inhibitors is useful for overcoming some viral infections, indicating that CypA is an attractive target for anti-viral therapy. Collectively, these facts demonstrate the critical roles of CypA in mediating or inhibiting viral infections, suggesting that CypA can be an attractive cellular target for the development of anti-viral therapy. © 2017, Caister Academic Press. All rights reserved.

King G.J.,Southern Cross University of Australia | King G.J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Crop plants encounter thermal environments which fluctuate on a diurnal and seasonal basis. Future climate resilient cultivars will need to respond to thermal profiles reflecting more variable conditions, and harness plasticity that involves regulation of epigenetic processes and complex genomic regulatory networks. Compartmentalization within plant cells insulates the genomic central processing unit within the interphase nucleus. This review addresses the properties of the chromatin hardware in which the genome is embedded, focusing on the biophysical and thermodynamic properties of DNA, histones and nucleosomes. It explores the consequences of thermal and ionic variation on the biophysical behavior of epigenetic marks such as DNA cytosine methylation (5mC), and histone variants such as H2A.Z, and how these contribute to maintenance of chromatin integrity in the nucleus, while enabling specific subsets of genes to be regulated. Information is drawn from theoretical molecular in vitro studies as well as model and crop plants and incorporates recent insights into the role epigenetic processes play in mediating between environmental signals and genomic regulation. A preliminary speculative framework is outlined, based on the evidence of what appears to be a cohesive set of interactions at molecular, biophysical and electrostatic level between the various components contributing to chromatin conformation and dynamics. It proposes that within plant nuclei, general and localized ionic homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining chromatin conformation, whilst maintaining complex genomic regulation that involves specific patterns of epigenetic marks. More generally, reversible changes in DNA methylation appear to be consistent with the ability of nuclear chromatin to manage variation in external ionic and temperature environment. Whilst tentative, this framework provides scope to develop experimental approaches to understand in greater detail the internal environment of plant nuclei. It is hoped that this will generate a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying genotype × environment interactions that may be beneficial for long-term improvement of crop performance in less predictable climates. © 2015 King.

Iqbal N.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Mei J.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Mei J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu J.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Cell Cycle | Year: 2014

The Arf tumor suppressor gene product, p19Arf, regulates cell proliferation in incipient cancer cells and during embryo development. Beyond its commonly accepted p53-dependent actions, p19Arf also acts independently of p53 in both contexts. One such p53-independent effect with in vivo relevance includes its repression of Pdgfrβ, a process that is essential for vision in the mouse. We have utilized cell culture-based and mouse models to define a new role for miR-34a in this process. Ectopic expression of Arf in cultured cells enhanced the expression of several microRNAs predicted to target Pdgfrβ synthesis, including the miR-34 family. Because miR-34a has been implicated as a p53-dependent effector, we investigated whether it also contributed to p53-independent effects of p19Arf. Indeed, in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking p53, Arf-driven repression of Pdgfraβ and its blockade of Pdgf-B stimulated DNA synthesis were both completely interrupted by anti-microRNA against miR-34a. Ectopic miR-34a directly targeted Pdgfrβ and a plasmid reporter containing wild-type Pdgfrβ 3′UTR sequence, but not one in which the miR-34a target sequence was mutated. Although miR-34a expression has been linked to p53 - a well-known effector of p19 Arf - Arf expression and its knockdown correlated with miR-34a level in MEFs lacking p53. Finally, analysis of the mouse embryonic eye demonstrated that Arf controlled expression of miR-34a, and the related miR-34b and c, in vivo during normal mouse development. Our findings indicate that miR-34a provides an essential link between p19Arf and its p53-independent capacity to block cell proliferation driven by Pdgfrβ. This has ramifications for developmental and tumor suppressor roles of Arf. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.

Babu R.,CIMMYT | Rojas N.P.,CIMMYT | Gao S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yan J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Pixley K.,CIMMYT
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) compromises immune function and is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children in many developing countries. Biofortification, or breeding staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, provides a sustainable way to fight VAD and other micronutrient malnutrition problems. Polymorphisms, with associated molecular markers, have recently been identified for two loci, LcyE (lycopene epsilon cyclase) and CrtRB1 (β-carotene hydroxylase 1) that govern critical steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in maize endosperm, thereby enabling the opportunity to integrate marker-assisted selection (MAS) into carotenoid breeding programs. We validated the effects of 3 polymorphisms (LcyE5′TE, LcyE3′Indel and CrtRB1-3′TE) in 26 diverse tropical genetic backgrounds. CrtRB1-3′TE had a two-ten fold effect on enhancing beta-carotene (BC) and total provitamin A (proA) content. Reduced-function, favorable polymorphisms within LcyE resulted in 0-30 % reduction in the ratio of alpha- to beta-branch carotenoids, and increase in proA content (sometimes statistically significant). CrtRB1-3′TE had large, significant effect on enhancing BC and total ProA content, irrespective of genetic constitution for LcyE5′TE. Genotypes with homozygous favorable CrtRB1-3′TE alleles had much less zeaxanthin and an average of 25 % less total carotenoid than other genotypes, suggesting that feedback inhibition may be reducing the total flux into the carotenoid pathway. Because this feedback inhibition was most pronounced in the homozygous favorable LcyE (reduced-function) genotypes, and because maximum total proA concentrations were achieved in genotypes with homozygous unfavorable or heterozygous LcyE, we recommend not selecting for both reduced-function genes in breeding programs. LcyE exhibited significant segregation distortion (SD) in all the eight, while CrtRB1 in five of eight digenic populations studied, with favorable alleles of both the genes frequently under-represented. MAS using markers reported herein can efficiently increase proA carotenoid concentration in maize. © 2012 The Author(s).

Wu Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Dohnal V.,University of Hradec Kralove | Dohnal V.,Je Purkinje University | Huang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Drug Metabolism Reviews | Year: 2010

Trichothecenes are a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by the fungi of Fusarium genus. Consumers are particularly concerned over the toxicity and food safety of trichothecenes and their metabolites from food-producing animals. The metabolism of T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FX), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), 3-acetyldeoxy-nivalenol (3-aDON), and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-aDON) in rodents, swine, ruminants, poultry, and humans are reviewed in this article. Metabolic pathways of these mycotoxins are very different. The major metabolic pathways of T-2 toxin in animals are hydrolysis, hydroxylation, de-epoxidation, and conjugation. After being transformed to HT-2 toxin, it undergoes further hydroxylation at C-3' to yield 3'-hydroxy-HT-2 toxin, which is considered as an activation pathway, whereas transformation from T-2 to T-2 tetraol is an inactivation pathway in animals. The typical metabolites of T-2 toxin in animals are HT-2 toxin, T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, neosolaniol (NEO), 3'-hydroxy-HT-2, and 3'-hydroxy-T-2, whereas HT-2 toxin is the main metabolite in humans. De-epoxidation is an important pathway for detoxification in animals. De-epoxy products, DOM-1, and de-epoxy-NIV are the main metabolites of DON and NIV in most animals, respectively. However, the two metabolites are not found in humans. Deacetyl can occur rapidly on the acetyl derivatives, 3-aDON, 15-aDON, and FX. DAS is metabolized in animals to 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol (15-MAS) via C-4 deacetylation and then transformed to scirpentriol (SCP) via C-15 deacetylation. Finally, the epoxy is lost, yielding de-epoxy-SCP. De-epoxy-15-MAS is also the main metabolite of DAS. 15-MAS is the main metabolite in human skin. The review on the metabolism of trichothecenes will help one to well understand the fate of these toxins' future in animals and humans, as well as provide basic information for the risk assessment of them for food safety. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

Gu W.-G.,Zunyi Medical University | Liu B.-N.,Zunyi Medical University | Yuan J.-F.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Drug Targeting | Year: 2015

Three integrase (IN) inhibitors have been approved by FDA for clinical treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This stimulates more researchers to focus their studies on this target for anti-HIV drug development. Three steps regarding of IN activity have been validated for inhibitor discovery: strand transfer, 3′-terminal processing, and IN-lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 interaction. Among them, IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction is a new target validated in recent years. Emergence of drug-resistant virus strains makes this target appealing to pharmacologists. Compared with the traditional screening methods such as AlphaScreen and cell-based screening developed for IN inhibitor discovery, virtual screening is a powerful technique in modern drug discovery. Here we summarized the recent advances of virtual-screening targeting IN-LEDFG/p75 interaction. The combined application of virtual screening and experiments in drug discovery against IN-LEDFG/p75 interaction sheds light on anti-HIV research and drug discovery. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.

Zhou Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Huang W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu L.,University of California at Davis | Chen T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Background: As the final stage of leaf development, leaf senescence may cause the decline of photosynthesis and gradual reduction of carbon assimilation, which makes it a possible limiting factor for crop yield. NACs are plant-specific transcription factors and some NACs have been confirmed to play important roles in regulating leaf senescence.Results: In this study, we reported a member of the NAC transcription factor family named OsNAP whose expression is associated with leaf senescence, and investigated its preliminary function during the process of leaf senescence. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the OsNAP transcripts were accumulated gradually in response to leaf senescence and treatment with methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA). A subcellular localization assay indicated that OsNAP is a nuclear-localized protein. Yeast one-hybrid experiments indicated that OsNAP can bind the NAC recognition site (NACRS)-like sequence. OsNAP-overexpressing transgenic plants displayed an accelerated leaf senescence phenotype at the grain-filling stage, which might be caused by the elevated JA levels and the increased expression of the JA biosynthesis-related genes LOX2 and AOC1, and showed enhanced tolerance ability to MeJA treatment at the seedling stage. Nevertheless, the leaf senescence process was delayed in OsNAP RNAi transgenic plants with a dramatic drop in JA levels and with decreased expression levels of the JA biosynthesis-related genes AOS2, AOC1 and OPR7.Conclusions: These results suggest that OsNAP acts as a positive regulator of leaf senescence and this regulation may occur via the JA pathway. © 2013 Zhou et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Liu T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li Z.,Tarim University | Li W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shi C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

A solid acid catalyst, prepared by sulfonating carbonized corn straw, was proved to be an efficient and environmental benign catalyst for the esterification of oleic acid and methanol. Various synthetic parameters, such as carbonization temperature and time were systematically examined. It was found that the catalyst exhibited the highest acid density of 2.64. mmol/g by NaOH titration. A quantitative yield (98%) of ester was achieved, using the most active sulfonated catalyst at 333. K with a 7. wt.% catalyst/oleic acid ratio for 4. h, at a 7:1. M ratio of methanol/oleic acid, while the commercial available Amberlyst-15 only gave 85% yield under the same reaction condition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhao W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Huang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Walker S.L.,University of California at Riverside | Cai P.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Applied Clay Science | Year: 2012

The adsorption of two agricultural isolates of pathogens Escherichia coli and Streptococcus suis on common clay minerals (montmorillonite and kaolinite) was investigated as a function of pH and ionic strength (IS) using batch studies. Electrokinetic properties and interaction energies between the cells and minerals were quantified at different pH (4.0-9.0) and IS (1-100mM KCl and CaCl2) by applying the classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The adsorption isotherms of bacteria on clay minerals conformed to the Freundlich equation. More S. suis cells were found to be adsorbed by the minerals than E. coli, with calculated Kf values 2-8 times higher than those of E. coli. As for the examined two pathogens, their adsorption capacities on montmorillonite were greater than those on kaolinite. Increasing solution pH (≥4.0) or decreasing IS (≤20mM) resulted in less adsorption as a result of the decrease in the measured zeta potentials of bacteria and minerals and subsequently higher electrostatic repulsion. This trend was generally in agreement with predictions from DLVO theory. Conversely, higher IS (≥50mM) reduced cell adsorption, likely due to an additional non-DLVO type interaction (electrosteric repulsion) occurring in the presence of extracellular macromolecules. This finding provides important insight into the pathogenic behavior in soil and associated environments. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Yan S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Qi T.-T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li X.-J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Pan S.-Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2014

A simple one-step solvothermal method was applied for the preparation of magnetite/reduced graphene oxide (MRGO), and the synthetic nanocomposites with a magnetic particle size of ~8nm were used as an adsorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction of isocarbophos (ICP) in different sample matrices prior to gas chromatography (GC) detection. The identity of the nanomaterial was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a uniform size were homogeneously anchored on RGO nanosheets. Increased oxidation degrees of graphite oxide, big particle sizes and large loading amounts of Fe3O4 on the surface of RGO led to a decrease of adsorption capacity of MRGO to ICP. The adsorption behavior of this adsorbent was better fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including adsorbent dosage, extraction time, ionic strength and desorption conditions. And then, a rapid and effective method based on MRGO combined with GC was developed for the determination of ICP in aqueous samples. A linear range from 0.05 to 50ngmL-1 was obtained with a high correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9995, and the limit of detection was found to be 0.0044ngmL-1. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of ICP in five kinds of samples, including apple, rice, lake water, cowpea and cabbage. The recoveries in different sample matrices were in the range from 81.00% to 108.51% with relative standard deviations less than 9.72%. It can be concluded that the proposed analytical method is highly-efficient, sensitive, precise, accurate and practicable. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Xu S.,University of California at Riverside | Xu Y.,University of California at Riverside | Gong L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Plant Journal | Year: 2016

Rice (Oryza sativa) provides a staple food source for more than 50% of the world's population. An increase in yield can significantly contribute to global food security. Hybrid breeding can potentially help to meet this goal because hybrid rice often shows a considerable increase in yield when compared with pure-bred cultivars. We recently developed a marker-guided prediction method for hybrid yield and showed a substantial increase in yield through genomic hybrid breeding. We now have transcriptomic and metabolomic data as potential resources for prediction. Using six prediction methods, including least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP), stochastic search variable selection, partial least squares, and support vector machines using the radial basis function and polynomial kernel function, we found that the predictability of hybrid yield can be further increased using these omic data. LASSO and BLUP are the most efficient methods for yield prediction. For high heritability traits, genomic data remain the most efficient predictors. When metabolomic data are used, the predictability of hybrid yield is almost doubled compared with genomic prediction. Of the 21 945 potential hybrids derived from 210 recombinant inbred lines, selection of the top 10 hybrids predicted from metabolites would lead to a ~30% increase in yield. We hypothesize that each metabolite represents a biologically built-in genetic network for yield; thus, using metabolites for prediction is equivalent to using information integrated from these hidden genetic networks for yield prediction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Society for Experimental Biology.

Bancroft I.,John Innes Center | Morgan C.,John Innes Center | Fraser F.,John Innes Center | Higgins J.,John Innes Center | And 10 more authors.
Nature Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Polyploidy complicates genomics-based breeding of many crops, including wheat, potato, cotton, oat and sugarcane. To address this challenge, we sequenced leaf transcriptomes across a mapping population of the polyploid crop oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and representative ancestors of the parents of the population. Analysis of sequence variation 1 and transcript abundance enabled us to construct twin single nucleotide polymorphism linkage maps of B. napus, comprising 23,037 markers. We used these to align the B. napus genome with that of a related species, Arabidopsis thaliana, and to genome sequence assemblies of its progenitor species, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. We also developed methods to detect genome rearrangements and track inheritance of genomic segments, including the outcome of an interspecific cross. By revealing the genetic consequences of breeding, cost-effective, high-resolution dissection of crop genomes by transcriptome sequencing will increase the efficiency of predictive breeding even in the absence of a complete genome sequence. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wen W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wen W.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Franco J.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Chavez-Tovar V.H.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The tropical maize race Tuxpeño is a well-known race of Mexican dent germplasm which has greatly contributed to the development of tropical and subtropical maize gene pools. In order to investigate how it could be exploited in future maize improvement, a panel of maize germplasm accessions was assembled and characterized using genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. This panel included 321 core accessions of Tuxpeño race from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) germplasm bank collection, 94 CIMMYT maize lines (CMLs) and 54 U.S. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) lines. The panel also included other diverse sources of reference germplasm: 14 U.S. maize landrace accessions, 4 temperate inbred lines from the U.S. and China, and 11 CIMMYT populations (a total of 498 entries with 795 plants). Clustering analyses (CA) based on Modified Rogers Distance (MRD) clearly partitioned all 498 entries into their corresponding groups. No sub clusters were observed within the Tuxpeño core set. Various breeding strategies for using the Tuxpeño core set, based on grouping of the studied germplasm and genetic distance among them, were discussed. In order to facilitate sampling diversity within the Tuxpeño core, a minicore subset of 64 Tuxpeño accessions (20% of its usual size) representing the diversity of the core set was developed, using an approach combining phenotypic and molecular data. Untapped diversity represents further use of the Tuxpeño landrace for maize improvement through the core and/or minicore subset available to the maize community. © 2012 Wen et al.

Wang Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Desneux N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Niu C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

RNA interference (RNAi) has considerable promise for developing novel pest control techniques, especially because of the threat of the development of resistance against current strategies. For this purpose, the key is to select pest control genes with the greatest potential for developing effective pest control treatments. The present study demonstrated that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; HMGR) gene is a potential target for insect control using RNAi. HMGR is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway in insects. A complete cDNA encoding full length HMGR (encoding an 837-aa protein) was cloned from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The HaHMGR (H. armigera HMGR) knockdown using systemic RNAi in vivo inhibited the fecundity of the females, effectively inhibited ovipostion, and significantly reduced vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA levels. Moreover, the oviposition rate of the female moths was reduced by 98% by silencing HaHMGR compared to the control groups. One-pair experiments showed that both the proportions of valid mating and fecundity were zero. Furthermore, the HaHMGR-silenced females failed to lay eggs (approximate 99% decrease in oviposition) in the semi-field cage performance. The present study demonstrated the potential implications for developing novel pest management strategies using HaHMGR RNAi in the control of H. armigera and other insect pests. © 2013 Wang et al.

Zhao W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Walker S.L.,University of California at Riverside | Huang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Cai P.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Water Research | Year: 2014

Bacterial adhesion to granular soil particles is well studied; however, pathogen interactions with naturally occurring colloidal particles (<2μm) in soil has not been investigated. This study was developed to identify the interaction mechanisms between model bacterial pathogens and soil colloids as a function of cell type, natural organic matter (NOM), and solution chemistry. Specifically, batch adhesion experiments were conducted using NOM-present, NOM-stripped soil colloids, Streptococcus suis SC05 and Escherichia coli WH09 over a wide range of solution pH (4.0-9.0) and ionic strength (IS, 1-100mM KCl). Cell characterization techniques, Freundlich isotherm, and Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory (sphere-sphere model) were utilized to quantitatively determine the interactions between cells and colloids. The adhesion coefficients (Kf) of S. suis SC05 to NOM-present and NOM-stripped soil colloids were significantly higher than E. coli WH09, respectively. Similarly, Kf values of S. suis SC05 and E. coli WH09 adhesion to NOM-stripped soil colloids were greater than those colloids with NOM-present, respectively, suggesting NOM inhibits bacterial adhesion. Cell adhesion to soil colloids declined with increasing pH and enhanced with rising IS (1-50mM). Interaction energy calculations indicate these adhesion trends can be explained by DLVO-type forces, with S. suis SC05 and E. coli WH09 being weakly adhered in shallow secondary energy minima via polymer bridging and charge heterogeneity. S. suis SC05 adhesion decreased at higher IS 100mM, which is attributed to the change of hydrophobic effect and steric repulsion resulted from the greater presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on S. suis SC05 surface as compared to E. coli WH09. Hence, pathogen adhesion to the colloidal material is determined by a combination of DLVO, charge heterogeneity, hydrophobic and polymer interactions as a function of solution chemistry. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chang T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yang H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yang H.,National R and anch Center for Conventional Freshwater Fish Processing Wuhan | Cui M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Food Control | Year: 2015

Lactic acid is widely used to inhibit the growth of important microbial pathogens, but its antibacterial mechanism is not yet fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial mechanism of lactic acid on Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes by size measurement, TEM, and SDS-PAGE analysis. The results indicated that 0.5% lactic acid could completely inhibit the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis, E. coli and L. monocytogenes cells. Meanwhile, lactic acid resulted in leakage of proteins of Salmonella, E.coli and Listeria cells, and the amount of leakage after 6h exposure were up to 11.36, 11.76 and 16.29μg/mL, respectively. Measurements of the release of proteins and SDS-PAGE confirmed the disruptive action of lactic acid on cytoplasmic membrane, as well as the content and activity of bacterial proteins. The Z-Average sizes of three pathogens were changed to smaller after lactic acid treatment. The damaged membrane structure and intracellular structure induced by lactic acid could be observed from TEM images. The results suggested that the antimicrobial effect was probably caused by physiological and morphological changes in bacterial cells. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Fang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Fang L.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | Cao Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Huang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

The adsorption to goethite of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) isolated from Pseudomonas putida was investigated using batch adsorption experiments, electrophoretic mobility (EM) measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The adsorption of EPS decreased the point of zero charge of goethite from 7.6 to 3.2, suggesting the formation of negatively charged inner-sphere surface complexes. The adsorption isotherms of EPS on goethite conformed to the Langmuir equation. The adsorption energy constant (K) of EPS on goethite was in the sequence of EPS phosphate-containing moieties > nitrogen-containing moieties > carbon-containing moieties, indicating those containing phosphate were the most strongly adsorbed. FTIR showed ligand exchange of phosphate groups of EPS with surface hydroxyls on goethite. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results further demonstrated phosphate groups of EPS can form monodentate inner-sphere complexes at lower pH 3.0, while form bidentate inner-sphere complexes at higher pH 9.0. The oxidation state of iron in goethite was not changed after the reaction with EPS at different pH values. The information obtained in this study is of fundamental significance for the understanding of the interaction mechanisms between bacteria and minerals in soil and aquatic environments. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Rao Y.,Northwest University, China | Su J.,Northwest University, China | Su J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Immunology Research | Year: 2015

Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease. © 2015 Youliang Rao and Jianguo Su.

Han P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Han P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Niu C.-Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Desneux N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ) in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt)+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor) cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control) was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1%) and spiders (1.5%). The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma). Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation). The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild. © 2014 Han et al.

Han P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Niu C.-Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lei C.-L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Cui J.-J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Desneux N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2010

Transgenic Cry1Ac ? CpTI cotton (CCRI41) is increasingly planted throughout China. However, negative effects of this cultivar on the honey bee Apis mellifera L., the most important pollinator for cultivated ecosystem, remained poorly investigated. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential side effects of transgenic Cry1Ac ? CpTI pollen from cotton on young adult honey bees A. mellifera L. Two points emphasized the significance of our study: (1) A higher expression level of insecticidal protein Cry1Ac in pollen tissues was detected (when compared with previous reports). In particular, Cry1Ac protein was detected at 300 ± 4.52 ng g -1 [part per billion (ppb)] in pollen collected in July, (2) Effects on chronic mortality and feeding behaviour in honey bees were evaluated using a no-choice dietary feeding protocol with treated pollen, which guarantee the highest exposure level to bees potentially occurring in natural conditions (worst case scenario). Tests were also conducted using imidacloprid-treated pollen at a concentration of 48 ppb as positive control for sublethal effect on feeding behaviour. Our results suggested that Cry1Ac ? CpTI pollen carried no lethal risk for honey bees. However, during a 7-day oral exposure to the various treatments (transgenic, imidacloprid- treated and control), honey bee feeding behaviour was disturbed and bees consumed significantly less CCRI41 cotton pollen than in the control group in which bees were exposed to conventional cotton pollen. It may indicate an antifeedant effect of CCRI41 pollen on honey bees and thus bees may be at risk because of large areas are planted with transgenic Bt cotton in China. This is the first report suggesting a potential sublethal effect of CCRI41 cotton pollen on honey bees. The implications of the results are discussed in terms of risk assessment for bees as well as for directions of future work involving risk assessment of CCRI41 cotton. © The Author(s) 2010.

Gu W.-G.,Zunyi Medical University | Zhang X.,Kunming Medical University | Yuan J.-F.,Huazhong Agricultural University
AAPS Journal | Year: 2014

Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is effective in controlling the progression of AIDS, the emergence of drug-resistant strains increases the difficulty of successful treatment of patients with HIV infection. Increasing numbers of patients are facing the dilemma that comes with the running out of drug combinations for HAART. Computational methods play a key role in anti-HIV drug development. A substantial number of studies have been performed in anti-HIV drug development using various computational methods, such as virtual screening, QSAR, molecular docking, and homology modeling, etc. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the application of computational methods to anti-HIV drug development for five key targets as follows: reverse transcriptase, protease, integrase, CCR5, and CXCR4. We hope that this review will stimulate researchers from multiple disciplines to consider computational methods in the anti-HIV drug development process. © 2014 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.

Yao Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yao Y.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Sun H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xu F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Planta | Year: 2011

In an attempt to determine the adaptation strategy to phosphorous (Pi) deficiency in oilseed rape, comparative proteome analyses were conducted to investigate the differences of metabolic changes in two oilseed rape genotypes with different tolerance to low phosphorus (LP). Generally in either roots or leaves, there existed few low phosphorus (LP)-induced proteins shared in the two lines. The LP-tolerant genotype 102 maintained higher Pi concentrations than LP-sensitive genotype 105 when growing hydroponically under the 5-μM phosphorus condition. In 102 we observed the downregulation of the proteins related to gene transcription, protein translation, carbon metabolism, and energy transfer in leaves and roots, and the downregulation of proteins related to leaf growth and root cellular organization. But the proteins related to the formation of lateral root were upregulated, such as the auxin-responsive family proteins in roots and the sucrose-phosphate synthase-like protein in roots and leaves. On the other hand, the LP-sensitive genotype 105 maintained the low level of Pi concentrations and suffered high oxidative pressure under the LP condition, and stress-shocking proteins were pronouncedly upregulated such as the proteins for signal transduction, gene transcription, secondary metabolism, universal stress family proteins, as well as the proteins involved in lipid oxygenation and the disease resistance in both leaves and roots. Although the leaf proteins for growth in 105 were downregulated, the protein expressions in roots related to glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were enhanced to satisfy the requirement of organic acid secretion. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Zhou X.-W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Niu C.-Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Han P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Han P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Desneux N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

The Chinese citrus fruit fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) is a univoltine Tephritidae pest that infests Citrus species. Field trials were conducted in 2010 to determine the potential use of a lure based on enzymatical-hydrolyzed beer yeast as liquid bait (hereafter named H-protein bait) for B. minax in the Hubei province, China. In a citrus orchard, we compared the attractiveness among aqueous solutions of H-protein bait, GF-120 fruit fly bait, sugar-vinegar-wine mixture, torula yeast, and Jufeng attractant when used in traps and in spot sprays, that is, lures used in combination with the insecticide trichlorphon. The H-protein bait was the most attractive lure in traps, ensnaring significantly more adults than sugar-vinegar-wine mixture, torula yeast, and Jufeng attractant, in decreasing efficiency order. In spot sprays those with-protein bait killed significantly more female and male flies within 40 min than those with sugar-vinegar-wine mixture, GF-120, Jufeng attractant, and the control. In addition, the total number of flies killed by H-protein bait during the spot spray duration was higher than other treatments. Our results demonstrated that the H-protein bait may be a useful tool in citrus orchards in China to monitor B. minax populations as well as to manage this pest when used in spot sprays. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.

Liu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu L.,University of California at Davis | Zhou Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Szczerba M.W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2010

SAG39 is a rice (Oryza sativa) gene that encodes a cysteine protease. SAG39 shares 55% homology with the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) senescence-associated protein SAG12. The promoter for SAG39 (PSAG39) was isolated, and SAG39 expression was determined to be relatively low in mature leaves, while not expressed in the endosperm. SAG39 mRNA levels increased as senescence progressed, with maximum accumulation of transcripts at late senescence stages. Gel retardation assays indicated that two cis-acting elements in PSAG39, HBOXCONSENSUSPVCHS and WRKY71OS, responded to leaf senescence. To test if PSAG39 could be useful for increasing rice yields by increasing cytokinin content and delaying senescence, homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by linking PSAG39 to the ipt gene and introducing it into Zhonghua 11. The chlorophyll level of the flag leaf was used to monitor senescence, confirming the stay-green phenotype in PSAG39:ipt transgenic rice versus wild-type plants. Changes in the cytokinin content led to early flowering and a greater number of emerged panicles 70 d after germination in the transgenic rice. Measurements of sugar and nitrogen contents in flag leaves demonstrated a transition in the source-sink relationship in transgenic plants triggered at the onset of leaf senescence, with the nitrogen content decreasing more slowly, while sugars were removed more rapidly than in wild-type plants. The importance of these changes to rice physiology, yield, and early maturation will be discussed. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Long Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xia W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li R.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Genetics | Year: 2011

There is increasing evidence that epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation contribute to phenotypic variation by regulating gene transcription, developmental plasticity, and interactions with the environment. However, relatively little is known about the relationship between the stability and distribution of DNA methylation within chromosomes and the ability to detect trait loci. Plant genomes have a distinct range of target sites and more extensive DNA methylation than animals. We analyzed the stability and distribution of epialleles within the complex genome of the oilseed crop plant Brassica napus. For methylation sensitive AFLP (MSAP) and retrotransposon (RT) epimarkers, we found a high degree of stability, with 90% of mapped markers retaining their allelic pattern in contrasting environments and developmental stages. Moreover, for two distinct parental lines 97% of epialleles were transmitted through five meioses and segregated in a mapping population. For the first time we have established the genetic position for 17 of the 19 centromeres within this amphidiploid species. Epiloci and genetic loci were distributed within distinct clusters, indicating differential detection of recombination events. This enabled us to identify additional significant QTL associated with seven important agronomic traits in the centromeric regions of five linkage groups. © 2011 by the Genetics Society of America.

Gardner J.P.A.,Victoria University of Wellington | Gardner J.P.A.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wei K.-J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Heredity | Year: 2015

A multidisciplinary approach has identified sigmoidal genetic clines on the east and west coasts in central New Zealand where low-density ecological interactions occur between northern and southern lineages of the endemic greenshell mussel, Perna canaliculus. The sigmoidal clines indicate the existence of a mussel hybrid zone in a region of genetic discontinuities for many continuously distributed coastal taxa, in particular marine invertebrates. Examination of the genetic architecture of the hybrid zone revealed the differential contribution of individual microsatellite loci and/or alleles to defining the zone of interaction and no evidence of increased allelic richness or heterozygosity inside versus outside the hybrid zone. Genomics cline analysis identified one locus in particular (Pcan1-27) as being different from neutral expectations, thereby contributing to lineage differentiation. Estimates of contemporary gene flow revealed very high levels of within-lineage self-recruitment and a hybrid zone composed mostly (∼85%) of northern immigrants. Broad scale interpretation of these results is consistent with a zone of genetic interaction that was generated between 0.3 and 1.3 million years before present at a time of pronounced global sea-level change. At that time, the continuous distribution of the greenshell mussel was split into northern and southern groups, which differentiated to become distinct lineages, and which have subsequently been reunited (secondary contact) resulting in the generation of the hybrid zone at ∼42°S. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Dong A.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Xie J.,Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural science | Wang W.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Yu L.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

A novel method was proposed to prepare amino starch by reacting ethylenediamine with previously synthesized dialdehyde starch. Different factors affecting the preparation, i.e., ethylenediamine concentration, ethylenediamine:dialdehyde starch molar ratio, pH, duration and temperature have been studied. The modified starch was characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The amino starch derivatives were evaluated as adsorbents. The adsorption activity for heavy metals such as Cu(II) and Cr(VI) by crosslinked amino starch was studied in terms of adsorption amount, kinetics and isotherm; and adsorbent reuse were also studied. Adsorption processes for Cu(II) and Cr(VI) on crosslinked amino starch fit a Langmuir isotherm, and adsorption for Cu(II) and Cr(VI) from aqueous solution was endothermic reactions. Crosslinked amino starch was very effective for the adsorption of Cu(II) and Cr(VI), and efficient in capacity, recycled. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Zhu M.,University of Delaware | Ginder-Vogel M.,University of Delaware | Ginder-Vogel M.,Calera Corporation | Parikh S.J.,University of Delaware | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Biologically catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation produces biogenic Mn-oxides (BioMnOx) and may serve as one of the major formation pathways for layered Mn-oxides in soils and sediments. The structure of Mn octahedral layers in layered Mn-oxides controls its metal sequestration properties, photochemistry, oxidizing ability, and topotactic transformation to tunneled structures. This study investigates the impacts of cations (H+, Ni(II), Na+, and Ca2+) during biotic Mn(II) oxidation on the structure of Mn octahedral layers of BioMnOx using solution chemistry and synchrotron X-ray techniques. Results demonstrate that Mn octahedral layer symmetry and composition are sensitive to previous cations during BioMnOx formation. Specifically, H+ and Ni(II) enhance vacant site formation, whereas Na+ and Ca2+ favor formation of Mn(III) and its ordered distribution in Mn octahedral layers. This study emphasizes the importance of the abiotic reaction between Mn(II) and BioMnOx and dependence of the crystal structure of BioMnOx on solution chemistry. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Jian-Yong W.,Huazhong Agricultural University
International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications | Year: 2012

This paper concentrates on fault diagnosis. As the traditional Petri net is difficult to precisely descry be the complex relationship between phenomenon and causes, this paper would propose a new self-adaptive weighted fuzzy fault diagnosis approach of Petri net model, based on the combination of fuzzy logical BP neural network and traditional Petri network. This approach would firstly train the weight of model with the improved BP neural network algorithm, and then conduct fault diagnosis with adaptive fuzzy Petri net model. The fault diagnosis of this paper is conducted in flexible manufacturing system, whose results show that this approach is excellent in fault reasoning and self-adaptively, thus it is effective for fault diagnosis and could be adopted in reality.

Fu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ballantyne L.,Charles Sturt University | Lambkin C.L.,Queensland Center for Biodiversity
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

Aquatica, a new genus of aquatic fireflies from mainland China, is described and keyed from males of A. leii (Fu et Ballantyne 2006), A. ficta (Olivier 1909), A. hydrophila (Jeng et al. 2003) and A. lateralis (Motsch. 1860), all transferred from Luciola, and A. wuhana sp. n. from Hubei Province, which is described from adult males and females and larvae. Adult females and larvae are associated for all species. Five species of aquatic fireflies are now recorded from China. Copyright © 2010.

Cai P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Huang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Walker S.L.,University of California at Riverside
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Understanding bacterial pathogens deposition and survival processes in the soil-groundwater system is crucial to protect public health from soilborne and waterborne diseases. However, mechanisms of bacterial pathogen-clay interactions are not well studied, particularly in dynamic systems. Also, little is known about the viability of bacterial pathogens when attached to clays. In this study, a parallel plate flow system was used to determine the deposition kinetics and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on montmorillonite, kaolinite, and goethite over a wide range of ionic strengths (IS) (0.1-100 mM KCl). E. coli O157:H7 deposition on the positively charged goethite is greater than that on the negatively charged kaolinite and montmorillonite. Although the zeta potential of kaolinite was more negative than that of montmorillonite, kaolinite showed a greater deposition for E. coli O157:H7 than montmorillonite, which is attributed to the chemical heterogeneity of clay minerals. Overall, increasing IS resulted in an increase of E. coli O157:H7 deposition on montmorillonite and kaolinite, and a decrease on goethite. Interaction energy calculations suggest that E. coli O157:H7 deposition on clays was largely governed by DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) forces. The loss of bacterial membrane integrity was investigated as a function of time using the Live/Dead BacLight viability assay. During the examined period of 6 h, E. coli O157:H7 retained its viability in suspension and when attached to montmorillonite and kaolinite; however, interaction with the goethite was detrimental. The information obtained in this study is of fundamental significance for the understanding of the fate of bacterial pathogens in soil environments. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Tan W.-F.,Wageningen University | Tan W.-F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Norde W.,Wageningen University | Norde W.,University of Groningen | And 2 more authors.
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2011

The anionic charge of humic substances (HS) plays a major role in the interaction of HS with other components. Therefore, the potential of the polyelectrolyte titration technique to obtain the charge density of HS in simple 1-1 electrolyte solutions has been investigated. Titrations are carried out with an automatic titrator combined with the "Mütek particle charge detector" which allows determination of the Mütek potential and the pH as a function of the added amount of titrant which is a solution of poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC), a cationic strong polyelectrolyte. When the Mütek potential reverses its sign the iso-electric point (IEP) of the polyDADMAC-HS complex is reached. The polyDADMAC/HS mass ratio at the IEP gives information on the HS charge density and from the pH changes in solution an estimate of the charge regulation in the HS-polyDADMAC complex can be obtained. In general, for polyDADMAC-HS complexes an increase in the dissociation of the acid groups of HS is found (charge regulation). The charge regulation decreases with increasing concentration of 1-1 background electrolyte. Cation incorporation can be neglected at 1-1 electrolyte concentrations≤1mmolL -1 and a 1-1 stoichiometry exists between the polyDADMAC and HS charge. However, at these low salt concentrations the charge regulation is substantial. A detailed analysis of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) at pH 5 and a range of KCl concentrations reveals that the anionic charge of PAHA in the complex increases at 5mmolL -1 KCl by 30% and at 150mmolL -1 KCl by 12%. On the other hand, increasing amounts of K + become incorporated in the complex: at 5mmolL -1 KCl 5% and at 150mmolL -1 KCl 24% of the PAHA charge is balanced by K +. By comparing at pH 5 the mass ratios polyDADMAC/PAHA in the complex at the IEP with the theoretical mass ratios of polyDADMAC/PAHA required to neutralize PAHA in the absence of charge regulation and K + incorporation, it is found that at 50mmolL -1 KCl the extra negative charge due to the interaction between polyDADMAC and PAHA is just compensated by K + incorporation in the complex. Therefore, a pseudo 1-1 stoichiometry exists at about 50mmolL -1 1-1 electrolyte concentration and only at this salt concentration polyDADMAC titrations and conventional proton titrations give identical results. Most likely this is also true for other HA samples and other pH values. For FA further study is required to reveal the conditions for which polyDADMAC and proton titrations give identical results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Chen H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Du P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen J.,Wuhan Municipal Public Security Bureau | Hu S.,Wuhan Municipal Public Security Bureau | And 2 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2010

A novel method of ultrasonic probe-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for the determination of chromium(VI) species in water samples. In this procedure, the hydrophobic chelate of chromium(VI) with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) was extracted into the fine droplets of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Hmim][PF6]), which was dispersed into the aqueous sample solution by ultrasonication using an ultrasonic probe. Several variables such as the volume of [Hmim][PF6], sample pH, concentration of APDC, and extraction time were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection of the proposed method was 0.07 ng mL-1 for Cr(VI) and the relative standard deviation for five-replicated determination of 2.0 ng mL-1 Cr(VI) was 9.2%. The proposed method has been also successfully applied to the determination of chromium(VI) species in lake and tap water samples. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Amato N.J.,University of California at Riverside | Zhai Q.,University of California at Riverside | Zhai Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Navarro D.C.,Scripps Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2015

DNA damage, arising from endogenous metabolism or exposure to environmental agents, may perturb the transmission of genetic information by blocking DNA replication and/or inducing mutations, which contribute to the development of cancer and likely other human diseases. Hydroxyl radical attack on the C1', C3' and C4' of 2-deoxyribose can give rise to epimeric 2-deoxyribose lesions, for which the in vivo occurrence and biological consequences remain largely unexplored. Through independent chemical syntheses of all three epimeric lesions of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) and liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry analysis, we demonstrated unambiguously the presence of substantial levels of the α-anomer of dG (α-dG) in calf thymus DNA and in DNA isolated from mouse pancreatic tissues. We further assessed quantitatively the impact of all four α-dN lesions on DNA replication in Escherichia coli by employing a shuttle-vector method. We found that, without SOS induction, all α-dN lesions except α-dA strongly blocked DNA replication and, while replication across α-dA was errorfree, replicative bypass of α-dC and α-dG yielded mainly C→A and G→A mutations. In addition, SOS induction could lead to markedly elevated bypass efficiencies for the four α-dN lesions, abolished the G→A mutation for α-dG, pronouncedly reduced the C→A mutation for α-dC and triggered T→A mutation for α-dT. The preferential misincorporation of dTMP opposite the α-dNs could be attributed to the unique base-pairing properties of the nucleobases elicited by the inversion of the configuration of the N-glycosidic linkage. Our results also revealed that Pol V played a major role in bypassing α-dC, α-dG and α-dT in vivo. The abundance of α-dG in mammalian tissue and the impact of the α-dNs on DNA replication demonstrate for the first time the biological significance of this family of DNA lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

Cotton yield per unit ground area has stagnated for a dozen years in Hubei Province, China, although a series of new high-yielding varieties have been commercialized. A multi-location investigation was carried out in 2008 and 2009 in 13 counties to determine if increased planting population density (PPD) would break the stagnant yield. The results showed that significant differences among the fields existed in theoretical yield, PPD, and bolls per square meter (BPM). The lowest yield of 1 641.1 kg ha -1 was resulted from the lowest PPD of 1.7 plants m -2 and the lowest BPM of 71.8 bolls m -2, while the highest yield of 2 779.7 kg ha -1 was resulted from the highest PPD of 2.5 plants m -2, and the highest BPM of 129.4 bolls m -2. Plant mapping revealed that boll retention rate (BRR) was maintained over 30 or 40%; for the first 17-18 fruiting branches (FBs) and decreased dramatically thereafter, rotten boll rate (RBR) decreased, but open boll rate (OBR) rose first and dropped later with rising FB from the bottom to the top. But BRR, RBR, and OBR were all dropped with the fruiting positions (FPs) extending outwards. The optimum range of plant density would be 2-3 plants m -2 and the proper individual plant structure would be 16-19 FBs with 5-7 FPs for cotton production in Hubei Province. © 2010 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Xu S.,University of California at Riverside | Zhu D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Genomic selection is an upgrading form ofmarker-assisted selection for quantitative traits, and it differs from the traditional marker-assisted selection in that markers in the entire genome are used to predict genetic values and the QTL detection step is skipped. Genomic selection holds the promise to be more efficient than the traditional marker-assisted selection for traits controlled by polygenes. Genomic selection for pure breed improvement is based on marker information and thus leads to cost-saving due to early selection before phenotypes are measured. When applied to hybrid breeding, genomic selection is anticipated to be even more efficient because genotypes of hybrids are predetermined by their inbred parents. Hybrid breeding has been an important tool to increase crop productivity. Here we proposed and applied an advanced method to predict hybrid performance, in which a subset of all potential hybrids is used as a training sample to predict trait values of all potential hybrids. The method is called genomic best linear unbiased prediction. The technology applied to hybrids is called genomic hybrid breeding. We used 278 randomly selected hybrids derived from 210 recombinant inbred lines of rice as a training sample and predicted all 21,945 potential hybrids. The average yield of top 100 selection shows a 16% increase compared with the average yield of all potential hybrids. The new strategy of marker-guided prediction of hybrid yields serves as a proof of concept for a new technology that may potentially revolutionize hybrid breeding.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-13-2015 | Award Amount: 6.43M | Year: 2016

MycoKey aims to generate innovative and integrated solutions that will support stakeholders in effective and sustainable mycotoxin management along food and feed chains. The project will contribute to reduce mycotoxin contamination mainly in Europe and China, where frequent and severe mycotoxin contaminations occur in crops, and where international trade of commodities and contaminated batches are increasing. MycoKey will address the major affected crops maize, wheat and barley, their associated toxigenic fungi and related mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, fumonisins). The project will integrate key information and practical solutions for mycotoxin management into a smart ICT tool (MycoKey App), providing answers to stakeholders, who require rapid, customized forecasting, descriptive information on contamination risk/levels, decision support and practical economically-sound suggestions for intervention. Tools and methodologies will be strategically targeted for cost-effective application in the field and during storage, processing and transportation. Alternative and safe ways to use contaminated batches will be also delivered. The focus of Mycokey will be: i) innovating communications of mycotoxin management by applying ICT, providing input for legislation, enhancing knowledge and networks; ii) selecting and improving a range of tools for mycotoxin monitoring; iii) assessing the use of reliable solutions, sustainable compounds/green technologies in prevention, intervention and remediation. The multi-disciplinary consortium, composed by scientific, industrial and association partners (32), includes 11 Chinese institutions and will conduct the 4 years programme in a framework of international networks.

Chen H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen R.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li S.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

A simple and fast method of low-density extraction solvent-based solvent terminated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (ST-DLLME) was developed for the highly sensitive determination of carbamate pesticides in the water samples by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MSMS). After dispersing, the obtained emulsion cleared into two phases quickly when an aliquot of acetonitrile was introduced as a chemical demulsifier into the aqueous bulk. Therefore, the developed procedure does not need centrifugation to achieve phase separation. It was convenient for the usage of low-density extraction solvents in DLLME. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection for all target carbamate pesticides were in range of 0.001-0.50 ng mL-1 and the precisions were in the range of 2.3-6.8% (RSDs, 2 ng mL-1, n = 5). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of real water samples and good spiked recoveries over the range of 94.5-104% were obtained. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Boyer S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Boyer S.,Montpellier University | Zhang H.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Bulletin of Entomological Research | Year: 2012

This review describes the major stored-product insect species and their resistance to insecticides. The economic importance of the control of those pests is highlighted with a loss of more than one billion US dollars per year worldwide. A detailed common description of species resistance throughout the world has been developed, and we observed 28 recurrent studied species involved in resistance cases disseminated on the five continents. The different mechanisms, including behavioral resistance, were studied particularly on Oryzaephilus surinamensis. The role of detoxifying enzymes and studies on the genetic resistance, involving the kdr mutation mechanisms and the transmission of the genes of resistance, are also described. A chapter clarifying definitions on cross and multiple resistance is enclosed. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Han P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Niu C.-Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lei C.-L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Cui J.-J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Desneux N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2010

Transgenic Cry1Ac+CpTI cotton (CCRI41) is a promising cotton cultivar throughout China but side effects and especially sublethal effects of this transgenic cultivar on beneficial insects remain poorly studied. More specifically potential sublethal effects on behavioural traits of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. have not been formally assessed despite the importance of honey bees for pollination. The goal of our study was to assess potential effects of CCRI41 cotton pollen on visual and olfactory learning by honey bees. After a 7-day oral chronic exposure to honey mixed with either CCRI41 pollen, imidaclopridtreated conventional pollen (used as positive sublethal control) or conventional pollen (control), learning performance was evaluated by the classical proboscis extension reflex (PER) procedure as well as a T-tube maze test. The latter assay was designed as a new device to assess potential side effects of pesticides on visual associative learning of honey bees. These two procedures were complementary because the former focused on olfactory learning while the latter was involved in visual learning based on visual orientation ability.Oral exposure to CCRI41 pollen did not affect learning capacities of honey bees in both the T-tube maze and PER tests. However, exposure to imidacloprid resulted in reduced visual learning capacities in T-tube maze evaluation and decreased olfactory learning performances measured with PER. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of risks of transgenic CCRI41 cotton crops for honey bees. © The Author(s) 2010.

Ouyang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2010

Hybrid sterility is the most common form of postzygotic reproductive isolation in plants. The best-known example is perhaps the hybrid sterility between indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Major progress has been reported recently in rice in identifying and cloning hybrid sterility genes at two loci regulating female and male fertility, respectively. Genetic analyses and molecular characterization of these genes, together with the results from other model organisms especially Drosophila, have advanced the understanding of the processes underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. These findings also have significant implications for crop genetic improvement, by providing the feasibility and strategies for overcoming intersubspecific hybrid sterility thus allowing the development of intersubspecific hybrids. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: KBBE.2012.2.3-05 | Award Amount: 3.84M | Year: 2013

Food security is a global challenge. Within the overall increased demand for food, and particularly meat production, there is also an urgent need to increase supply of protein from sustainable sources. The principle objective of the international and multidisciplinary PROteINSECT consortium is to facilitate the exploitation of insects as an alternative protein source for animal and human nutrition. Advances have been made in rearing of insects for incorporation in animal feed in countries including China and Mali. The consortium brings together expertise in these countries together with European insect breeders and feed production companies in order to optimise systems and set up pilot scale production facilities in the EU. The project will demonstrate the feasibility of the use of insect-derived proteins in animal feed through trials with fish, poultry and pigs. Quality and safety along the food chain from insect protein itself, to incorporation in feed and ultimately human consumption of insect-protein reared livestock, will be evaluated. The use of waste streams that focus on animal rather than plant material for insect rearing will be examined. To optimise the economic viability of the use of insect proteins, uses for the residual flows from the production system will be determined. Life cycle analyses will enable the design of optimised and sustainable production systems suitable for adoption in both ICPC and European countries. Key to uptake is ensuring that a regulatory framework is in place and this will be encouraged by the preparation of a White Paper following consultation with key stakeholders, experts and consumers. PROteINSECT will build a pro-insect platform in Europe to encourage adoption of sustainable protein production technologies in order to reduce the reliance of the feed industry on plant/fish derived proteins in the short term, and promote the acceptance of insect protein as a direct component of human food in the longer term.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2009-1-1-02 | Award Amount: 5.15M | Year: 2010

The 3SR project (Sustainable Solutions for Small Ruminants) brings together a strong and unique international consortium of 14 partners that will mine genomic information of sheep and goats to deliver a step-change in our understanding of the genetic basis of traits underlying sustainable production and health. To do this we will build on existing research resources in the major sheep and goat producing member states to discover and verify (in commercial populations) selectable genetic markers (and causative mutations where possible) for traits critical to sustainable farming, particularly in marginal areas. The targeted sustainability traits are mastitis susceptibility, nematode resistance and ovulation rate. These are traits that would markedly benefit from genetic markers, and traits for which we have evidence that polymorphisms exist with large effects on trait variation. We will apply the latest high-throughput genomics technologies, comparative and functional genomics; together with targeted genome sequencing and extensive in silico analyses to dissect important genetic components controlling these traits. Concurrently, we will deliver significant improvements in available genomic information and technologies for these species, thus having a lasting impact on European research capacity. Our work on genome resources will be undertaken in close collaboration with the International Sheep Genome Consortium and will make use of complementary resources provided by major research projects in Europe, Australasia, USA, Argentina and China. 3SR will provide selectable genetic markers that can be affordably applied by sheep and goat breeders to make important contributions to improving animal health, welfare, sustainability and the long-term competitiveness of small ruminant production in the EU. In addition 3SR will generate a collaborative infrastructure that will enable these orphan species to keep pace with the rapid developments in livestock genomics.

Liu P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu P.,Anhui Agricultural University | Luo L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Long C.-A.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Biological Control | Year: 2013

Kloeckera apiculata strain 34-9 was isolated for its biocontrol effectiveness against Penicillium italicum, the causal agent of blue mold of citrus. Competition for nutrients by strain 34-9 was investigated as a potential mechanism of antagonism. The results indicated that the antagonist inhibited conidial germination of the pathogen in diluted orange juice but did not kill the spores. Exposing these conidia to fresh orange juice increased conidial germination to the control level. In addition, the conidia were able to germinate in conditions of sufficient nutrient availability when co-cultured with K. apiculata. A total of 20 carbonaceous substances and 22 nitrogenous substances were tested for utilization by the antagonist and the pathogen. Twenty nitrogenous compounds were utilized by both K. apiculata and P. italicum, and one additional compound was utilized by P. italicum. P. italicum utilized 17 carbon sources, and K. apiculata utilized only four carbon sources. The addition of yeast nitrogen base without amino acids and ammonium sulfate, l-phenylalanine, l-tryptophan or l-tyrosine to the fruit wound reduced the biocontrol effectiveness of the antagonist. These results support the hypothesis that K. apiculata competes with the phytopathogen for nutrients and vitamins. © 2013.

Xie G.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Xie G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Kato H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Imai R.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2012

MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways have been implicated in stress signalling in plants. In the present study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening to identify partner MAPKs for OsMKK (Oryza sativa MAPK kinase) 6, a rice MAPK kinase, and revealed specific interactions of OsMKK6 with OsMPK3 and OsMPK6. OsMPK3 and OsMPK6 each co-immunoprecipitated OsMKK6, and both were directly phosphorylated by OsMKK6 in vitro. An MBP (myelin basic protein) kinase assay of the immunoprecipitation complex indicated that OsMPK3 and OsMPK6 were activated in response to a moderately low temperature (12°C), but not a severely low temperature (4°C) in rice seedlings. A constitutively active form of OsMKK6, OsMKK6DD, showed elevated phosphorylation activity against OsMPK3 and OsMPK6 in vitro. OsMPK3, but not OsMPK6, was constitutively activated in transgenic plants overexpressing OsMKK6DD, indicating that OsMPK3 is an in vivo target of OsMKK6. Enhanced chilling tolerance was observed in the transgenic plants overexpressing OsMKK6DD. Taken together, our data suggest that OsMKK6 and OsMPK3 constitute a moderately low-temperature signalling pathway and regulate cold stress tolerance in rice. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 Biochemical Society.

Li W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li W.,University of Connecticut | Zhang C.,University of Connecticut
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

This paper introduces an expert interpretation-based Markov chain geostatistical (MCG) framework for classifying land-use/land-cover (LULC) classes from remotely sensed imagery. The framework uses the MCG method to classify uninformed pixels based on the informed pixels and quantify the associated uncertainty. The method consists of the following steps: 1) decide the number of LULC classes and define the physical meaning of each class; 2) obtain a data set of class labels from one or a time series of remotely sensed images through expert interpretation; 3) estimate transiogram models from the data set; and 4) use the Markov chain sequential simulation algorithm to conduct simulations that are conditional to the data set. The simulated results not only provide classified LULC maps but also quantify the uncertainty associated with the classification. A case study with three LULC classes shows that, with increasing number of informed pixels from 0.45% to 1.81% of the total pixels at the resolution of 4.8 m × 4.8 m, the optimal classification accuracy based on maximum probabilities increases from 88.13% to 99.23% and the averaged classification accuracy of realization maps increases from 81.84% to 97.18%. Although it is relatively labor intensive, such an expert interpretation and geostatistical simulation-based approach may provide a useful LULC classification method complementary to existing image processing methods, which usually account for limited expert knowledge and may not incorporate ground observation data or assess the uncertainty associated with classified data. © 2011 IEEE.

Yong Y.-C.,East China University of Science and Technology | Yong Y.-C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhong J.-J.,East China University of Science and Technology | Zhong J.-J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2010

N-Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) is a widespread quorum sensing signal molecule in Gram-negative bacteria and has an important role in many biological processes. However, it is still poorly understood whether or not AHL is present in pollutant treatment processes and further, what its role is in biodegradation processes. In this work, an environmental isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa CGMCC 1.860 that is an aromatic degrader and AHL producer was selected. The AHL plate bioassay indicated that AHL was produced by this strain during biodegradation of aromatic compounds including phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxy-benzoate, salicylate, and naphthalene. The AHLs were identified as N-butyryl- l-homoserine lactone (BHL) and N-hexanoyl- l-homoserine lactone (HHL) by using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS/MS) analyses. Furthermore, phenol biodegradation was improved by exogenously added AHL extracts or by endogenously over-produced AHLs, repressed by abolishment of AHLs production, and not affected by the addition of extracts without AHLs. The results indicated that AHL was involved in the process of biodegradation of pollutants. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Peng T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Moriguchi T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Preferences for the appearance of apples may vary from country to country and region to region, but polished redness is undeniably eye-catching and could easily win a good first impression. Anthocyanin is considered as the dominant pigment responsible for the red coloration in apple. Many reports have been published to elucidate the biosynthetic genes and the upstream regulatory genes involved in the anthocyanin accumulation. This paper reviews the recent studies on the biosynthetic and regulatory genes associated with the pigmentation as well as the external stimuli affecting anthocyanin production in apple. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Qiu G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Qiu G.,University of Connecticut | Huang H.,University of Connecticut | Dharmarathna S.,University of Connecticut | And 3 more authors.
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2011

Manganese oxides were fabricated by hydrothermal reactions of KMnO 4 and MnSO 4 solutions. Crystal structures and morphologies of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The combined effects of temperature, additives of H 2SO 4, and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) on manganese oxide crystal structures were investigated. The key factors affecting catalytic activity and electrochemical performance of manganese oxides were studied using oxidation of benzyl alcohol and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The results indicated that pyrolusite (OMS-7) was formed in 0.1 mol•L -1 MnSO 4 solution with KMnO 4/MnSO 4 molar ratios of 7:18 and 8:17 at 120 °C, respectively. A mixture of OMS-7 and cryptomelane (OMS-2) was prepared when the molar ratio increased. Potassium ion plays an important role in the formation of OMS-2. Steric effects arose from complexation reactions of TBAB and MnSO 4 solutions and facilitated the formation of OMS-2. K-OMS-2 and H-K-OMS-2 were formed by adding 0.1 mol•L -1 TBAB and 0.2 mol•L -1 H 2SO 4 to 0.1 mol•L -1 MnSO 4 solution with a KMnO 4/MnSO 4 molar ratio of 11:14 at 120 °C, respectively. The catalytic oxidation activity was found to follow this trend: H-K-OMS-2 > K-OMS-2 > OMS-7 likely because of the larger amount of acid sites in H-K-OMS-2. However, the exchangeable active oxygen and specific surface area had a greater impact on the electrochemical performance of manganese oxides. The electrocatalytic activity of synthesized manganese oxides for oxygen reduction increased in the order: OMS-7 < H-K-OMS-2 < K-OMS-2. Supercapacitor performance was compared, and the capacitance also increased in the sequence: OMS-7 < H-K-OMS-2 < K-OMS-2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Yang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yuan D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lindsey K.,Durham University | Zhang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding ∼21 nucleotide RNAs that regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in plants and animals. They play an important role in development, abiotic stress, and pathogen responses. miRNAs with their targets have been widely studied in model plants, but limited knowledge is available on the small RNA population of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)an important economic crop, and global identification of related targets through degradome sequencing has not been developed previously. In this study, small RNAs and their targets were identified during cotton somatic embryogenesis (SE) through highthroughput small RNA and degradome sequencing, comparing seedling hypocotyl and embryogenic callus (EC) of G. hirsutum YZ1. A total of 36 known miRNA families were found to be differentially expressed, of which 19 miRNA families were represented by 29 precursors. Twenty-five novel miRNAs were identified. A total of 234 transcripts in EC and 322 transcripts in control (CK) were found to be the targets of 23 and 30 known miRNA families, respectively, and 16 transcripts were targeted by eight novel miRNAs. Interestingly, four trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tas3-siRNAs) were also found in degradome libraries, three of which perfectly matched their precursors. Several targets were further validated via RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5 cDNA ends (RLM 5-RACE). The profiling of the miRNAs and their target genes provides new information on the miRNAs network during cotton SE. © 2013 The Authors.

Zhao Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhou D.-X.,University Paris - Sud
Journal of Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2012

Epigenomes including genome-wide histone modification and DNA methylation profiles are important for genome activity and for defining gene expression patterns of plant development and responses to various environmental conditions. Rice is the most important crop plant and serves as a model for cereal genomics. Rice epigenomic landscape is emerging and the function of chromatin modification regulators in gene expression, transposon repression and plant development is being characterized. Epigenomic variation that gives rise to stable or transgenerational heritable epialleles related to variation of important agronomical traits or stress responses is being characterized in rice. Implication of epigenomic variation in rice heterosis is being exploited. © 2012.

Gao J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Du H.,Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2011

The embedded web technology is increasingly applied in precision agriculture. Based on ARM-Linux development environment, this paper constructs embedded web server and use it in acquisition and transmission of greenhouse information. The system could transmit the collected information effectively with benign stability and expansibility. Microprocessor S3C2440 based on ARM9 is used as the system processing unit, its rich resources can not only realize the system function, but also facilitate the system expansion in the future. Embedded web server Boa and embedded database management system (DBMS) SQLite are selected to construct the software system of web server. Common Gateway Interface (CGI) program is developed to implement dynamic web technology and the interaction with the users. Experiment results show that the working performance of the system is quite stable and can reach the design requirements in real-time data acquisition and remote control. Furthermore, the system has the characteristics of good expansibility, networking flexibility and low cost. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Qiu G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Qiu G.,University of Connecticut | Dharmarathna S.,University of Connecticut | Genuino H.,University of Connecticut | And 3 more authors.
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2011

Vanadium pentoxide nanomaterials were prepared by a facile microwave-assisted refluxing reaction of VOSO 4 and (NH 4) 2S 2O 8 solutions under atmospheric pressure at 100 °C for 1 h. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements. The catalytic oxidation and photocatalytic activities of the synthesized V 2O 5 were evaluated by oxidative cyanation of N,N-dimethylaniline in methanol and photodegradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in aqueous solution, respectively. V 2O 5· xH 2O nanofibers were formed when VOSO 4 and (NH 4) 2S 2O 8 solutions were irradiated with microwaves under reflux conditions at 100 °C within 1 h. Nanostructured V 2O 5 was synthesized by calcining V 2O 5·xH 2O at 280 °C for 12 h. The conversion of N,N-dimethylaniline to N-methyl-N-phenylcyanamide increased with an increase in the amount of V 2O 5 catalyst. As the amount of synthesized V 2O 5 increased from 10 to 15 mg, the conversion of N,N-dimethylaniline to N-methyl-N-phenylcyanamide reached 100%, but the selectivity decreased from 100% to 96%. N-methyl-N-phenylformamide was formed as a byproduct because of use of excess V 2O 5. The as-synthesized V 2O 5 nanomaterials showed comparable photocatalytic performance with commercial TiO 2 (P-25) for the degradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine to NO 3 - in water. This work provides a facile synthesis method of nanosized V 2O 5·xH 2O and V 2O 5 with excellent catalytic activities. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Qu M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li W.,University of Connecticut | Zhang C.,University of Connecticut | Wang S.,Huazhong Agricultural University
GIScience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2012

Mapping the spatial distribution of soil nutrient contents from sample data has received much attention in the recent decade. Accurately mapping soil nutrients purely based on sample data, however, is difficult due to the sparsity and high cost of samples. Land use types usually influence the contents of soil nutrients at the local level and it is desirable to integrate such information into predictive mapping. The area-and-point kriging (AAPK) method, which was proposed recently, may provide an interpolation technique for such purposes. This study mapped the soil total nitrogen (TN) distribution of Hanchuan County, China, using AAPK with sample data (consisting of 402 points) and land use information. Ordinary kriging (OK) and residual kriging (RK) were compared to evaluate the performance of AAPK. Results showed that: (1) land use types had important impacts on the spatial distribution of soil TN; (2) measured data at 135 validation locations had stronger correlation with the data predicted by AAPK than by RK and OK, and the mean error and root mean square error with AAPK were lower than with RK and OK; and (3) AAPK generated smaller error variances than RK and OK did. This suggests that AAPK represents an effective method for increasing the interpolation accuracy of soil TN. It should be pointed out that some of the land use polygons used in this study are very large and complex, which might impact the effectiveness of AAPK in improving the prediction accuracy. Segmenting them into simple smaller areas might be helpful.

Li C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Huang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xu C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhao Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Hybrids between different inbred varieties display novel patterns of gene expression resulted from parental variation in allelic nucleotide sequences. To study the function of chromatin regulators in hybrid gene expression, the histone deacetylase gene OsHDT1 whose expression displayed a circadian rhythm was over-expressed or inactivated by RNAi in an elite rice parent. Increased OsHDT1 expression did not affect plant growth in the parent but led to early flowering in the hybrid. Nonadditive up-regulation of key flowering time genes was found to be related to flowering time of the hybrid. Over-expression of OsHDT1 repressed the nonadditive expression of the key flowering repressors in the hybrid (i.e. OsGI and Hd1) inducing early flowering. Analysis of histone acetylation suggested that OsHDT1 over-expression might promote deacetylation on OsGI and Hd1 chromatin during the peak expression phase. High throughput differential gene expression analysis revealed that altered OsHDT1 levels affected nonadditive expression of many genes in the hybrid. These data demonstrate that nonadditive gene expression was involved in flowering time control in the hybrid rice and that OsHDT1 level was important for nonadditive or differential expression of many genes including the flowering time genes, suggesting that OsHDT1 may be involved in epigenetic control of parental genome interaction for differential gene expression. © 2011 Li et al.

Jiang G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Jiang G.,Heilongjiang University | Zeng J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | He Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Gene | Year: 2014

Chlorophyll content, one of the most important physiological parameters related to plant photosynthesis, is usually used to predict yield potential. To map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying the chlorophyll content of rice leaves, a double haploid (DH) population was developed from an indica/japonica (Zhenshan 97/Wuyujing 2) crossing and two backcross populations were established subsequently by backcrossing DH lines with each of their parents. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were determined by using a spectrophotometer to directly measure the leaf chlorophyll extracts. To determine the leaf chlorophyll retention along with maturation, all measurements were performed on the day of heading and were repeated 30days later. A total of 60 QTLs were resolved for all the traits using these three populations. These QTLs were distributed on 10 rice chromosomes, except chromosomes 5 and 10; the closer the traits, the more clustering of the QTLs residing on common rice chromosomal regions. In general, the majority of QTLs that specify chlorophyll a content also play a role in determining chlorophyll b content. Strangely, chlorophyll content in this study was found mostly to be lacking or to have a negative correlation with yield. In both backcross F1 populations, overdominant (or underdominant) loci were more important than complete or partially dominant loci for main-effect QTLs and epistatic QTLs, thereby supporting previous findings that overdominant effects are the primary genetic basis for depression in inbreeding and heterosis in rice. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Li W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li W.,University of Connecticut | Zhang C.,University of Connecticut
International Journal of Geographical Information Science | Year: 2010

In Markov chain random field (MCRF) simulation of categorical spatial variables with multiple classes, joint modeling of a large number of experimental auto and cross-transiograms is needed. This can be tedious when mathematical models are used to fit the complex features of experimental transiograms. Linear interpolation can be used to perform the joint modeling quickly regardless of the number and the complexity of experimental transiograms. In this paper, we demonstrated the mathematical validity of linear interpolation as a joint transiogram-modeling method, explored its applicability and limitations, and tested its effect on simulated results by case studies with comparison to the joint model-fitting method. Simulations of a five-class variable showed little difference in patterns for interpolated and fitted transiogram models when samples were sufficient and experimental transiograms were in regular shapes; however, they neither showed large difference between these two kinds of transiogram models when samples were relatively sparse, which might indicate that MCRFs were not much sensitive to the difference in the detail of the two kinds of transiogram models as long as their change trends were identical. If available, expert knowledge might play an important role in transiogram modeling when experimental transiograms could not reflect the real spatial variation of the categorical variable under study. An extra finding was that class enclosure feature (i.e., a class always appears within another class) was captured by the asymmetrical property of transiograms and further generated in simulated patterns, whereas this might not be achieved in conventional geostatistics. We conclude that (i) when samples are sufficient and experimental transiograms are reliable, linear interpolation is satisfactory and more efficient than model fitting; (ii) when samples are relatively sparse, choosing a suitable lag tolerance is necessary to obtain reliable experimental transiograms for linear interpolation; (iii) when samples are very sparse (or few) and experimental transiograms are erratic, coarse model fitting based on expert knowledge is recommended as a better choice whereas both linear interpolation and precise model fitting do not make sense anymore. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Chen Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen Q.,Tsinghua University | Chen X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang Q.,Tianjin International Joint Academy of Biotechnology and Medicine | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2013

Histone lysine methylation is an important epigenetic modification in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression. Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation (H3K4me), which can be in a mono-, di-, or trimethylated state, has been shown to play an important role in gene expression involved in plant developmental control and stress adaptation. However, the resetting mechanism of this epigenetic modification is not yet fully understood. In this work, we identified a JmjC domain-containing protein, JMJ703, as a histone lysine demethylase that specifically reverses all three forms of H3K4me in rice. Loss-of-function mutation of the gene affected stem elongation and plant growth, which may be related to increased expression of cytokinin oxidase genes in the mutant. Analysis of crystal structure of the catalytic core domain (c-JMJ703) of the protein revealed a general structural similarity with mammalian and yeast JMJD2 proteins that are H3K9 and H3K36 demethylases. However, several specific features were observed in the structure of c-JMJ703. Key residues that interact with cofactors Fe(II) and N-oxalylglycine and the methylated H3K4 substrate peptide were identified and were shown to be essential for the demethylase activity in vivo. Several key residues are specifically conserved in known H3K4 demethylases, suggesting that they may be involved in the specificity for H3K4 demethylation. © 2013 Chen et al.

Feng J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Long Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shi L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shi J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2012

• Glucosinolates are a major class of secondary metabolites found in the Brassicaceae, whose degradation products are proving to be increasingly important for human health and in crop protection. • The genetic and metabolic basis of glucosinolate accumulation was dissected through analysis of total glucosinolate concentration and its individual components in both leaves and seeds of a doubled-haploid (DH) mapping population of oilseed rape/canola (Brassica napus). • The quantitative trait loci (QTL) that had an effect on glucosinolate concentration in either or both of the organs were integrated, resulting in 105 metabolite QTL (mQTL). Pairwise correlations between individual glucosinolates and prior knowledge of the metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis of different glucosinolates allowed us to predict the function of genes underlying the mQTL. Moreover, this information allowed us to construct an advanced metabolic network and associated epistatic interactions responsible for the glucosinolate composition in both leaves and seeds of B. napus. • A number of previously unknown potential regulatory relationships involved in glucosinolate synthesis were identified and this study illustrates how genetic variation can affect a biochemical pathway. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

Chen X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhou D.-X.,University Paris - Sud
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2013

During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Li T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhong X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhao Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2013

Histone methylation is an important epigenetic modification in chromatin function, genome activity, and gene regulation. Dimethylated or trimethylated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me2/3) marks silent or repressed genes involved in developmental processes and stress responses in plants. However, the role and the mechanism of the dynamic removal of H3K27me2/3 during gene activation remain unclear. Here, we show that the rice (Oryza sativa) Jumonji C (jmjC) protein gene JMJ705 encodes a histone lysine demethylase that specifically reverses H3K27me2/3. The expression of JMJ705 is induced by stress signals and during pathogen infection. Overexpression of the gene reduces the resting level of H3K27me2/3 resulting in preferential activation of H3K27me3-marked biotic stress-responsive genes and enhances rice resistance to the bacterial blight disease pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae. Mutation of the gene reduces plant resistance to the pathogen. Further analysis revealed that JMJ705 is involved in methyl jasmonate-induced dynamic removal of H3K27me3 and gene activation. The results suggest that JMJ705 is a biotic stress-responsive H3K27me2/3 demethylase that may remove H3K27me3 from marked defense-related genes and increase their basal and induced expression during pathogen infection. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Qin F.-J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Sun Q.-W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Huang L.-M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen X.-S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhou D.-X.,University Paris - Sud
Molecular Plant | Year: 2010

Histone lysine methylation plays an important role in heterochromatin formation and reprogramming of gene expression. SET-domain-containing proteins are shown to have histone lysine methyltransferase activities. A large number of SET-domain genes are identified in plant genomes. The function of most SET-domain genes is not known. In this work, we studied the 12 rice (Oryza sativa) homologs of Su(var)3-9, the histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase identified in Drosophila. Several rice SUVHs (i.e. SDG714, SDG727, and SDG710) were found to have an antagonistic function to the histone H3K9 demethylase JMJ706, as down-regulation of these genes could partially complement the jmj706 phenotype and reduced histone H3K9 methylation. Down-regulation of a rice Su(var)3-9 homolog (SUVH), namely SDG728, decreased H3K9 methylation and altered seed morphology. Overexpression of the gene increased H3K9 methylation. SDG728 and other SUVH genes were found to be involved in the repression of retrotransposons such as Tos17 and a Ty1-copia element. Analysis of histone methylation suggested that SDG728-mediated H3K9 methylation may play an important role in retrotransposon repression. © The Author 2010.

Zellerhoff N.,RWTH Aachen | Zellerhoff N.,University of Cologne | Himmelbach A.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Dong W.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2010

Nonhost resistance protects plants against attack by the vast majority of potential pathogens, including phytopathogenic fungi. Despite its high biological importance, the molecular architecture of nonhost resistance has remained largely unexplored. Here, we describe the transcriptional responses of one particular genotype of barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare 'Ingrid') to three different pairs of adapted (host) and nonadapted (nonhost) isolates of fungal pathogens, which belong to the genera Blumeria (powdery mildew), Puccinia (rust), and Magnaporthe (blast). Nonhost resistance against each of these pathogens was associated with changes in transcript abundance of distinct sets of nonhost-specific genes, although general (not nonhost-associated) transcriptional responses to the different pathogens overlapped considerably. The powdery mildew- and blast-induced differences in transcript abundance between host and nonhost interactions were significantly correlated with differences between a near-isogenic pair of barley lines that carry either the Mlo wild-type allele or the mutated mlo5 allele, which mediates basal resistance to powdery mildew. Moreover, during the interactions of barley with the different host or nonhost pathogens, similar patterns of overrepresented and underrepresented functional categories of genes were found. The results suggest that nonhost resistance and basal host defense of barley are functionally related and that nonhost resistance to different fungal pathogens is associated with more robust regulation of complex but largely nonoverlapping sets of pathogen-responsive genes involved in similar metabolic or signaling pathways. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Liu T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ye Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2015

Acquisition of de novo spacer sequences confers CRISPR-Cas with a memory to defend against invading genetic elements. However, the mechanism of regulation of CRISPR spacer acquisition remains unknown. Here we examine the transcriptional regulation of the conserved spacer acquisition genes in Type I-A of Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A. Csa3a, a MarR-like transcription factor encoded by the gene located adjacent to csa1, cas1, cas2 and cas4 cluster, but on the reverse strand, was demonstrated to specifically bind to the csa1 and cas1 promoters with the imperfect palindromic sequence. Importantly, it was demonstrated that the transcription level of csa1, cas1, cas2 and cas4 was significantly enhanced in a csa3a-overexpression strain and, moreover, the Csa1 and Cas1 protein levels were increased in this strain. Furthermore, we demonstrated the hyperactive uptake of unique spacers within both CRISPR loci in the presence of the csa3a overexpression vector. The spacer acquisition process is dependent on the CCN PAM sequence and protospacer selection is random and non-directional. These results suggested a regulation mechanism of CRISPR spacer acquisition where a single transcriptional regulator senses the presence of an invading element and then activates spacer acquisition gene expression which leads to de novo spacer uptake from the invading element. © 2015 The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

Qiu G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Qiu G.,University of Connecticut | Dharmarathna S.,University of Connecticut | Zhang Y.,University of Connecticut | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

Copper oxides have been widely used as catalysts, gas sensors, adsorbents, and electrode materials. In this work, CuO nanomaterials were synthesized via a facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal process in Cu(CH 3COO) 2(0.1 M)/urea(0.5 M) and Cu(NO 3) 2(0.1 M)/urea(0.5 M) aqueous systems at 150 °C for 30 min. The formation processes of copper oxides were investigated, and their catalytic activities were evaluated by the epoxidation of alkenes and the oxidation of CO to CO 2. Their electrochemical properties were compared as supercapacitor electrodes using cyclic voltammetry. Experimental results indicated that copper acetate solution could be hydrolyzed to form urchin-like architectured CuO, and the addition of urea accelerated this transformation. CuO nanoparticles were formed and aggregated into spheroidal form (CuO-1) in Cu(CH 3COO) 2/urea aqueous solution. Cu 2(OH) 2CO 3 was formed as an intermediate, and then thermally decomposed into CuO nanorods (CuO-2) in the Cu(NO 3) 2/urea aqueous system. The synthesized copper oxide nanomaterials exhibited excellent catalytic activities for the epoxidation of alkenes, the oxidation of CO, and pseudocapacitance behavior in potassium hydroxide solution. The increase of specific surface area promoted the catalytic activities and conversions for olefins and CO. CO was oxidized to CO 2 when the applied temperature was higher than 115 °C, and conversion of 100% was obtained at 130 °C. CuO-1 showed higher catalytic activities and capacitance values than those of CuO-2 likely due to the former having a larger specific surface area. This work facilitates the preparation of nanosized CuO materials with excellent catalytic and electrochemical performance. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Fu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ballantyne L.,Charles Sturt University | Lambkin C.,Queensland Museum
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Emeia, a new genus of Luciolinae fireflies, is described from males, flightless females and unusual trilobite-like larvae for a single species pseudosauteri (Geisthardt) transferred from Curtos Motschulsky. Flashing patterns and ecological data are presented. A phylogenetic analysis covering 143 Luciolinae species uses 436 morphological characters of males, females and larvae to support the erection of the new genus. A generic redescription of Curtos Motschulsky from a restricted number of species is given. A key to genera and certain species groups using males is provided. Copyright © 2012 Magnolia Press.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.3-04 | Award Amount: 1.19M | Year: 2013

The continuous growth of the world population translates into a demand of animal protein that can only be achieved through technological advances in farming, intensification, and expansion of farmed land. These pressures, combined with the increasing international trade of animals and their products, will lead to the rapid spread of animal diseases across borders and the emergence of new pathogens. This can have a huge impact on trade, livelihoods and public health. China is no exception and is in fact the worlds largest livestock producer and consumer, with pig and poultry meat being the most consumed meats. Research has many of the answers to prevent and control animal diseases, either through the understanding of their spread (epidemiology) or through better diagnostics for disease detection and surveillance. Both the European Union (EU) and China are two major worldwide players in animal health research. With dozens of institutions working on livestock health, the cross-border coordination and networking of research becomes a top priority to avoid duplication, while maximizing efforts by bringing together new ideas, expertise, technologies and funds. LinkTADs brings together world-class research institutes and experts in cross-border cooperation with the aim to coordinate research between the EU and China, thus improving scientific excellence in animal health (epidemiology and laboratory). Main objectives: identify the priority areas, where joint actions are needed link the research activities carried out on by European and Chinese research programmes ensure a wide-range networking of scientific communities and stakeholders provide a long term vision and achieve coordinated planning on future common research contribute to the international policies of the EU improve the research capacity of organizations by supporting young researchers through exchange programmes and training share the results and methodologies within and outside the consortium.

The requirement for sustainable food production is a global issue to which the EU contributes as a major livestock producer. It is critical to improve animal production efficiency while sustaining environmentally friendly milk production. More profitable dairy production requires increased milk yield, cow health, longevity and fertility; reduced environmental footprint and optimised use of inputs. These are multifactorial problems to achieve. GplusE aims to identify the genotypes controlling biological variation in the important phenotypes of dairy cows, to appreciate how these are influenced by environmental and management factors and thus allow more informed and accurate use of genomic selection. GplusE will link new genomic data in dairy cows to a comprehensive array of phenotypic information going well beyond those existing traits recorded by dairy breeding organisations. It will develop systems that will focus herd and cow management on key time points in production that have a major influence on the rest of the productive cycle including efficiency, environment, physiological status, health, fertility and welfare. This will significantly advance the science, efficiency and management practices in dairy production well beyond the current state-of-the art. The major bioinformatics element of the proposal will illuminate the bovine genome and ensure a reverse flow of information to annotate human and other mammalian genomes; it will ensure training of animal scientists (PhDs & Postdocs) to a high skill level in the use of bioinformatics. The end result of this project will be a comprehensive, integrated identification of genomic-phenotypic associations relevant to dairy production. This information will be translated into benefits for animal breeding and management that will considerably improve sustainable dairy production. It will provide basic biological information into the mechanisms by which genotype, environment and their interaction influence performance.

Yong Y.-C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Yong Y.-C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhong J.-J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2010

We are facing serious environmental challenges, and environmental biotechnology is an enabling technology to reduce or eliminate pollution. In recent years, environmental pollution in China has been receiving great attention, and this paper provides an up-to-date review on progress in biodegradation research in China. This progress includes the isolation of extremophilic microorganisms for pollutant degradation in extreme conditions and the study of genes and enzymes related to biodegradation pathways. Biodegradation engineering has potential as an interesting and powerful platform, where genetic engineering, process engineering, and signal transduction engineering are applied together. In addition, pollutant treatment combined with the production of renewable sources of bioenergy by microorganisms is attractive. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Pu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Pu L.,Anhui Agricultural University | Jingfan F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Kai C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
FEMS Yeast Research | Year: 2014

The yeast Kloeckera apiculata strain 34-9 is an antagonist with biological control activity against postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. In a previous study it was demonstrated that K. apiculata produced the aromatic alcohol phenylethanol. In the present study, we found that K. apiculata was able to form biofilm on citrus fruit and embed in an extracellular matrix, which created a mechanical barrier interposed between the wound surface and pathogen. As a quorum-sensing molecule, phenylethanol can promote the formation of filaments by K. apiculata in potato dextrose agar medium, whereas on the citrus fruit, the antagonist remains as yeast after being treated with the same concentration of phenylethanol. It only induced K. apiculata to adhere and form biofilm. Following genome-wide computational and experimental identification of the possible genes associated with K. apiculata adhesion, we identified nine genes possibly involved in triggering yeast adhesion. Six of these genes were significantly induced after phenylethanol stress treatment. This study provides a new model system of the biology of the antagonist-pathogen interactions that occur in the antagonistic yeast K. apiculata for the control of blue mold on citrus caused by Penicillium italicum. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wang M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Jiang Y.-Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Jiang Y.-Y.,Shandong University of Technology | Kim K.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2011

The standard molecular clock describes a constant rate of molecular evolution and provides a powerful framework for evolutionary timescales. Here, we describe the existence and implications of a molecular clock of folds, a universal recurrence in the discovery of new structures in the world of proteins. Using a phylogenomic structural census in hundreds of proteomes, we build phylogenies and time lines of domains at fold and fold superfamily levels of structural complexity. These time lines correlate approximately linearly with geological timescales and were here used to date two crucial events in life history, planet oxygenation and organism diversification. We first dissected the structures and functions of enzymes in simulated metabolic networks. The placement of anaerobic and aerobic enzymes in the time line revealed that aerobic metabolism emerged about 2.9 billion years (giga-annum; Ga) ago and expanded during a period of about 400 My, reaching what is known as the Great Oxidation Event. During this period, enzymes recruited old and new folds for oxygen-mediated enzymatic activities. Remarkably, the first fold lost by a superkingdom disappeared in Archaea 2.6 Ga ago, within the span of oxygen rise, suggesting that oxygen also triggered diversification of life. The implications of a molecular clock of folds are many and important for the neutral theory of molecular evolution and for understanding the growth and diversity of the protein world. The clock also extends the standard concept that was specific to molecules and their timescales and turns it into a universal timescale-generating tool. © 2010 The Author.

Glinka E.M.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Liao Y.-C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Fungal Biology | Year: 2011

Fusarium asiaticum is the predominant causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in China. When grown in liquid cultures containing potato tuber extract as the sole carbon source, F. asiaticum (strain 7071) from wheat (China) produced pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), and pectin lyase (PNL). The activity of these pectolytic enzymes was detected by a gel diffusion assay. Three forms of PME were identified in a culture filtrate of F. asiaticum. Two forms of PME with molecular weights of 31 kDa and 42.5 kDa, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), were purified using a combination of chromatographic techniques. These PMEs did not bind to Concanavalin A (Con A), which was confirmed by rechromatography using a Con A agarose column. The 31 kDa purified PME was thermostable in a temperature range of 25-55 °C. The optimal pH for the PME of F. asiaticum was 6.5. This research provides the basis for future investigations of pectolytic enzymes from F. asiaticum. © 2011 British Mycological Society.

Liu N.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Tu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Tang W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Gao W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2014

microRNAs (miRNAs) are 20-24 nucleotide non-coding small RNAs that play important roles in plant development. The stages of cotton fiber development include initiation, elongation, secondary wall thickening (SWT) and maturation. We constructed seven fiber RNA libraries representing the initiation, elongation and SWT stages. In total, 47 conserved miRNA families and seven candidate miRNAs were profiled using small RNA sequencing. Northern blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses revealed the dynamic expression of miRNAs during fiber development. In addition, 140 targets of 30 conserved miRNAs and 38 targets of five candidate miRNAs were identified through degradome sequencing. Analysis of correlated expression between miRNAs and their targets demonstrated that specific miRNAs suppressed the expression of transcription factors, SBP and MYB, a leucine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, a pectate lyase, a-tubulin, a UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 to affect fiber development. Histochemical analyses detected the biological activity of miRNA156/157 in ovule and fiber development. Suppressing miRNA156/157 function resulted in the reduction of mature fiber length, illustrating that miRNA156/157 plays an essential role in fiber elongation. © 2014 The Authors.

Yang L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Holst-Jensen A.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | Morisset D.,Slovenian National Institute of Biology | And 2 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2013

Detection methods and data from molecular characterization of genetically modified (GM) events are needed by stakeholders of public risk assessors and regulators. Generally, the molecular characteristics of GM events are incomprehensively revealed by current approaches and biased towards detecting transformation vector derived sequences. GM events are classified based on available knowledge of the sequences of vectors and inserts (insert knowledge). Herein we present three insert knowledge-adapted approaches for characterization GM events (TT51-1 and T1c-19 rice as examples) based on paired-end re-sequencing with the advantages of comprehensiveness, accuracy, and automation. The comprehensive molecular characteristics of two rice events were revealed with additional unintended insertions comparing with the results from PCR and Southern blotting. Comprehensive transgene characterization of TT51-1 and T1c-19 is shown to be independent of a priori knowledge of the insert and vector sequences employing the developed approaches. This provides an opportunity to identify and characterize also unknown GM events.

News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

COLUMBIA, Mo. - Invisible to the naked eye, cyst nematodes are a major threat to agriculture, causing billions of dollars in global crop losses every year. A group of plant scientists, led by University of Missouri researchers, recently found one of the mechanisms cyst nematodes use to invade and drain life-sustaining nutrients from soybean plants. Understanding the molecular basis of interactions between plants and nematodes could lead to the development of new strategies to control these major agricultural pests and help feed a growing global population. Soybeans are a major component for two-thirds of the world's animal feed and more than half the edible oil consumed in the United States, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Cyst nematodes jeopardize the healthy production of this critical global food source by "hijacking" the soybean plants' biology. "Cyst nematodes are one of the most economically devastating groups of plant-parasitic nematodes worldwide," said Melissa Goellner Mitchum, a researcher in the Bond Life Sciences Center and an associate professor in the Division of Plant Sciences at MU. "These parasites damage root systems by creating a unique feeding cell within the roots of their hosts and leeching nutrients out of the soybean plant. This can lead to stunting, wilting and yield loss for the plant. We wanted to explore the pathways and mechanisms cyst nematodes use to commandeer soybean plants." About 15 years ago, Mitchum and colleagues unlocked clues into how nematodes use small chains of amino acids, or peptides, to feed on soybean roots. Using next-generation sequencing technologies that were previously unavailable, Michael Gardner, a graduate research assistant, and Jianying Wang, a senior research associate in Mitchum's lab, made a remarkable new discovery -- nematodes possess the ability to produce a second type of peptide that can effectively "take over" plant stem cells that are used to create vital pathways for the delivery of nutrients throughout the plant. Researchers compared these peptides with those produced by plants and found that they were identical to the ones the plants use to maintain vascular stem cells, known as CLE-B peptides. "Plants send out these chemical signals to its stem cells to begin various functions of growth, including the vascular pathway that plants use to transport nutrients," Mitchum said. "Advanced sequencing showed us that nematodes use identical peptides to activate the same process. This 'molecular mimicry' helps nematodes produce the feeding sites from which they drain plant nutrients." To test their theory, Xiaoli Guo, a post-doctoral researcher in Mitchum's lab and first author of the study, synthesized the CLE-B nematode peptide and applied it to the vascular cells of Arabidopsis, a model plant system used in plant research. They found that the nematode peptides triggered a growth response in Arabidopsis much in the same way as the plants' own peptides affected development. Next, the team "knocked out" the genes Arabidopsis plants use to signal to their own stem cells. Here, the nematodes didn't do as well because the parasites were unable to signal to the plant and the nematode's feeding site was compromised, Guo says. "When a nematode attacks the root, it selects vascular stem cells that are located along the root," Mitchum said. "By knocking out that pathway, we reduced the size of the feeding site that nematodes use to control the plant. This is the first time we've been able to show that the nematode is modulating or controlling the vascular plant pathway. Understanding how plant-parasitic nematodes modulate host plants to their own benefit is a crucial step in helping to create pest-resistant plants. If we can block those peptides and the pathways nematodes use to overtake the soybean plant, then we can enhance resistance for this very valuable global food source." The study "Identification of cyst nematode B-type CLE peptides and modulation of the vascular stem cell pathway for feeding cell formation," recently was published by PLOS Pathogens. This work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (IOS-1456047), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (2012-67013-19345) and Huazhong Agricultural University Scientific and Technological Self-Innovation Foundation (Program No. 2016RC004). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies. Editor's Note: For more on the story please see: https:/

Jin S.,University of Pennsylvania | Jin S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Daniell H.,University of Pennsylvania
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Chloroplasts are known to sustain life on earth by providing food, fuel, and oxygen through the process of photosynthesis. However, the chloroplast genome has also been smartly engineered to confer valuable agronomic traits and/or serve as bioreactors for the production of industrial enzymes, biopharmaceuticals, bioproducts, or vaccines. The recent breakthrough in hyperexpression of biopharmaceuticals in edible leaves has facilitated progression to clinical studies by major pharmaceutical companies. This review critically evaluates progress in developing new tools to enhance or simplify expression of targeted genes in chloroplasts. These tools hold the promise to further the development of novel fuels and products, enhance the photosynthetic process, and increase our understanding of retrograde signaling and cellular processes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Hu C.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural science | Qi Y.-C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2011

Two long-term field experiments, each consisting of three treatments (organic compost treatment, chemical fertilizer treatment and an untreated control) were established in 1993 and 1997, respectively. Soil samples were collected from each plot in June 2004 and 2005 after crop harvest and were used to determine soil physical-chemical properties, biological and biochemical activity, and the nematode community. Soil physicochemical parameters, microbial biomass, biological activities and nematode communities were significantly influenced by long-term application of organic compost. In general, soil total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline-hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium, microbial biomass, basal respiration, urease activities, total number of nematodes and bacterial-feeding nematodes were significantly higher in the compost plots than in the chemical fertilizer and control plots at two experimental sites and two sampling dates. Soil bulk density and pH values were significantly lower in the compost plots. We conclude that soil physical-chemical properties, size and activity of soil microbial biomass, metabolic quotient (qCO2), urease activity, total number of nematodes and bacteria-feeding nematodes could be used as indicators of soil quality. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Luo Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yang C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

As a primary source of lycopene in the human diet, fleshy fruits synthesize this compound both de novo and via chlorophyll metabolism during ripening. SlSGR1 encodes a STAY-GREEN protein that plays a critical role in the regulation of chlorophyll degradation in tomato leaves and fruits. We report that SlSGR1 can regulate tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lycopene accumulation through direct interaction with a key carotenoid synthetic enzyme SlPSY1, and can inhibit its activity. This interaction with SlSGR1 mediates lycopene accumulation during tomato fruit maturation. We confirmed this inhibitory activity in bacteria engineered to produce lycopene, where the introduction of SlSGR1 reduced dramatically lycopene biosynthesis. The repression of SlSGR1 in transgenic tomato fruits resulted in altered accumulation patterns of phytoene and lycopene, whilst simultaneously elevating SlPSY1 mRNA accumulation and plastid conversion at the early stages of fruit ripening, resulting in increased lycopene and β-carotene (four- and nine-fold, respectively) in red ripe fruits. SlSGR1 influences ethylene signal transduction via the altered expression of ethylene receptor genes and ethylene-induced genes. Fruit shelf-life is extended significantly in SlSGR1-repressed tomatoes. Our results indicate that SlSGR1 plays a pivotal regulatory role in color formation and fruit ripening regulation in tomato, and further suggest that SlSGR1 activity is mediated through direct interaction with PSY1. © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

Wang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hu H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Huang J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Bt rice may become the first commercially released staple food crop transformed with insecticidal genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). However, little information is available concerning the insecticidal protein released from Bt rice into the environment. A 3-year study was conducted to determine the amount, persistence and movement of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein released from Bt-Minghui63 (Bt-MH63) and Bt-Shanyou63 rice (Bt-SY63) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Cry1Ab/1Ac protein was detected in the water of Bt rice fields during the growth stage (below 0.03 ng ml-1 water), but it was not detected in the water of non-Bt fields. A basal level of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein was found in the rhizosphere soil of non-Bt rice (about 0.75 ng g-1 dried soil), and the amount of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein in the rhizosphere soil of Bt rice (about 1.49 ng g-1 dried soil) was significantly higher than that at the basal level. The amount of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein in soil did not significantly differ between non-Bt fields irrigated using water from Bt fields or from a reservoir. In the surface and 10 cm deep soil, the amount of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein differed significantly between Bt and non-Bt rice fields during the harvest period. The amount of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein in the rhizosphere soil of Bt rice was only significantly higher than the basal level during the first two months after harvest. Under hydroponic conditions, Bt rice released detectable Cry1Ab/1Ac protein to the nutrient solution, but artificial wounding in roots did not enhance the releasing of this protein. Based on the above results, we conclude that Bt-MH63 and Bt-SY63 rice can release detectable amounts of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein into soil and field water in the growth period but that the Bt protein does not move into adjacent paddies along with the irrigating water and does not persist in the soil for more than two months. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhang C.,China Agricultural University | Wang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang W.,China Agricultural University | Zhang F.,China Agricultural University
Plant and Soil | Year: 2013

Aims: Rice is a well-known silica-accumulating plant. The dumbbell-shaped silica bodies in the silica cells in rice leaf epidermis are formed via biosilicification, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Methods: Leaves at different developmental stages were collected to investigate silica cell differentiation by analyzing structures and silicon localization in the silica cells. Results: Exogenous silicon application increased both shoot and root biomass. When silicon was supplied, silica cells in the leaf epidermis developed gradually into a dumbbell-shape and became increasingly silicified as leaves aged. Silicon deposition in the silica cells was not completed until the leaf was fully expanded. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that lignification of silica cell walls precedes silicon deposition in the lumen of silica cells. The organized needle-like silica microstructures were formed by moulding the inner cell walls and filling up the lumen of the silica cell following leaf maturation. Conclusions: Two processes were involved in silicon deposition: (1) the silica cell wall was lignified and silicified, and then (2) the silicon was deposited gradually in silica cells as leaves aged. Silica body formation was not completed until the leaf was fully mature. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Li X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yuan D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang J.,New Mexico State University | Lin Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Cotton fiber is an ideal model to study cell elongation and cell wall construction in plants. During fiber development, some genes and proteins have been reported to be specifically or preferentially expressed. Mapping of them will reveal the genomic distribution of these genes, and will facilitate selection in cotton breeding. Based on previous reports, we designed 331 gene primers and 164 protein primers, and used single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) to map and integrate them into our interspecific BC1 linkage map. This resulted in the mapping of 57 loci representing 51 genes or proteins on 22 chromosomes. For those three markers which were tightly linked with quantitative trait loci (QTLs), the QTL functions obtained in this study and gene functions reported in previous reports were consistent. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of 52 polymorphic functional primers showed that 21 gene primers and 17 protein primers had differential expression between Emian22 (Gossypium hirsutum) and 3-79 (G. barbadense). Both RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of the three markers tightly linked with QTLs were consistent with QTL analysis and field experiments. Gene Ontology (GO) categorization revealed that almost all 51 mapped genes belonged to multiple categories that contribute to fiber development, indicating that fiber development is a complex process regulated by various genes. These 51 genes were all specifically or preferentially expressed during fiber cell elongation and secondary wall biosynthesis. Therefore, these functional gene-related markers would be beneficial for the genetic improvement of cotton fiber length and strength.

Chen H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Opit G.P.,Oklahoma State University | Sheng P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang H.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Biological Control | Year: 2011

The ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important biological control agent for lepidopterous pests of stored products. We investigated the effects of low temperature storage on the quality of adult parasitoids and their progeny. Newly emerged females were stored for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 70 days at 5 ± 1 °C. Several reproductive and developmental parameters were then assessed to determine the quality of the adult parasitoids and their progeny. After more than 30. days of storage, there was a decrease in parental parasitism, but low temperature storage of parents had no effect on parasitism of the F1 generation. Parental longevity and fecundity decreased after more than 20. days of storage, but there was no effect of storage duration on the fecundity and longevity of the F1 generation until a storage duration of 50. days. Development time varied with storage duration but differences were within 2. days. Storage duration had no effect on the sex ratio of F1 and F2 generations. Our data show that H. hebetor can be cold stored for up to 20. days without adversely affecting the performance of the parasitoid. Therefore, short-term storage of H. hebetor adults could be used for maintaining and accumulating large numbers of parasitoids in mass rearing programs. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Hu C.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural science | Qi Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2013

An eleven years long-term field experiment for soil fertility and crop yield improvement had been conducted at China Agricultural University's Qu-Zhou experiment station since 1993. The field experiment included three treatments: effective microorganisms (EM) compost treatment; traditional compost treatment; and unfertilized control. The results revealed that long-term application of EM compost gave the highest values for the measured parameters and the lowest values in the control plot. The application of EM in combination with compost significantly increased wheat straw biomass, grain yields, straw and grain nutrition compared with traditional compost and control treatment. Wheat straw biomass, grain yields, straw and grain nutrition were significantly higher in compost soils than in untreated soil. This study indicated that application of EM significantly increased the efficiency of organic nutrient sources. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Shi W.,Hunan Agricultural University | Shi W.,International Rice Research Institute | Muthurajan R.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Rahman H.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

High night temperatures (HNTs) can reduce significantly the global rice (Oryza sativa) yield and quality. A systematic analysis of HNT response at the physiological and molecular levels was performed under field conditions. Contrasting rice accessions, N22 (highly tolerant) and Gharib (susceptible), were evaluated at 22°C (control) and 28°C (HNT). Nitrogen (N) and nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) translocation from different plant tissues into grains at key developmental stages, and their contribution to yield, grain-filling dynamics and quality aspects, were evaluated. Proteomic profiling of flag leaf and spikelets at 100% flowering and 12 d after flowering was conducted, and their reprogramming patterns were explored. Grain yield reduction in susceptible Gharib was traced back to the significant reduction in N and NSC translocation after flowering, resulting in reduced maximum and mean grain-filling rate, grain weight and grain quality. A combined increase in heat shock proteins (HSPs), Ca signaling proteins and efficient protein modification and repair mechanisms (particularly at the early grain-filling stage) enhanced N22 tolerance for HNT. The increased rate of grain filling and efficient proteomic protection, fueled by better assimilate translocation, overcome HNT tolerance in rice. Temporal and spatial proteome programming alters dynamically between key developmental stages and guides future transgenic and molecular analysis targeted towards crop improvement. © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

Wang P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xing Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li Z.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li Z.,International Rice Research Institute | Yu S.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

To facilitate marker-assisted transfer of desirable genes for improvement of yield traits, we used a set of backcross recombinant inbred lines (BRIL) derived from two elite parental lines, 'Zhenshan97' and '93-11', to resolve a quantitative trait loci (QTL) cluster for heading date and yield-related traits in rice. Four main-effect QTL (qHD6. 1, qHD6. 2, qHD7, and qHD8) and four epistatic QTL affecting heading date in the BRIL were detected in two experimental trials. The major QTL (qHD8) was confirmed in three heterogeneous inbred families (HIF) that segregated for this target region, and narrowed down to a 20-kb segment in a large HIF-derived population. qHD8 was found to interact with qHD7 and had a pleiotropic effect responsible for heading date and yield components. To test usability of the identified QTL in rice improvement, we further developed near-isogenic lines (NIL) containing one or more target genes by marker-assisted transfer of '93-11' alleles at qHD8, qHD7, and qHD6. 1, and the GS3 gene for grain size into 'Zhenshan97'. The pyramid line NIL(qHD8 + GS3) had higher yield potential, longer grains, and a more suitable heading date than 'Zhenshan97'. Comparison of the NIL showed existence of epistasis between alleles at different loci and background effect on qHD8, which are very important for pyramiding of desirable alleles at the target QTL. These results will be particularly useful not only to understand the genetic basis of yield-related traits but also to improve the efficiency of marker-assisted selection for favorable loci in rice breeding programs. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Wang X.,China Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yang P.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2012

Moss species Physcomitrella patens has been used as a model system in plant science for several years, because it has a short life cycle and is easy to be handled. With the completion of its genome sequencing, more and more proteomic analyses were conducted to study the mechanisms of P. patens abiotic stress resistance. It can be concluded from these studies that abiotic stresses could lead to the repression of photosynthesis and enhancement of respiration in P. patens, although different stresses could also result in specific responses. Comparative analysis showed that the responses to drought and salinity were very similar to that of abscisic acid, while the response to cold was quite different from these three. Based on previous studies, it is proposed that sub-proteomic studies on organelles or protein modifications, as well as functional characterization of those candidate proteins identified from proteomic studies will help us to further understand the mechanisms of abiotic stress resistance in P. patens. © 2012 Wang, Liu and Yang.

Tang W.,CAS Institute of Botany | Ji Q.,CAS Institute of Botany | Ji Q.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Huang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Light and the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulate overlapping processes in plants, such as seed germination and seedling development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between light and ABA signaling is largely unknown. Here, we show that FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) and FAR-RED IMPAIRED RESPONSE1 (FAR1), two key positive transcription factors in the phytochrome A pathway, directly bind to the promoter of ABA-Insensitive5 and activate its expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Disruption of FHY3 and/or FAR1 reduces the sensitivity to ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination, seedling development, and primary root growth. The seed germination of the fhy3 mutant is also less sensitive to salt and osmotic stress than that of the wild type. Constitutive expression of ABA-Insensitive5 restores the seed germination response of fhy3. Furthermore, the expression of several ABA-responsive genes is decreased in the fhy3 and/or far1 mutants during seed imbibition. Consistently, FHY3 and FAR1 transcripts are up-regulated by ABA and abiotic stresses. Moreover, the fhy3 and far1 mutants have wider stomata, lose water faster, and are more sensitive to drought than the wild type. These findings demonstrate that FHY3 and FAR1 are positive regulators of ABA signaling and provide insight into the integration of light and ABA signaling, a process that may allow plants to better adapt to environmental stresses. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Ding Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang S.,China Agricultural University
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2010

The vision navigation control hardware system was set up in the combine harvester and a histogram fusion algorithm for multi-frame navigation lines was put forward. On the basis of kinematics of simplified two-wheel vehicle, model one fuzzy PD controller was constructed. The tests in wheat field show that the rotation and projection algorithm with histogram fusion algorithm is valid to recognize the cut/uncut line, and can improve the precision of the system and robustness, the change of harvesting width is in 0.18 m during the working speed, and it could come back to the right path in 2-5 s when given manual disturbance using steering wheel.

Deng Z.,Shaanxi Normal University | Zhu H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Peng B.,University Utrecht | Chen H.,Shaanxi Normal University | And 4 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2012

This paper describes a simple, mild, and environmentally friendly approach to synthesize polystyrene/Ag (PS/Ag) nanocomposite spheres, which makes use of both reducing and stabilizing functions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in aqueous media. In this approach, monodisperse polystyrene (PS) spheres, which are used as templates for the synthesis of core-shell nanocomposite spheres, are sulfonated first. Then, [Ag(NH 3) 2] + ions are adsorbed onto the surface of the PS template spheres via electrostatic attraction between -SO 3H groups (grafted on the surface of the PS template spheres) and [Ag(NH 3) 2] + ions. [Ag(NH 3) 2] + ions are then reduced by and simultaneously protected by PVP. In this way, the PS/Ag nanocomposite spheres in aqueous media are obtained through a so-called one-pot method. Neither additional reducing agents nor toxic organic solvents are utilized during the synthesis process. Furthermore, the coverage degree and the particle size of Ag nanoparticles on PS/Ag nanocomposite spheres is easily tuned by changing the concentration of [Ag(NH 3) 2] + ions in aqueous media. Moreover, these PS/Ag nanocomposite spheres can be used as catalyst for the reduction of organic dyes and as antibacterial agents against Salmonella and Escherichia coli. In the present study, these PS/Ag nanocomposite spheres exhibit excellent catalytic properties (both in efficiency and recyclability) for the reduction of organic dyes, and the preliminary antibacterial assays indicate that these PS/Ag nanocomposite spheres also possess extraordinary antibacterial abilities against Salmonella and Escherichia coli. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Zhao Q.,Wuhan University | Zou J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Meng J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Mei S.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural Science | Wang J.,Wuhan University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Polyploidization has played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, and newly formed allopolyploids have experienced rapid transcriptomic changes. Here, we compared the transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Brassica allohexaploid and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35,644,409 sequence reads were generated, and 32,642 genes were aligned from the data. Totals of 29,260, 29,060, and 29,697 genes were identified in Brassica rapa, Brassica carinata, and Brassica allohexaploid, respectively. We compared 7,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, as well as 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid. We hypothesized that the higher ploidy level as well as secondary polyploidy might have influenced these changes. The majority of the 3,184 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its paternal parent, B.rapa, were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant-pathogen interactions, photosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Among the 2,233 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its maternal parent, B. carinata, several played roles in plant-pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosomes, limonene and pinene degradation, photosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the allohexaploid and its paternal parent than between it and its maternal parent, possibly partly because of cytoplasmic and maternal effects. Specific functional categories were enriched among the 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid compared with the additive genes; the categories included response to stimulus, immune system process, cellular process, metabolic process, rhythmic process, and pigmentation. Many transcription factor genes, methyltransferases, and methylation genes showed differential expression between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Our results demonstrate that the Brassica allohexaploid can generate extensive transcriptomic diversity compared with its parents. These changes may contribute to the normal growth and reproduction of allohexaploids. © 2013 Zhao et al.

Zhu C.-P.,Shaanxi Normal University | Zhang S.-H.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

Background: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), isolated with boiling water from the famous Chinese medicinal herb Lycium barbarum fruits, is one of the most important functional constituents in Lycium barbarum. In this study the effects of LBP on cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were investigated. Results: LBP could inhibit the proliferation ofHeLa cells by changing cell cycle distribution and inducing apoptosis. In addition, the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (δψm) was observed by flow cytometry and the increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration was detected by laser scanning confocal microscope in apoptotic cells. At the same time, the nitric oxide content, nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase activities were also increased. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of LBP on the proliferation of HeLa cells was caused by inducing apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. The results showed that LBP can be developed as a potential chemotherapeutic agent candidate against human cervical cancer. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Tao Y.-X.,Auburn University | Yuan Z.-H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xie J.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science | Year: 2013

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are versatile regulators of physiological processes. They are also important drug targets. Many of the molecules controlling energy homeostasis act through GPCRs. This article summarizes the regulators of energy homeostasis in the central nervous system: those secreted by the gastrointestinal peptides and those secreted by the endocrine pancreas. Some examples of orphan GPCRs are also given. The regulation of energy homeostasis is conserved in other mammals, including those species relevant in veterinary medicine, and fish. Finally, the genetics of human obesity is briefly summarized. Genetic susceptibility in the current obesogenic environment is likely causing the obesity pandemic. A better understanding of the regulation of energy homeostasis will lead to novel pharmacotherapy for obesity treatment. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Lu Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yuan M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Gao X.,China Agricultural University | Kang T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has rapidly become the most sensitive and accurate method for the quantification of gene expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. These housekeeping genes need to show stable expression under the given experimental conditions for the qRT-PCR results to be accurate. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of housekeeping genes used in Spodoptera litura. In this study, eight candidate reference genes, elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), beta actin (ACTB), beta FTZ-F1 (FTZF1), ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (UCCR), and arginine kinase (AK), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using the statistical software programs, BestKeeper, geNorm and Normfinder, and the comparative ΔCt method. We determined the expression levels of the candidate reference genes for three biotic factors (developmental stage, tissue and population), and four abiotic treatments (temperature, insecticide, food and starvation). The results indicated that the best sets of candidates as reference genes were as follows: GAPDH and UCCR for developmental stages; RPL10, AK and EF1 for different tissues; RPL10 and EF1 for different populations in China; GAPDH and EF1 for temperature-stressed larvae; AK and ACTB for larvae treated with different insecticides; RPL10, GAPDH and UCCR for larvae fed different diets; RPS3 and ACTB for starved larvae. We believe that these results make an important contribution to gene analysis studies in S. litura and form the basis of further research on stable reference genes in S. litura and other organisms. © 2013 Lu et al.

Yu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Han Z.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences | Liu C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2015

The objective of this review was to summarize and discuss the effects of Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on thyroid and reproduction systems in fish. We reviewed the evidences and mechanisms for PBDEs-induced thyroid and reproduction disruption, as well as the cross-talk between the two systems in fish. In thyroid disruption, we mainly paid attention to the effects of PBDEs on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, thyroid hormones (THs) transport and metabolism, thyroid receptors (TRs) and thyroid follicle histology. In reproduction disruption, we focused on the effects of PBDEs on steroid hormone production, expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis, and gonadal development. Despite that there is an interaction between thyroid and reproductive systems in fish, it is still remains unclear that PBDE-induced reproductive impairments are caused by direct effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) functioning or by indirect action through cross-talk between the two systems. Future studies are needed to explore the relationships between reproductive toxicity and thyroid system disruption after PBDEs exposure. © 2015 Elsevier Inc..

Chen X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Gao W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang J.,New Mexico State University | Zhang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lin Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenously expressed, non-coding RNA molecules involved in gene transcription and expression that combine with specific mRNA site of target genes to inhibit protein synthesis or degrade mRNA. Since the first plant miRNA was reported in 2002, numerous new miRNAs and their targets have been discovered via high-throughput sequencing and computational approaches. However, the genetic variation of miRNA genes is poorly understood due to the lack of miRNA-specific DNA markers.Results: To study the genetic variation and map miRNAs and their putative target genes in cotton, we designed specific primers based on pre-miRNAs and published putative target genes. A total of 83 pre-miRNA primers and 1,255 putative target gene primers were surveyed, and 9 pre-miRNA polymorphic loci were mapped on 7 of the 26 tetraploid cotton chromosomes. Furthermore, 156 polymorphic loci of the target genes were mapped on the cotton genome. To map more miRNA loci, miRNA-based SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) markers were used to map an additional 54 polymorphic loci on the cotton genome with the exception of Chr01, Chr22, and Chr24. Finally, a network between miRNAs and their targets was constructed. All pre-miRNAs and 98 putative target genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis, revealing unique expression patterns across different fiber development stages between the mapping parents.Conclusions: Our data provide an overview of miRNAs, their putative targets, and their network in cotton as well as comparative expression analyses between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense. These data provide a foundation for understanding miRNA regulation during cotton fiber development. © 2013 Chen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Wang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ruiz-Agudo E.,University of Granada | Putnis C.V.,University of Munster | Putnis A.,University of Munster
CrystEngComm | Year: 2012

Although many in vitro studies have looked at calcium phosphate (Ca-P) mineralization, they have not emphasized the earliest events and the pathway of crystallization from solvated ions to the final apatitic mineral phase. Only recently has it become possible to unravel experimentally the processes of Ca-P formation through a cluster-growth model. Here we use mineral replacement reactions by the interaction of phosphate-bearing solutions with calcite surfaces in a fluid cell of an atomic force microscope (AFM) and reveal that the mineral surface-induced formation of an apatitic phase proceeds through the nucleation and aggregation of nanosized clusters with dimensions similar to those of Posner's clusters, which subsequently form stable amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) plates prior to the transformation to the final crystalline phase. Our direct AFM observations provide evidence for the existence of stable Posner's clusters even though no organic template is applied. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Hu C.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural science | Qi Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2013

Excessive application of mineral fertilizers wastes resources and contaminates the environment. Alternative natural substitutes could solve those issues. Here, we hypothesize that organic compost may increase soil biological fertility more effectively than mineral fertilizers, and that effective microorganisms could improve the effects of traditional compost. So far, few investigations have analyzed the effects of the effective microorganisms on soil fauna such as nematodes. A 1997-2004 field experiment of soil fertility and crop yield has been carried out at China Agricultural University's Qu-Zhou experimental station. A randomized block experiment comprised effective microorganisms, compost, traditional compost, N and P fertilizer treatment, and untreated controls. Soil nematode community structure and wheat yields were analyzed during wheat growth stages. Results show that in May the total nematode number is 43.21 % higher for effective microorganisms compost plots compared with traditional compost plots. Soil free-living nematodes are 29.32 % more abundant and bacteria-feeding nematodes are 63.23 % more abundant for effective microorganisms compost plots compared with traditional compost plots in June. Wheat grain yield is correlated with soil free-living nematodes during the jointing stage of wheat growth, with a correlation coefficient R 2 of 0.88. © 2013 INRA and Springer-Verlag France.

Li H.,China Agricultural University | Peng Z.,CAS Beijing Institute of Genomics | Yang X.,China Agricultural University | Wang W.,China Agricultural University | And 16 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

Maize kernel oil is a valuable source of nutrition. Here we extensively examine the genetic architecture of maize oil biosynthesis in a genome-wide association study using 1.03 million SNPs characterized in 368 maize inbred lines, including 'high-oil' lines. We identified 74 loci significantly associated with kernel oil concentration and fatty acid composition (P < 1.8 × 10 -6), which we subsequently examined using expression quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, linkage mapping and coexpression analysis. More than half of the identified loci localized in mapped QTL intervals, and one-third of the candidate genes were annotated as enzymes in the oil metabolic pathway. The 26 loci associated with oil concentration could explain up to 83% of the phenotypic variation using a simple additive model. Our results provide insights into the genetic basis of oil biosynthesis in maize kernels and may facilitate marker-based breeding for oil quantity and quality. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Li S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Cao X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ke S.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural Science
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

Based on the salicylic acid backbone, three highly sensitive and selective colorimetric chemosensors with an acylthiourea binding unit have been designed, synthesized and characterized. These chemosensors have been utilized for selective recognition of fluoride anions in dry DMSO solution by typical spectroscopic titration techniques. Furthermore, the obtained chemosensors AR1-3 have shown naked-eye sensitivity for detection of biologically important fluoride ion over other anions in solution. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chen C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen C.,Hunan Institute of Animal and Veterinary Science | Peng Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Peng Y.,Hunan Institute of Animal and Veterinary Science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs are endogenous, conserved, and non-coding small RNAs that function as post-transcriptional regulators of fat development and adipogenesis. Adipogenic marker genes, such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (Cebpa), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparg), adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (Ap2), and fatty acid synthase (Fas), are regarded as the essential transcriptional regulators of preadipocyte differentiation and lipid storage in mature adipocytes. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is recognized as a negative molecular switch during adipogenesis. In the present work we found that miR-135a-5p is markedly downregulated during the process of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Overexpression of miR-135a-5p impairs the expressions of adipogenic marker genes as well as lipid droplet accumulation and triglyceride content, indicating the importance of miR-135a-5p for adipogenic differentiation and adipogenesis. Further studies show that miR-135a-5p directly targets adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc), contributes to the translocation of β-catenin from cytoplasm to nucleus, and then activates the expressions of cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) and Cmyc, indicating the induction of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In addition, inhibition of APC with siRNA exhibits the same effects as overexpression of miR-135a-5p. Our findings demonstrate that miR-135a-5p suppresses 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by directly targeting Apc. Taken together, these results offer profound insights into the adipogenesis mechanism and the development of adipose tissue. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

Hu C.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural science | Qi Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
European Journal of Soil Biology | Year: 2010

Nematode density and biodiversity in maize field soil treated with compost, chemical fertilizer and with no amendments were investigated in a multi-year field experiment at the Qu-Zhou experimental station, China Agricultural University. The soils were collected from the upper (0-20 cm) soil layer during the maize growing stages in 2004. The results demonstrated that significant differences for the total nematode density, bacterivores, fungivores, plant parasites and omnivores-predators density were found between treatments and between dates. The total nematode density and bacterivores density were greater in compost-treated soil than in chemical fertilizer-treated soil, and were greater in chemical fertilizer-treated soil than in control soil during all sampling periods. The total nematodes density ranged from 106 to 657 individuals per 100 g dry soil in the present study. Total 40 nematode genera were found in all treatments and sampling periods, and 12 genera were bacterivores, 4 genera were fungivores, 16 genera were plant parasites and 8 genera were omnivores-predators. Cephalobus, Rhabditis, Tylenchorhynchus, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus and Rotylenchus were dominant genera in present study. The plant parasites and bacterivores were dominant trophic groups. The ratio of bacterivores plus fungivores to plant parasites was higher in compost-treated soil compared to chemical fertilizer-treated soil except October. Maturity index and combined maturity index were lower in compost-treated soil compared to chemical fertilizer-treated and control soil except July. The plant parasite index was higher in compost-treated soil compared to chemical fertilizer-treated soil except July. The multi-year application of compost and chemical fertilizer had effected on soil nematode population density and community structure. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Hu C.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural science | Qi Y.C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Helminthologia | Year: 2010

Summary: Nematode abundance and diversity from different types of organic manure soil treatments were investigated in a longterm field experiment carried out in Qu-Zhou experimental station, China Agricultural University. The composts used in the experiment were a traditional compost (C) (60 % straw, 30 % livestock dung, 5 % cottonseed-pressed trash and 5 % brans), traditional compost and chicken dung compost (60 % straw, 30 % chiken dung, 5 % cottonseedpressed trash and 5 % brans) added with effective microorganisms, EMC and EMCDC respectively. Six treatments were arranged according to a randomized block design with three replicates per treatment. Treatments were incorporation into the soil of compost EMC, EMCDC, and C each at the rates of 7.5 and 15 t/ha. Plots were sown with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) every year from 1997 to 2004. Overall, 28 nematode genera were found. Seven genera were bacterivores, 3 genera were fungivores, 13 genera were plantparasites and 5 genera were omnivores-predators. The Rhabditis, Cephalobus, Helicotylenchus were dominant genera in the present study. The bacterivores and plantparasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic groups except in C treatment. Nematode abundance per 100 g dried soil ranged from 372 to 553. Addition of effective microorganism increased the number and proportion of bacterivorous nematodes and decreased the number and proportion of plant-parasitic nematodes compared to traditional compost C. Total number of nematode was significantly influenced by compost amount, but didn't significantly influence by EM agent. Total abundance of nematode was positively correlated with the content of soil organic matter, total N, available P and K. The long-term addition of EM agent hasn't adverse effect on soil nematode community. © 2010 Parasitological Institute of SAS.

Chen X.,China Agricultural University | Cui Z.,China Agricultural University | Fan M.,Stanford University | Vitousek P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 28 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2014

Agriculture faces great challenges to ensure global food security by increasing yields while reducing environmental costs1,2. Here we address this challenge by conducting a total of 153 site-year field experiments covering the main agro-ecological areas for rice, wheat and maize production in China. As et of integrated soil-crop systemmanagement practices based ona modern understanding of crop ecophysiology and soil biogeochemistry increases average yields for rice, wheat and maize from 7.2 million grams per hectare (Mg ha-1), 7.2Mg ha-1 and 10.5Mgha-1 to 8.5Mgha-1, 8.9Mgha-1 and 14.2Mgha-1, respectively, without any increase in nitrogen fertilizer. Model simulation and life-cycle assessment3 show that reactive nitrogen losses and greenhouse gasemissions are reduced substantially by integrated soil-crop system management. If farmers in China could achieve average grain yields equivalent to 80%of this treatment by 2030, over the sameplanting area as in 2012, total production of rice, wheat and maize in China would be more than enough to meet the demand for direct human consumption and a substantially increased demand for animal feed, while decreasing the environmental costs of intensive agriculture. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Wu H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hu S.,Zhejiang University | Yin C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2012

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process responsible for degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic components through the lysosomal machinery. It has been proved to play pivotal roles in cellular homeostasis, cell growth and organism development. Moreover, abnormalities of autophagy have been linked to numerous human pathophysiologies. Emerging evidence has linked leucine deprivation induced protein breakdown to autophagy, but the underlying mechanisms controlling autophagic activity in this process are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that two members of the miR-17 microRNA family, miR-20a and miR-106b, may participate in regulating leucine deprivation induced autophagy via suppression of ULK1 expression in C2C12 myoblasts. We showed that leucine deprivation downregulated miR-20a and miR-106b expression via suppression of their transcription factor c-Myc. We discovered the essential autophagy gene ULK1 as cellular target of miR-20a and miR-106b. Treatment of C2C12 cells with the miR-20a or miR-106b mimic decreased the endogenous ULK1 protein levels. Dual luciferase reporter assay confirmed that the miRNA binding sequences in the 3' UTR of ULK1 contribute to the modulation of ULK1 expression by miR-20a and miR-106b. Furthermore, inhibition of ULK1 expression by the miR-20a or miR-106b mimic blunted activation of autophagy induced by leucine deprivation, while suppression of endogenous miR-20a or miR-106b by specific antagomir in C2C12 cells showed normal autophagic activity. Altogether, our data demonstrated that miR-20a and miR-106b regulated autophagy induced by leucine deprivation in C2C12 cells via targeting ULK1. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Said J.I.,New Mexico State University | Lin Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Song M.,New Mexico State University | Zhang J.,New Mexico State University
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: The study of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in cotton (Gossypium spp.) is focused on traits of agricultural significance. Previous studies have identified a plethora of QTL attributed to fiber quality, disease and pest resistance, branch number, seed quality and yield and yield related traits, drought tolerance, and morphological traits. However, results among these studies differed due to the use of different genetic populations, markers and marker densities, and testing environments. Since two previous meta-QTL analyses were performed on fiber traits, a number of papers on QTL mapping of fiber quality, yield traits, morphological traits, and disease resistance have been published. To obtain a better insight into the genome-wide distribution of QTL and to identify consistent QTL for marker assisted breeding in cotton, an updated comparative QTL analysis is needed.Results: In this study, a total of 1,223 QTL from 42 different QTL studies in Gossypium were surveyed and mapped using Biomercator V3 based on the Gossypium consensus map from the Cotton Marker Database. A meta-analysis was first performed using manual inference and confirmed by Biomercator V3 to identify possible QTL clusters and hotspots. QTL clusters are composed of QTL of various traits which are concentrated in a specific region on a chromosome, whereas hotspots are composed of only one trait type. QTL were not evenly distributed along the cotton genome and were concentrated in specific regions on each chromosome. QTL hotspots for fiber quality traits were found in the same regions as the clusters, indicating that clusters may also form hotspots.Conclusions: Putative QTL clusters were identified via meta-analysis and will be useful for breeding programs and future studies involving Gossypium QTL. The presence of QTL clusters and hotspots indicates consensus regions across cultivated tetraploid Gossypium species, environments, and populations which contain large numbers of QTL, and in some cases multiple QTL associated with the same trait termed a hotspot. This study combines two previous meta-analysis studies and adds all other currently available QTL studies, making it the most comprehensive meta-analysis study in cotton to date. © 2013 Said et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

He D.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Han C.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Han C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yao J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Proteomics | Year: 2011

Construction of metabolic and regulatory pathways from proteomic data can contextualize the large-scale data within the overall physiological scheme of an organism. It is an efficient way to predict metabolic phenotype or regulatory style. We did protein profiling in the germinating rice seeds through 1-DE via LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy. In total, 673 proteins were identified, and could be sorted into 14 functional groups. The largest group was metabolism related. The metabolic proteins were integrated into different metabolic pathways to show the style of reserves mobilization and precursor preparation during the germination. Analysis of the regulatory proteins indicated that regulation of redox homeostasis and gene expression also play important roles for the rice seed germination. Although transcription is unnecessary for the germination, it could ensure the rapidity and uniformity of germination. On the contrary, translation with the stored mRNA is required for the germination. This study will help us to further understand the metabolic style, regulation of redox homeostasis, and gene expression during rice seed germination. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Chen C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen C.,Hunan Institute of Animal and Veterinary Science | Xiang H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Peng Y.-L.,Hunan Institute of Animal and Veterinary Science | And 2 more authors.
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2014

Differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes and the formation of the subsequent adipose tissue are critical for mammalian growth and development. The molecular mechanism relating to preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis from the perspective of miRNAs is not yet completely understood. Here we investigated whether miR-183 functioned in the differentiation process. Both gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays demonstrated that miR-183 positively regulated 3T3-L1 differentiation by enhancing the expression of adipogenic marker genes such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), adiponectin and fatty acid synthase (FAS), as well as the triglyceride content and accumulation of lipid droplets. Meanwhile, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) was known to impair the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and thereafter reduce c-myc and nuclear β-catenin protein. We showed that the inhibition of LRP6 by siRNA promoted 3T3-L1 adipogenic differentiation and adipogenesis. Further analysis showed that mouse miR-183 gene had its own transcription unit containing CpG islands, transcription start site (TSS), coding sequence (CDS) and polyA signal within the flanking sequences 2500. nt upstream and downstream of mouse miR-183 in genome. The core promoter of miR-183 gene was identified and transcription factor GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3) significantly inhibited the expression of mature miR-183 by binding to its core promoter in vivo, as indicated by thechromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. These results suggest that miR-183, though negatively regulated by transcription factor GATA3, enhances 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the inhibition of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by targeting LRP6. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Cong Y.,Shaanxi Normal University | Xia T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zou M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li Z.,Shaanxi Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry B | Year: 2014

Inspired by mussel-adhesion phenomena in nature, we present a simple, mild and green method to prepare polystyrene/Ag (PS/Ag) nanocomposite particles with enhanced antibacterial activities. In this approach, monodisperse polystyrene particles are used as template spheres, which are then coated with polydopamine (PDA) through the self-polymerization of dopamine in a weakly alkaline aqueous environment (pH = 8.5). Silver precursor-[Ag(NH3)2] + ions are added and absorbed onto the surfaces of the PS/PDA composite spheres by the active catechol and amine groups of the polydopamine coating. Meanwhile, these adsorbed [Ag(NH3)2]+ ions are in situ reduced into metallic silver nanoparticles by the "bridge" of the polydopamine coating, and the formed Ag nanoparticles are home positioned. As polydopamine is an environmentally friendly reagent with abilities as a universal adhesive to any surface and as a mild reductant for noble metal salts, because of its abundant active catechol and amine groups, neither additional reducing and toxic reagents nor special surface modifications of the template are needed in this procedure. Moreover, preliminary antibacterial assays indicate that these PS/Ag nanocomposite particles show enhanced antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria), while they do not show significant in vitro cytotoxicity against HEK293T human embryonic kidney cells. These results suggest that these PS/Ag nanocomposite particles could be promising antibacterial materials for future biomedical applications. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Chai Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chai Q.,University of Georgia | She R.,University of Georgia | She R.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2015

It has been shown that enhancement of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is modulated by the expression of chemokines/ cytokines and reduction of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the brains of mice infected with rabies virus (RABV). Since CXCL10 was found to be the most highly expressed chemokine, its temporal and spatial expression were determined in the present study. The expression of the chemokine CXCL10 was initially detected in neurons as early as 3 days postinfection (p.i.) in the brains of RABV-infected mice, after which it was detected in microglia (6 days p.i.) and astrocytes (9 days p.i.). Neutralization of CXCL10 by treatment with anti-CXCL10 antibodies reduced gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production and Th17 cell infiltration, as well as restoring TJ protein expression and BBB integrity. Together, these data suggest that it is the neuronal CXCL10 that initiates the cascade that leads to the activation of microglia/astrocytes, infiltration of inflammatory cells, expression of chemokines/cytokines, reduction of TJ protein expression, and enhancement of the BBB permeability. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.

Feng Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Feng Y.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Niu L.-L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wei W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2013

MiR-133 was found to be specifically expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle in previous studies. There are two members in the miR-133 family: miR-133a and miR-133b. Although previous studies indicated that miR-133a was related to myogenesis, the signaling pathways regulated by miR-133 were still not very clear. In this study, we showed that both miR-133a and miR-133b were upregulated during myogenesis through Solexa sequencing. We confirmed that miR-133 could promote myoblast differentiation and inhibit cell proliferation through the regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in C2C12 cells. FGFR1 and PP2AC, which both participate in signal transduction of the ERK1/2 pathway, were found to be negatively regulated by miR-133a and miR-133b at the post-transcriptional level. Also, downregulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by miR-133 was detected. FGFR1 and PP2AC were also found to repress C2C12 differentiation by specific siRNAs. In addition, we found that inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway activity can inhibit C2C12 cell proliferation and promote the initiation of differentiation but form short and small myotubes. Furthermore, we found that the expression of miR-133 was negatively regulated by ERK1/2 signaling pathway. In summary, we demonstrated the role of miR-133 in myoblast and further revealed a new feedback loop between miR-133 and the ERK1/2 signaling pathway involving an exquisite mechanism for regulating myogenesis. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.3.1-02 | Award Amount: 3.91M | Year: 2011

OPTIMA will integrate an ambitious biology system approach for perennial grasses such as switchgrass, miscanthus and giant reed in the Mediterranean environment. Moreover the perennial species cardoon, which has been proven to be particularly adapted to the Mediterranean climate, will be used as a control species. The main objective of the OPTIMA project is to identify high-yielding perennial grasses for the Mediterranean area, within optimized production chain that will provide stable source for both biomass and new plant derived bio-products. OPTIMA will explore the potentialities of perennial grasses on underutilized or abandoned marginal lands. An interdisciplinary approach involving physiology, biotechnology, and agronomy, socio-economical and environmental analysis at different scale levels will be undertaken with the aim at tackling specific bottlenecks of perennial grasses in the Mediterranean area and to create alternative end-use chains. OPTIMA approach has been to link the research proposed here by including industrial end-users in the project. This should allow the output of this research to develop in a commercial context as rapidly as possible the new findings. The major goals of this multidisciplinary network are to evaluate the existing genotypes; to characterize and deliver novel species; to deliver sustainable crop management practices (sowing/planting strategies to reduce the use of pesticide and increase biomass on the first year establishment, cultivation under salinity conditions and/or water deficit, reducing losses during harvest); to evaluate the industrial production of bioenergy and added value bio-products; to assess the environmental impact through an integrated assessment of sustainability criteria, to disseminate the achieved findings at different level (local, regional, national, international).

Lv D.-W.,Capital Normal University | Subburaj S.,Capital Normal University | Cao M.,Capital Normal University | Yan X.,Capital Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2014

Salinity is a major abiotic stress affecting plant growth and development. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of salt response and defense in plants will help in efforts to improve the salt tolerance of crops. Brachypodium distachyon is a new model plant for wheat, barley, and several potential biofuel grasses. In the current study, proteome and phosphoproteome changes induced by salt stress were the focus. The Bd21 leaves were initially treated with salt in concentrations ranging from 80 to 320 mM and then underwent a recovery process prior to proteome analysis. A total of 80 differentially expressed protein spots corresponding to 60 unique proteins were identified. The sample treated with a median salt level of 240 mM and the control were selected for phosphopeptide purification using TiO2 microcolumns and LC-MS/MS for phosphoproteome analysis to identify the phosphorylation sites and phosphoproteins. A total of 1509 phosphoproteins and 2839 phosphorylation sites were identified. Among them, 468 phosphoproteins containing 496 phosphorylation sites demonstrated significant changes at the phosphorylation level. Nine phosphorylation motifs were extracted from the 496 phosphorylation sites. Of the 60 unique differentially expressed proteins, 14 were also identified as phosphoproteins. Many proteins and phosphoproteins, as well as potential signal pathways associated with salt response and defense, were found, including three 14-3-3s (GF14A, GF14B, and 14-3-3A) for signal transduction and several ABA signal-associated proteins such as ABF2, TRAB1, and SAPK8. Finally, a schematic salt response and defense mechanism in B. distachyon was proposed. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 39.33K | Year: 2011

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

Xiang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Cheng B.,Wuhan University of Technology | Yu J.,Wuhan University of Technology | Yu J.,King Abdulaziz University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

The production of solar fuel through photocatalytic water splitting and CO2 reduction using photocatalysts has attracted considerable attention owing to the global energy shortage and growing environmental problems. During the past few years, many studies have demonstrated that graphene can markedly enhance the efficiency of photocatalysts for solar-fuel generation because of its unique 2D conjugated structure and electronic properties. Herein we summarize the recent advances in the application of graphene-based photocatalysts for solar-fuel production, including CO2 reduction to hydrocarbon fuel and water splitting to H2. A brief overview of the fundamental principles for splitting of water and reduction of CO2 is given. The different roles of graphene in these graphene-based photocatalysts for improving photocatalytic performance are discussed. Finally, the perspectives on the challenges and opportunities for future research in this promising area are also presented. There's always the sun: Graphene-based photocatalysts for solar-fuel production are of significant interest in solving the global energy problem. The recent advances in the fabrication and application of graphene-based photocatalysts, including photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbon fuels and photocatalytic splitting of water to H2 are explored. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Xiang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xiang Q.,Wuhan University of Technology | Cheng B.,Wuhan University of Technology | Yu J.,Wuhan University of Technology
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2013

Hierarchical porous CdS nanosheet-assembled flowers were synthesized by a simple ion-exchange strategy using morphology-analogous Cd(OH)2 and Na2S as precursors. The prepared CdS flowers exhibited high visible-light photocatalytic H2-production activity with a rate of 468.7μmolh-1 and the corresponding apparent quantum efficiency (QE) of 24.7% at 420nm, which exceeded that obtained on CdS nanoparticles by more than 3 times. This enhanced photocatalytic H2-production activity was achieved because the hierarchical organization of nanosheets and porous nanosheet structures can efficiently enhance light-absorption ability and provide a greater number of active adsorption sites. This work shows a great potential of hierarchical porous CdS nanosheet-assembled flowers for photocatalytic H2 production, and also demonstrates that the ion-exchange strategy of Cd(OH)2 intermediates can be extended to the preparation of other porous oxides and sulfides with hierarchical nanostructures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Sablok G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Nayak K.C.,Institute of Life science | Vazquez F.,University of Basel | Tatarinova T.V.,University of South Wales
Molecular Biotechnology | Year: 2011

We have analyzed factors affecting the codon usage pattern of the chloroplasts genomes of representative species of pooid grass family. Correspondence analysis of relative synonymous codon usages (RSCU) showed that genes on secondary axis were correlated with their GC3S values (all r > 0.3, p < 0.05), indicating mutational bias as an important selective force that shaped the variation in the codon usage among chloroplast genes. The Nc-plot showed that although a majority of the points with low-Nc values were lying below the expected curve, a few genes lied on the expected curve. Nc plot clearly showed that mutational bias plays a major role in codon biology across the monocot plastomes. The hydrophobicity and aromaticity of encoded proteins of each species were found to be other factors of codon usage variation. In the view of above light, besides natural selection, several other factors also likely to be involved in determining the selective constraints on codon bias in plastomes of pooid grass genomes. In addition, five codons (B. distachyon), seven codons (H. vulgare), and four codons (T. aestivum) were identified as optimal codons of the three grass chloroplasts. To identify genes evolving under positive selection, rates of nonsynonymous substitutions (Ka) and synonymous substitutions (Ks) were computed for all groups of orthologous gene pairs. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Amar M.H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Amar M.H.,Desert Research Center | Biswas M.K.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang Z.,Bioversity International | Guo W.-W.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The present study was to assess informativeness and efficiency of three different molecular markers for genetic diversity among 24 Citrus and its relative species. Sixty one SSR, 33 SRAP and 24 CAPS-SNP markers were used to evaluate the level of polymorphism and discriminating capacity. A total of 596, 656 and 135 polymorphic amplicons were observed in SSR, SRAP and CAPS-SNP markers with average polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.97, 0.98 and 0.89, respectively. High levels of polymorphism were recorded for SSR and SRAP compared with CAPS-SNP markers. The highest correlations (r= 0.930) were obtained between SSR and SRAP markers, whereas SSR and CAPS-SNP were poorly correlated (r= 0.833). Cluster analysis was performed to construct dendrograms using UPGMA. And the dendrogram from SSR data was most congruent with the general dendrogram. These findings provide basis for future efficient use of these molecular markers in the genetic analysis of Citrus and its relatives. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Xiang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Cheng B.,Wuhan University of Technology | Yu J.,King Abdulaziz University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

The production of solar fuel through photocatalytic water splitting and CO2 reduction using photocatalysts has attracted considerable attention owing to the global energy shortage and growing environmental problems. During the past few years, many studies have demonstrated that graphene can markedly enhance the efficiency of photocatalysts for solar-fuel generation because of its unique 2D conjugated structure and electronic properties. Herein we summarize the recent advances in the application of graphene-based photocatalysts for solar-fuel production, including CO2 reduction to hydrocarbon fuel and water splitting to H2. A brief overview of the fundamental principles for splitting of water and reduction of CO2 is given. The different roles of graphene in these graphene-based photocatalysts for improving photocatalytic performance are discussed. Finally, the perspectives on the challenges and opportunities for future research in this promising area are also presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Zhang S.-H.,Wuhan University of Technology | Huang Y.,Wuhan University of Technology | Hua Y.-M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

The effects of nitrite concentration, organic carbon and pH on denitrifying dephosphatation over nitrite were studied with batch tests. The results showed that anoxic initial phosphate uptake rate increased as nitrite concentration increased. For an initial phosphate of 8.5 mg P L-1 and an initial COD of 350 mg L-1, a nitrite level of 15.2 mg N (gMLSS)-1 was found to be appropriate. The anaerobic phosphate release rate decreased as anaerobic nitrite addition increased. The results suggest that to ensure effective phosphate release and subsequent phosphate uptake, anaerobic nitrite should be lower than 2 mg N L-1. Very high and very low initial COD concentrations both resulted in an adverse effect on denitrifying dephosphatation. The anaerobic phosphate release with different carbon sources followed the order: acetate > butyric acid > glucose. The suitable pH for anaerobic phosphate release and anoxic phosphate uptake was approximately 7.0 and 8.0, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ye W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Crickmore N.,University of Sussex | And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

We have designed a high-throughput system for the identification of novel crystal protein genes (cry) from Bacillus thuringiensis strains. The system was developed with two goals: (i) to acquire the mixed plasmid-enriched genomic sequence of B. thuringiensis using next-generation sequencing biotechnology, and (ii) to identify cry genes with a computational pipeline (using BtToxin_ scanner). In our pipeline method, we employed three different kinds of well-developed prediction methods, BLAST, hidden Markov model (HMM), and support vector machine (SVM), to predict the presence of Cry toxin genes. The pipeline proved to be fast (average speed, 1.02 Mb/min for proteins and open reading frames [ORFs] and 1.80 Mb/min for nucleotide sequences), sensitive (it detected 40% more protein toxin genes than a keyword extraction method using genomic sequences downloaded from GenBank), and highly specific. Twenty-one strains from our laboratory's collection were selected based on their plasmid pattern and/or crystal morphology. The plasmid-enriched genomic DNA was extracted from these strains and mixed for Illumina sequencing. The sequencing data were de novo assembled, and a total of 113 candidate cry sequences were identified using the computational pipeline. Twenty-seven candidate sequences were selected on the basis of their low level of sequence identity to known cry genes, and eight full-length genes were obtained with PCR. Finally, three new cry-type genes (primary ranks) and five cry holotypes, which were designated cry8Ac1, cry7Ha1, cry21Ca1, cry32Fa1, and cry21Da1 by the B. thuringiensis Toxin Nomenclature Committee, were identified. The system described here is both efficient and cost-effective and can greatly accelerate the discovery of novel cry genes. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Yan B.,Hohai University | Yan B.,Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute | Fang N.F.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Zhang P.C.,Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2013

Understanding how changes in individual land use types influence the dynamics of streamflow and sediment yield would greatly improve the predictability of the hydrological consequences of land use changes and could thus help stakeholders to make better decisions. Multivariate statistics are commonly used to compare individual land use types to control the dynamics of streamflow or sediment yields. However, one issue with the use of conventional statistical methods to address relationships between land use types and streamflow or sediment yield is multicollinearity. In this study, an integrated approach involving hydrological modelling and partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to quantify the contributions of changes in individual land use types to changes in streamflow and sediment yield. In a case study, hydrological modelling was conducted using land use maps from four time periods (1978, 1987, 1999, and 2007) for the Upper Du watershed (8973km2) in China using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Changes in streamflow and sediment yield across the two simulations conducted using the land use maps from 2007 to 1978 were found to be related to land use changes according to a PLSR, which was used to quantify the effect of this influence at the sub-basin scale. The major land use changes that affected streamflow in the studied catchment areas were related to changes in the farmland, forest and urban areas between 1978 and 2007; the corresponding regression coefficients were 0.232, -0.147 and 1.256, respectively, and the Variable Influence on Projection (VIP) was greater than 1. The dominant first-order factors affecting the changes in sediment yield in our study were: farmland (the VIP and regression coefficient were 1.762 and 14.343, respectively) and forest (the VIP and regression coefficient were 1.517 and -7.746, respectively). The PLSR methodology presented in this paper is beneficial and novel, as it partially eliminates the co-dependency of the variables and facilitates a more unbiased view of the contribution of the changes in individual land use types to changes in streamflow and sediment yield. This practicable and simple approach could be applied to a variety of other watersheds for which time-sequenced digital land use maps are available. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Ruan L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Crickmore N.,University of Sussex | Peng D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Sun M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Bacillus thuringiensis, which is well known as an entomopathogen, has been accepted by the public as a safe bioinsecticide. The natural ecology of this bacterium has never been particularly clear, with views ranging from it being an obligate pathogen to an opportunist pathogen that can otherwise exist as a soil saprophyte or a plant endophyte. This confusion has recently led to it being considered as an environmental pathogen that has evolved to occupy a diverse set of environmental niches in which it can thrive without needing a host. A significant driving force behind this classification is the fact that B. thuringiensis is found in high numbers in environments that are not occupied by the insect hosts to which it is pathogenic. It is our opinion that the ubiquitous presence of this bacterium in the environment is the result of a variety of vectoring systems, particularly those that include nematodes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Hu M.-J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Cox K.D.,Cornell University | Schnabel G.,Clemson University | Luo C.-X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

In this study, 145 peaches and nectarines displaying typical brown rot symptoms were collected from multiple provinces in China. A subsample of 26 single-spore isolates were characterized phylogenetically and morphologically to ascertain species. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), β-tubulin (TUB2) revealed the presence of three distinct Monilinia species. These species included Monilinia fructicola, Monilia mumecola, and a previously undescribed species designated Monilia yunnanensis sp. nov. While M. fructicola is a well-documented pathogen of Prunus persica in China, M. mumecola had primarily only been isolated from mume fruit in Japan. Koch's postulates for M. mumecola and M. yunnanensis were fulfilled confirming pathogenicity of the two species on peach. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS, G3PDH, and TUB2 sequences indicated that M. yunnanensis is most closely related to M. fructigena, a species widely prevalent in Europe. Interestingly, there were considerable differences in the exon/intron structure of the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene between the two species. Morphological characteristics, including spore size, colony morphology, lesion growth rate, and sporulation, support the phylogenetic evidence suggesting the designation of M. yunnanensis as a new species. A new multiplex PCR method was developed to facilitate the detection of M. yunnanensis and differentiation of Monilinia spp. causing brown rot of peach in China. © 2011 Hu et al.

Yang Y.,Cornell University | Qiang X.,Cornell University | Qiang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Owsiany K.,Cornell University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2011

Cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers is a costly problem for the food industry. To systematically identify the proteins associated with this process, we employed a comparative proteomics approach using isobaric, stable isotope coded labels to compare the proteomes of potato tubers after 0 and 5 months of storage at 5 °C. We evaluated both high pH reverse phase (hpRP) liquid chromatography (LC) and off-gel electrophoresis (OGE) as first dimension fractionation methods followed by nanoLC-MS/MS, using two high performance mass spectrometry platforms (Q-TOF and Orbitrap). We found that hpRP-LC consistently offered better resolution, reduced expression ratio compression, and a more MS-compatible workflow than OGE and consistently yielded more unique peptide/protein identifications and higher sequence coverage with better quantification. In this study, a total of 4463 potato proteins were identified, of which 46 showed differential expressions during potato tuber cold storage. Several key proteins important in controlling starch-sugar conversion, which leads to cold-induced sweetening, as well as other proteins that are potentially involved in this process, were identified. Our results suggest that the hpRP-RP shotgun approach is a feasible and practical workflow for discovering potential protein candidates in plant proteomic analysis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Sun H.-Y.,Shandong University of Technology | Ji F.-Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012

Crizotinib is an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor that has recently been approved in the US for the treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Despite its outstanding safety and efficacy, several resistant mutations against crizotinib have been detected in the treatment of NSCLC. However, in contrast to the widely accepted mechanism of steric hindrance by mutations at the active site, the mechanism by which the C1156Y non-active site mutation confers resistance against crizotinib remains unclear. In the present study, the resistance mechanism of C1156Y in ALK was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The results suggest that despite the non-active site mutation, C1156Y causes the dislocation of crizotinib as well as the indirect conformational changes in the binding cavity, which results in a marked decrease in the van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between crizotinib and ALK. The obtained results provide a detailed explanation of the resistance caused by C1156Y and may give a vital clue for the design of drugs to combat crizotinib resistance. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Xiang Q.,Wuhan University of Technology | Xiang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yu J.,Wuhan University of Technology
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2013

Graphene-based photocatalysts have gained increasing interest as a viable alternate to increase photocatalytic H2 production performance in converting solar energy into chemical energy. The use of graphene to enhance the efficiency of photocatalysts has been proved due to its unique two-dimensional conjugated structure and electronic properties. In this Perspective, we have summarized the recent significant advances on the design and applications of graphene-based photocatalytic composites. The rational designs for high-performance photocatalysts using graphene-based materials are described. The applications of the new materials in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution are presented. Finally, the ongoing challenges and opportunities for the future development of graphene-based photocatalysts are also proposed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Zhang H.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhang H.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology | Guan D.,Sun Yat Sen University | Guan D.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology | Song M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Forest plantations represent an important carbon sink. In the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in Southern China, fast-growing Eucalyptus and Acacia are favoured plantation species, but little is known regarding their efficiency with respect to biomass production, partitioning and dynamics with stand age, or the contribution made by the understory, litter and coarse woody debris (CWD) to the volume of biomass and fixed carbon. Here, a set of 21 plantations of various ages were monitored for the pattern of biomass accumulation and partitioning. A continuous biomass expansion factor (BEF) method was applied to a set of forest inventory data (FID) over the periods 1989-2003 to estimate biomass accumulation, carbon storage and its pattern of change over time. The accumulation of biomass increased with stand age, reaching, respectively, 207.45 and 189.35tha -1 in mature Eucalyptus and Acacia plantations. The contribution of secondary biomass from the understory, litter layer and CWD accounted for, respectively, up to 10.2% and 20.3% of the total biomass in the two types of plantation, highlighting the significance of secondary biomass. At a similar growth stage, the ranking of the contribution to secondary biomass in the Eucalyptus plantations was litter>herbaceous plants>shrubs>CWD, while in the Acacia plantations, it was litter>CWD>shrubs>herbaceous plants. The Eucalyptus and Acacia plantations in the PRD accumulated some 2.66-7.84Mt of biomass and sequestered 1.33-3.92Mt of carbon. For both species, the bulk of the plantations (Eucalyptus 82.1%, Acacia 89.3%) were at the young to middle-aged stage. The Acacia plantations generated a higher biomass density than the Eucalyptus plantations. Forest management intensification and reforestation programmes, especially targeting Acacia or mixed Eucalyptus/Acacia forests, offer good potential for future carbon sequestration. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Gao X.-J.,Jilin University | Guo M.-Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang Z.-C.,Jilin University | Wang T.-C.,Jilin University | And 2 more authors.
Inflammation | Year: 2015

Mastitis is a major disease in humans and other animals and is characterized by mammary gland inflammation. It is a major disease of the dairy industry. Bergenin is an active constituent of the plants of genus Bergenia. Research indicates that bergenin has multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects and mechanism of bergenin on the mammary glands during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis. In this study, mice were treated with LPS to induce mammary gland mastitis as a model for the disease. Bergenin treatment was initiated after LPS stimulation for 24 h. The results indicated that bergenin attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased the concentration of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, which were increased in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, bergenin downregulated the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway proteins in mammary glands with mastitis. In conclusion, bergenin reduced the expression of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways, and it may represent a novel treatment strategy for mastitis. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Chen Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang Q.,Nankai University | Xiong L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lou Z.,Tsinghua University
Protein and Cell | Year: 2011

The importance of NAC (named as NAM, ATAF1, 2, and CUC2) proteins in plant development, transcription regulation and regulatory pathways involving protein-protein interactions has been increasingly recognized. We report here the high resolution crystal structure of SNAC1 (stress-responsive NAC) NAC domain at 2.5 Å. Although the structure of the SNAC1 NAC domain shares a structural similarity with the reported structure of the ANAC NAC1 domain, some key features, especially relating to two loop regions which potentially take the responsibility for DNA-binding, distinguish the SNAC1 NAC domain from other reported NAC structures. Moreover, the dimerization of the SNAC1 NAC domain is demonstrated by both soluble and crystalline conditions, suggesting this dimeric state should be conserved in this type of NAC family. Additionally, we discuss the possible NAC-DNA binding model according to the structure and reported biological evidences. © 2011 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zeng X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ren Z.,Renz Research Inc | Wu Q.,City University of Hong Kong | Fan J.,City University of Hong Kong | And 6 more authors.
Nature Plants | Year: 2015

UVB from sunlight is an important environmental signal for plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the UVB signal is perceived by photoreceptor AtUVR8, which undergoes light-induced dimer dissociation. Crystallographic and mutational studies have identified two tryptophan residues at the dimer interface that are crucial for UVB responses. However, the molecular events leading up to dimer dissociation remain elusive. We applied dynamic crystallography to capture light-induced structural changes in photoactive AtUVR8 crystals. Here we report two intermediate structures at 1.67Å resolution. At the epicentre of UVB signalling, concerted motions associated with Trp285/Trp233 lead to ejection of a water molecule, which weakens a network of hydrogen bonds and salt bridges at the dimer interface. Partial opening of the β-propeller structure, due to thermal relaxation of conformational strains originating in the epicentre, further disrupts the dimer interface and leads to dissociation. These dynamic crystallographic observations provide structural insights into the photo-perception and signalling mechanism of UVR8. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Ji W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Jia H.,Jilin University | Tong J.,Jilin University
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2012

In order to examine the power consumption and working quality, the bionic blades for soil-rototilling and stubble-breaking (bionic blade for short), national standard rototilling blades and common stubble-breaking blades were mounted respectively on rototilling-stubble-breaking machine to perform soil-rototilling and stubble-breaking tests. The power consumption of the three kinds of blades were tested by electric measurement method respectively, and the working qualities were tested in accordance with national standards. Because of the difference of blades' soil-cutting range, the power consumption of unit area of soil-cutting was taken as test index. The results showed that the power consumption of unit area of soil-cutting of bionic blade was less than that of national standard rototilling blade, and the working quality of bionic blade was better than that of the national standard rototilling blade. The power consumption of unit area of soil-cutting of biomimetic blade were less than that of common stubble-breaking blade, and the working quality of stubble-breaking of biomimetic blade was little worse than that of the common stubble-breaking blade, but it met the requirement of national standard of China. The research provided a reference to achieve soil-rototilling and stubble-breaking by using one kind of blade.

Li W.,Wuhan University of Technology | Zhang S.,Wuhan University of Technology | Chen G.,Wuhan University of Technology | Hua Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

The influences of hydraulic retention time, temperature and free buffer on the performance of short-cut denitrifying microbial fuel cell were investigated after it was successfully started up using nitrite as the cathodic electron acceptor. The results revealed that a power density of 8.3±0.5Wm-3NC was obtained after 15days operation. The desirable hydraulic retention time was found in this study to be 8h, with a COD removal rate of 2.117±0.006kgm-3NCd-1 and a total nitrogen removal rate of 0.041±0.002kgm-3NCd-1, respectively. It demonstrated that temperature had different effects on the electricity generation and pollutant removal performance of microbial fuel cell. The suitable temperature for power generation and pollutant removal was found to be 20°C and 25°C, respectively. Free buffer led to 50% decrease of both total nitrogen removal rate and power density of microbial fuel cell compared to that with phosphate buffer solution addition. The optimal total nitrogen removal rate obtained in the case with sodium azide addition (0.075±0.008kgm-3NCd-1) increased by 50% as compared to that without sodium azide addition. It suggested that abolishing oxygen or inhibiting nitrite oxidizing bacteria would favor nitrogen removal. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Yuan S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li M.,Tsinghua University
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology | Year: 2012

A new method (BSSVM) using binary tree and sphere-structured support vector machines (SSVM) is presented for fault diagnosis. It constructs the hyper-planes step by step according to binary tree, partitions a class in every step and eliminates blind areas which are not insuperable for other multi-class methods of SVM. 4 common faults are created by a test-bed of rotor, their vibration signals are collected and transformed to frequency domain by FFT, then the spectrum energy in 8 bands divided by their total energy are taken as the energy distributions. With PCA, the 8-dimensional energy distributions are converted to 2-dimensional fault samples which can hold more than 80% useful information of the primary data. With the fault samples, the new method is tested and compared with several other multiclass methods of SVM, and experimental results show that the new method has higher speed and better accuracy than other similar ones. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Kuang X.,University of Jinan | Kuang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Kuang R.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zheng X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang Z.,University of Jinan
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

In this study, two novel coupling agents (CAs) were used for manufacturing wheat straw (WS)/recycled low density polyethylene (LDPE) composites, one being waterborne polyacrylate latex (PAL), the other being blend prepared from polymethylene polyphenylene isocyanate (PAPI) and the PAL. The effects of the PAL components, the ratio of PAPI/PAL, the loaded content of the CA composed of PAPI and PAL, and the ratio of WS/recycled LDPE on the mechanical properties and thickness swelling stability of the composites were investigated. The PAL could improve composite quality, while the CA composed of PAPI and optimized PAL resulted in a more significant improvement. As the loaded content of the CA with PAPI/PAL of 30/70 was 4.5 wt%, the composite behaved the maximum internal bonding (IB) strength and the IB strength after soaked in boiling water for 2 h (2 h WIB). IB strength were significantly enhanced with WS content ranging from 90 to 40 wt%. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ji H.-F.,Shandong University of Technology | Zhang H.-Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2010

Structural information regarding normal prion protein (PrPC) and the scrapie isoform (PrPSc) is of vital importance for elucidating the pathogenesis of prion diseases (PDs). Despite successful determination of the three-dimensional structures of PrPC, the structural details of PrPSc remain elusive. Nevertheless, accumulated evidence indicates that β-sheets comprise the basic building blocks of PrPSc. Consensus has been reached about the β-sheet constitution of the N-terminus of PrP, but the constitution of C-terminal β-sheets is heavily debated. By evaluating the most recent observations regarding the dynamics and structures of PrP, we propose that helix 2 is more likely than helices 1 and 3 to participate in β-sheet formation. This hypothesis also provides clues to explaining an intriguing phenomenon in prion biology-the lack of PDs in non-mammals. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhang X.-Z.,Shandong University of Technology | Quan Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Tang G.-Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Brain Research Bulletin | Year: 2015

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disease that threatens the elderly. No efficient therapeutic method is currently available to combat AD. Drug repurposing has provided a new route for AD drug discovery, and medical genetics has shown potential in target-based drug repurposing. We compared AD-associated genes with approved drug targets and found that three are targeted by 23 approved drugs. Thus, these drugs may be used to treat AD according to the medical genetic information of the targets. In vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that four drugs, all of which are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, had potential to treat AD. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Mou F.,Wuhan University of Technology | Guan J.,Wuhan University of Technology | Xiao Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Sun Z.,Wuhan University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

In this paper, a magnetic adsorbent of iron oxide (Fe2O 3) with a chestnut-like amorphous-core/γ-phase-shell hierarchical nanostructure (CAHN) has been synthesized in a rationally designed chemical reaction system, where the decomposition rate of Fe(CO)5 is controlled by the CO generated from the decomposition of N,N-dimethylformamide under the assistance of the hydrolysis of SnCl2·2H 2O. By utilizing the current chemistry equilibrium dynamics, it is possible to kinetically modulate the nucleation and subsequent growth of Fe 2O3 to form chestnut-like hierarchical nanostructures, in which single crystalline γ-Fe2O3 nanorods, with a diameter of 20 nm and a length of 300 nm, radially grow from the surfaces of amorphous and porous Fe2O3 sub-microspheres. The detailed possible formation mechanism of the Fe2O3 CAHNs is proposed according to the experimental results. The as-obtained Fe 2O3 CAHNs show a strong adsorption capability for As(v), with a maximum adsorption capacity of 137.5 mg g-1, because of both the specific surface area, which can be as large as 143.12 m2 g -1, and the heterogeneous surface properties. Furthermore, their ferromagnetic properties make them easy to separate from water by magnetic separation. The adsorption process obeys the Freundlich isotherm model well, but not the Langmuir model, suggesting that a multilayered adsorption occurs on the surface of the Fe2O3 CAHNs. Our work may shed light on the design and preparation of high performance 3D hierarchically nanostructured adsorbents. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Wang Z.-X.,Tsinghua University | Wang J.,Tsinghua University | Jiang J.,Fudan University | Chen L.,Tsinghua University | And 4 more authors.
Cell Research | Year: 2014

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential steroid hormones that have crucial roles in plant growth and development. BRs are perceived by the cell-surface receptor-like kinase brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1). In the absence of BRs, the cytosolic kinase domain (KD) of BRI1 is inhibited by its auto-inhibitory carboxyl terminus, as well as by interacting with an inhibitor protein, BRI1 kinase inhibitor 1 (BKI1). How BR binding to the extracellular domain of BRI1 leads to activation of the KD and dissociation of BKI1 into the cytosol remains unclear. Here we report the crystal structure of BRI1 KD in complex with the interacting peptide derived from BKI1. We also provide biochemical evidence that BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1) plays an essential role in initiating BR signaling. Steroid-dependent heterodimerization of BRI1 and BAK1 ectodomains brings their cytoplasmic KDs in the right orientation for competing with BKI1 and transphosphorylation. © 2014 IBCB, SIBS, CAS.

Zheng B.-B.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wu X.-M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ge X.-X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Deng X.-X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Male sterile and seedless characters are highly desired for citrus cultivar improvement. In our breeding program, a male sterile cybrid pummelo, which could be considered as a variant of male fertile pummelo, was produced by protoplast fusion. Herein, ecotopic stamen primordia initiation and development were detected in this male sterile cybrid pummelo. Histological studies revealed that the cybrid showed reduced petal development in size and width, and retarded stamen primordia development. Additionally, disorganized cell proliferation was also detected in stamen-like structures (fused to petals and/or carpel). To gain new insight into the underlying mechanism, we compared, by RNA-Seq analysis, the nuclear gene expression profiles of floral buds of the cybrid with that of fertile pummelo. Gene expression profiles which identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two lines were captured at both petal primordia and stamen primordia distinguishable stages. For example, nuclear genes involved in nucleic acid binding and response to hormone synthesis and metabolism, genes required for floral bud identification and expressed in particular floral whorls. Furthermore, in accordance with flower morphology of the cybrid, expression of PISTILLATA (PI) was reduced in stamen-like structures, even though it was restricted to correct floral whorls. Down-regulated expression of APETALA3 (AP3) coincided with that of PI. These finding indicated that, due to their whorl specific effects in flower development, citrus class-B MADS-box genes likely constituted 'perfect targets' for CMS retrograde signaling, and that dysfunctional mitochondria seemed to cause male sterile phenotype in the cybrid pummelo. © 2012 Zheng et al.

Li Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zheng L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Cai H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Garza E.,Northern Illinois University | And 2 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2011

Biodiesel is a renewable and environmentally friendly liquid fuel. However, the feedstock, predominantly crop oil, is a limited and expensive food resource which prevents large scale application of biodiesel. Development of non-food feedstocks are therefore, needed to fully utilize biodiesel's potential. In this study, the larvae of a high fat containing insect, black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) (BSFL), was evaluated for biodiesel production. Specifically, the BSFL was grown on organic wastes for 10 days and used for crude fat extraction by petroleum ether. The extracted crude fat was then converted into biodiesel by acid-catalyzed (1% H 2SO 4) esterification and alkaline-catalyzed (0.8% NaOH) transesterification, resulting in 35.5 g, 57.8 g and 91.4 g of biodiesel being produced from 1000 BSFL growing on 1 kg of cattle manure, pig manure and chicken manure, respectively. The major ester components of the resulting biodiesel were lauric acid methyl ester (35.5%), oleinic acid methyl ester (23.6%) and palmitic acid methyl ester (14.8%). Fuel properties of the BSFL fat-based biodiesel, such as density (885 kg/m 3), viscosity (5.8 mm 2/s), ester content (97.2%), flash point (123 °C), and cetane number (53) were comparable to those of rapeseed-oil-based biodiesel. These results demonstrated that the organic waste-grown BSFL could be a feasible non-food feedstock for biodiesel production. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Li X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xin X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhu C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2013

Replication protein A (RPA) is a conserved heterotrimeric protein complex comprising RPA1, RPA2, and RPA3 subunits involved in multiple DNA metabolism pathways attributable to its single-stranded DNA binding property. Unlike other species possessing a single RPA2 gene, rice (Oryza sativa) possesses three RPA2 paralogs, but their functions remain unclear. In this study, we identified RPA2c, a rice gene preferentially expressed during meiosis. A T-DNA insertional mutant (rpa2c) exhibited reduced bivalent formation, leading to chromosome nondisjunction. In rpa2c, chiasma frequency is reduced by ~78% compared with the wild type and is accompanied by loss of the obligate chiasma. The residual ~22% chiasmata fit a Poisson distribution, suggesting loss of crossover control. RPA2c colocalized with the meiotic cohesion subunit REC8 and the axis-associated protein PAIR2. Localization of REC8 was necessary for loading of RPA2c to the chromosomes. In addition, RPA2c partially colocalized with MER3 during late leptotene, thus indicating that RPA2c is required for class I crossover formation at a late stage of homologous recombination. Furthermore, we identified RPA1c, an RPA1 subunit with nearly overlapping distribution to RPA2c, required for ~79% of chiasmata formation. Our results demonstrate that an RPA complex comprising RPA2c and RPA1c is required to promote meiotic crossovers in rice. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Ding X.,The Hong Kong Institute of Education | Ding X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ho W.,The Hong Kong Institute of Education | Shang J.,Central China Normal University | Zhang L.,Central China Normal University
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2016

In this study, we demonstrated that the reactive species generation of Bi2MoO6 under visible light can be regulated by Bi self-doping via a simple soft-chemical method. Density functional theory calculations and systematical characterization results revealed that Bi self-doping could not only promote the separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs of Bi2MoO6 but also alter the position of valence and conduction band without changing its preferential crystal orientations, morphology, visible light absorption as well as band gap energy. The photocatalytic removal of NO and products determination revealed that the enhanced generation of superoxide could improve the oxidation of NO to NO2 while OH and photogenerated holes mainly contributed to the further oxidation of NO2 to NO3 -. Photostability and NO absorbtion tests demonstrated that NO3 - on the surface of catalysts occupied the NO absorption sites and caused the deactivation of catalysts. This study provides new insight into the different effects of photogenerated reactive species on NO removal and sheds light on the design of highly efficient visible light-driven photocatalysts for NO removal. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Sun S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen D.,Hunan Agricultural University | Li X.,Fudan University | Qiao S.,Fudan University | And 4 more authors.
Developmental Cell | Year: 2015

Leaf erectness is key in determining plant architecture and yield, particularly in cereal crops. Brassinosteroids (BRs) play a unique role in controlling this trait in monocots, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain big mysteries. Here we report that the abaxial sclerenchyma cell number of rice lamina joints (LJs) is closely related to leaf erectness, and BR signaling tightly regulates their proliferation. We identified a rice U-type cyclin CYC U4;1 enriched in rice LJs, with its expression accompanying LJ development. Genetic and biochemical studies demonstrated that CYC U4;1 plays a positive role in promoting leaf erectness by controlling the abaxial sclerenchyma cell proliferation. Furthermore, BR signaling inhibits the abaxial sclerenchyma cell division by coordinately regulating CYC U4;1 expression through BES1 and CYC U4;1 protein activity through GSK3 kinases. These results support a key role of the cyclin CYC U4;1 in mediating BR-regulated cell division to control leaf erectness. Brassinosteroids (BRs) control leaf erectness in monocots. Sun et al. uncover the underlying mechanism in rice, showing that BR inhibits the proliferation of a specific abaxial cell population in the lamina joint regions. The authors identify a U-type cyclin ( CYC U4;1) whose activity and expression are controlled by BR signaling. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Wang L.,Arizona State University | Wang L.,CAS Shanghai Advanced Research Institute | Li Y.,Arizona State University | Li Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Microalgae have the ability to undergo programmatic changes in photosynthetic carbon partitioning and thus cellular biochemical composition, particularly in the relative amounts of crude protein, lipids, and carbohydrate, in response to changes in environmental and culture conditions. In this study, a novel strategy that employs a single microalgal strain Scenedesmus dimorphus grown in a single cultivation platform to produce protein-, carbohydrate- or lipid-rich biomass, as so desired, was introduced. With the combined manipulation of nitrogen availability and light intensity and cell inoculation density, it was successfully demonstrated that highest yields for protein and carbohydrate were 0.2 and 0.7gL-1d-1, respectively, which could be obtained in early stages of cultivation, while the highest yield for lipid, 0.17gL-1d-1, occured in a late stage of cultivation. © 2012.

Wei W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wei W.,Central China Normal University | Zheng X.-P.,Central China Normal University
Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2012

The recent observation of the pulsar PSR J1614-2230 with a mass of 1.97±0.04 Mȯ gives a strong constraint on the equation of state (EoS) of the dense matter in compact stars. In this work, we calculate the maximum mass of quark stars with the density-dependent quark mass model, and explore the parameter ranges for this model fully, by considering the constraints of absolute stability of strange quark matter and the mass of PSR J1614-2230. Without the color-superconductivity, the maximum mass of unpaired quark stars is more sensitive to the parameter C, and complies with the constraints within the range of 96MeVfm -3≲C≲130MeVfm -3. The largest mass can reach 2.25 Mȯ at C≃96.54MeVfm -3 and ms0≃145MeV. For the quark stars composed of the quark matter in color-flavor locked (CFL) phase, we can obtain quite large maximum masses at a sufficiently high gap value, but the value of ms0 is very important in deciding the maximum mass of the CFL quark stars. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Xue F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li C.,Jiangnan University | Pan S.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

The mixture of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel (Nanfengmiju, Citrus reticulata Blanco) was tested for subacute oral toxicity. In this study, dose levels of 0, 200, 500 and 2000. mg/kg body weight/day were administered by gavage to 10 Wistar rats/sex/group for 28. days. No statistically significant, dose-related effect on food consumption, food efficiency, body weight gain, clinical signs or ophthalmoscopic parameters was observed in any treatment group. Urinalysis, hematological, blood coagulation and serum biochemical examination as well as necropsy or histopathology showed that no observed adverse effect was found. These findings suggested that the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level for the mixture of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel was at least 2000. mg/kg body weight/day. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Zhou J.,Jiangnan University | Xu Z.,Jiangnan University | Chen S.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

The thuringiensin abiotic degradation processes in aqueous solution under different conditions, with a pH range of 5.0-9.0 and a temperature range of 10-40. °C, were systematically investigated by an exponential decay model and a radius basis function (RBF) neural network model, respectively. The half-lives of thuringiensin calculated by the exponential decay model ranged from 2.72. d to 16.19. d under the different conditions mentioned above. Furthermore, an RBF model with accuracy of 0.1 and SPREAD value 5 was employed to model the degradation processes. The results showed that the model could simulate and predict the degradation processes well. Both the half-lives and the prediction data showed that thuringiensin was an easily degradable antibiotic, which could be an important factor in the evaluation of its safety. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Zuo X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yu S.,Tongji University | Shi W.,Harbin Institute of Technology
Desalination | Year: 2012

The effect of operating condition on the performance of new type of PVDF-SiO 2 organic-inorganic ion-exchange membranes used in electrodialysis process was investigated with single salt solution in comparison to PVDF membranes. The experimental results indicated that better transport properties of PVDF-SiO 2 membranes may be responsible for the limited current density (LCD) of the membranes higher than that of PVDF membranes. The LCD values of PVDF-SiO 2 and PVDF membranes at NaCl solution of 5000mg/L were 1.43mA/cm 2 and 1.13mA/cm 2, respectively. In addition, desalination ratio increased with increasing current density and feed flow rate. It was also found that at the optimum operating condition, the removal ratios of Na +, Ca 2+, Cl - and SO 4 2- by electrodialysis employing PVDF-SiO 2 membranes were 97.7%, 93.5%, 96.5% and 88.5%, respectively, and the removal ratios of the ions in the presence of PVDF membranes were 91.4%, 88.4%, 92.5% and 85.7%, respectively. It can be concluded that these PVDF-SiO 2 organic-inorganic ion-exchange membranes with better membrane properties can be used in electrodialysis process. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Huang X.-S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu J.-H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen X.-J.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2010

Background: Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting plant growth, development and crop productivity. ABA responsive element binding factor (ABF) plays an important role in stress responses via regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes.Results: In this study, a gene coding for ABF (PtrABF) was isolated from Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. PtrABF had a complete open reading frame of 1347 bp, encoding a 448 amino acid peptide, and shared high sequence identities with ABFs from other plants. PtrABF was subcellularly targeted to the nucleus, exhibited transactivation activity in yeast cell and could bind to ABRE, supporting its role as a transcription factor. Expression levels of PtrABF were induced by treatments with dehydration, low temperature and ABA. Ectopic expression of PtrABF under the control of a CaMV 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco plants enhanced tolerance to both dehydration and drought. Under dehydration and drought conditions, the transgenic plants accumulated lower levels of reactive oxygen species compared with wild type, accompanied by higher activities and expression levels of three antioxidant enzymes. In addition, steady-state mRNA levels of nine stress-responsive genes coding for either functional or regulatory proteins were induced to higher levels in the transgenic lines with or without drought stress.Conclusions: PtrABF is a bZIP transcription factor and functions in positive modulation of drought stress tolerance. It may be an important candidate gene for molecular breeding of drought- tolerant plants. © 2010 Huang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Zhang Z.,Central China Normal University | van Parijs F.R.D.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Xiao B.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2014

Even though next-generation sequencing (NGS) has now become the predominant state-of-the-art technique for genotyping populations, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA fingerprinting is still a relevant method, thanks to its versatility, cost-effectiveness, independence of prior sequence information and broad applicability. Even though the number of AFLP studies reached its peak in 2012, it is still applied extensively for phylogenetic analysis, genotyping or identifying non-model species, which often feature complex and large genomes. For these purposes, tools continue to be developed for designing AFLP studies, scoring AFLPs or handling AFLP data. Moreover, AFLP studies embrace the NGS technology; for example, the whole-genome sequence of model species is used to design more efficient AFLP studies for non-model species. Conversely, in complexity reduction of polymorphic sequences and restriction site-associated DNA sequencing studies, polymorphisms are often found to be present in many restriction sites, which can still be studied as AFLPs. We discuss the latest advances in AFLP-based studies in the era of NGS and anticipate that AFLP will remain a relevant method in the near future, even for species with a known genome, owing to its many promising new features such as methylation-sensitive-AFLP. Here, we also present an optimized pipeline for converting AFLP markers into single-locus markers, which can be applied in both traditional AFLP and NGS studies. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Ai H.,Central China Normal University | Ai H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xia Y.,Central China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Antioxidant activity of the chitosan from the larvae of Musca domestica L. was evaluated in two different reactive oxygen species assays, and inhibitory effects against seven fungi were also tested. The results showed that the chitosan had scavenging activity for hydroxyl and superoxide radicals which were similar to that of ascorbic acid. Also the chitosan exhibited excellent antifungal activity, especially in the low concentration, it could significantly inhibit the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer. Besides, antiviral results demonstrated that the chitosan could effectively inhibit the infection of AcMNPV and BmNPV. These results suggested that the chitosan from the larvae of housefly could be effectively used as a natural antioxidant to protect the human body from free radicals and retard the progress of many chronic diseases. Furthermore, the chitosan with antiviral and antifungal activity might provide useful information for antiviral breeding technology of economic insect and development of plant pathological control. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yu B.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Liu F.,Zhengzhou University of Light Industry | You L.,International Food Policy Research Institute | You L.,Huazhong Agricultural University
American Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2012

The Chinese government has implemented comprehensive policies to encourage domestic agricultural production, including eliminating agricultural taxes and providing direct subsidies to farmers. Models of the supply response of one crop can be formulated in terms of area or yield response. Usually there is a delayed area and yield adjustment in agricultural production due to resource availability within one or two agricultural production cycles. Thus it is crucial to adopt a dynamic approach to recognize the time lags in agricultural supply response. In addition, since grain, cotton, and oil crops are part of a farming system in which crops compete for resources, the estimation of the supply response for one crop should take competing crops into consideration. If input price rises, a rational farmer will prefer a less labor-intensive crop so as to be more efficient in labor use. Difference GMM approach can eliminate the individual effects and generates stationary variables for analysis, ensuring the validation of estimation results.

Pan Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li Y.,University of Maryland University College | Deng X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xiao S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xiao S.,University of Maryland College Park
Metabolomics | Year: 2014

The direct analysis in real-time (DART) ion source and HPLC-electrospray mass spectrometry were applied in non-targeted metabolomic analyses of fruits of an orange bud mutant, 'Hong Anliu' along with its parental wild-type, 'Anliu'. Fruits of the two isogenic cultivars were sampled at three different ripening stages, i.e. 120, 170 and 220 days after flowering. More than 130 metabolites were tentatively identified, including acids, sugars, flavonoids, alkaloids, limonoids, coumarins, amino acids, and plant hormones. Metabolomic analyses revealed that, compared to its wild type, the bud mutant fruit is characterized by higher levels of monosaccharides and disaccharides and lower levels of organic acids such as citric acid, malic acid and quinic acid, which agrees well with the anticipated fruit quality benefits of the mutation. In addition, many secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, showed significant differences between the two genotypes, indicating that the whole fruit metabolome is significantly changed due to the bud mutation. This study provided a comprehensive assessment of metabolites in orange fruits, and revealed metabolomic differences in fruits between two isogenic orange genotypes. The results are helpful for understanding how the bud mutation in 'Hong Anliu' impacts the physiological and biochemical processes of orange fruits. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Wang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Witarsa F.,University of Maryland University College
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2016

An integrated model was developed by associating separate degradation kinetics for an array of degradations during a decomposition process, which was considered as a novelty of this study. The raw composting material was divided into soluble, hemi-/cellulose, lignin, NBVS, ash, water, and free air-space. Considering their specific capabilities of expressing certain degradation phenomenon, Contois, Tessier (an extension to Monod kinetic), and first-order kinetics were employed to calculate the biochemical rates. It was found that the degradation of soluble substrate was relatively faster which could reach a maximum rate of about 0.4 per hour. The hydrolysis of lignin was rate-limiting with a maximum rate of about 0.04 per hour. The dry-based peak concentrations of soluble, hemi-/cellulose and lignin degraders were about 0.9, 0.2 and 0.3 kg m−3, respectively. Model developed, as a platform, allows degradation simulation of composting material that could be separated into the different components used in this study. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Kang C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu Z.,University of Maryland University College
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new class of regulatory molecules with roles in diverse biological processes. While much effort has been invested in the analysis of lncRNAs from established plant models Arabidopsis, maize, and rice, almost nothing is known about lncRNAs from fruit crops, including those in the Rosaceae family. Results: Here, we present a genome-scale identification and characterization of lncRNAs from a diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca, based on rich RNA-seq datasets from 35 different flower and fruit tissues. 5,884 Fve-lncRNAs derived from 3,862 loci were identified. These lncRNAs were carefully cataloged based on expression level and whether or not they contain repetitive sequences or generate small RNAs. About one fourth of them are termed high-confidence lncRNAs (hc-lncRNAs) because they are expressed at a level of FPKM higher than 2 and produce neither small RNAs nor contain repetitive sequence. To identify regulatory interactions between lncRNAs and their potential protein-coding (PC) gene targets, pairs of lncRNAs and PC genes with positively or negatively correlated expression trends were identified based on their expression; these pairs may be candidates of cis- or trans-acting lncRNAs and their targets. Finally, blast searches within plant species indicate that lncRNAs are not well conserved. Conclusions: Our study identifies a large number of tissue-specifically expressed lncRNAs in F. vesca, thereby highlighting their potential contributions to strawberry flower and fruit development and paving the way for future functional studies. © 2015 Kang and Liu.

Wu Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Dohnal V.,University of Hradec Kralove | Kuca K.,University of Hradec Kralove | Yuan Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Current Drug Metabolism | Year: 2013

Trichothecenes comprise a large family of structurally related toxins mainly produced by fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium. Among trichothecenes, type A and type B are of the most concern due to their broad and highly toxic nature. In order to address structure-activity relationships (SAR) of trichothecenes, relationships between structural features and biological effects of trichothecene mycotoxins in mammalian systems are summarized in this paper. The double bond between C-9-C-10 and the 12,13-epoxide ring are essential structural features for trichothecene toxicity. Removal of these groups results in a complete loss of toxicity. A hydroxyl group at C-3 enhances trichothecene toxicity, while this activity decreases gradually when C-3 is substituted with either hydrogen or an acetoxy group. The presence of a hydroxyl group at C-4 promotes slightly lower toxicity than an acetoxy group at the same position. The toxicity for type B trichothecenes decreases if the substituent at C-4 is changed from acetoxy to hydroxyl or hydrogen at C-4 position. The presence of hydroxyl and hydrogen groups on C-15 decreases the trichothecene toxicity in comparison with an acetoxy group attached to this carbon. Trichothecenes toxicity increases when a macrocyclic ring exists between the C-4 and C-15. At C-8 position, an oxygenated substitution at C-8 is essential for trichothecene toxicity, indicating a decrease in the toxicity if substituent change from isovaleryloxy through hydrogen to the hydroxyl group. The presence of a second epoxy ring at C-7-C-8 reduces the toxicity, whereas epoxidation at C-9-C-10 of some macrocyclic trichothecenes increases the activity. Conjugated trichothecenes could release their toxic precursors after hydrolysis in animals, and present an additional potential risk. The SAR study of trichothecenes should provide some crucial information for a better understanding of trichothecene chemical and biological properties in food contamination. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Sun Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang W.-Y.,Shenzhen Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | Xing J.,Wuhan University | Wang C.-M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Microchimica Acta | Year: 2011

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) based on carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotube fibers was used to extract several chlorophenols (CPs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from aqueous samples prior to their determination by GC with electron capture detection. The main parameters affecting microextraction (temperature, time, stirring rate and salting-out effect) and the conditions of the thermal desorption in the GC injector were optimized. Compared with commercial SPME fibers, the fiber presented better selectivity and sensitivity. Linear response was found for the concentration range between 2 and 1000 ng L-1 (20-1000 ng L-1 for CPs), and the limits of detection were in the range from 0.07 to 4.36 ng L-1. The repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation ranged from 4.1 % to 8.2 % and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility for four prepared fibers was between 6.5 % and 10.8 %. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of CPs and OCPs in lake water and waste water samples. Recovery was tested with spiked lake water and waste water samples, with values ranging from 89.7 % to 101.2 % in case of waste water samples. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Colla G.,University of Tuscia | Rouphael Y.,Lebanese University | Leonardi C.,University of Catania | Bie Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that reduce plant growth and crop productivity in many vegetable production areas of the world. Grafting can represent an interesting tool to avoid or reduce yield losses caused by salinity stress in high-yielding genotypes belonging to Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae families. Grafting is an integrative reciprocal process and, therefore, both scion and rootstock can influence salt tolerance of grafted plants. Grafted plants grown under saline conditions often exhibited better growth and yield, higher photosynthesis and leaf water content, greater root-to-shoot ratio, higher accumulation of compatible osmolytes, abscisic acid and polyamines in leaves, greater antioxidant capacity in leaves, and lower accumulation of Na+ and/or Cl- in shoots than ungrafted or self-grafted plants. This report gives an overview of the recent literature on the salinity response of grafted plants and the mechanisms of salt tolerance in grafted plants related to the morphological root characteristics and the physiological and biochemical processes. The review will conclude by identifying several prospects for future researches aiming to improve the role of grafting in vegetable crops grown under saline conditions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Zhou J.,Wuhan University | Qi X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Letters in Applied Microbiology | Year: 2011

Aims: To develop a new nano-composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with enhanced antimicrobial activity.Methods and Results: A novel antimicrobial nanocomposite [MWNT-epilson-polylysine (MEPs)] was synthesized via covalent attachment of epilson-polylysine on MWNTs with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as the coupling agent. UV-visible spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) investigations indicate that MEPs is stable, with epilson-polylysine leaching effectively eliminated. When compared to MWNTs, the new nano-composite MEPs exhibits enhanced antimicrobial activities. In 20 mg l-1 suspensions, significant increases of 72.1, 64.5 and 69% against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus can be observed. The deposited film of MEPs also shows improved antibacterial activities and excellent antiadhensive efficacies against Ps. aeruginosa and Staph. aureus.Conclusions: Epilson-polylysine functionalization of MWNTs with HDI as the bridge was found to be useful for improving the biocidal activity of MWNTs.Significance and Impact of the Study: The new nano-composite MEPs with improved antimicrobial activity will substantially facilitate the application of MWNTs as the antimicrobial material such as medical device, food, pharmaceutical process and package. © 2010 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Tan J.,Wuhan University | Tan J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zou X.,Wuhan University
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos | Year: 2013

In this paper, we investigate the complex dynamical behaviors of a biological network that is derived from innate immune responses and that couples positive and negative feedback loops. The stability conditions of the non-negative equilibrium points (EPs) of the system are obtained, using the theory of dynamical systems, and we deduce that no more than three stable EPs exist in this system. Through bifurcation analysis and numerical simulations, we find that the system presents rich dynamical behaviors, such as monostability, bistability and oscillations. These results reveal how positive and negative feedback cooperatively regulate the dynamical behavior of the system. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Yu L.Z.-H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yu L.Z.-H.,Wuhan University | Luo X.-S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu M.,Wuhan University | Huang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Basic Microbiology | Year: 2015

So far, little is known about the diversity of the radiation-resistant microbes of the hyperarid Taklimakan Desert. In this study, ionizing radiation (IR)-resistant bacteria from two sites in Xinjiang were investigated. After exposing the arid (water content of 0.8±0.3%) and non-arid (water content of 21.3±0.9%) sediment samples to IR of 3000Gy using a 60Co source, a total of 52 γ-radiation-resistant bacteria were isolated from the desert sample. The 16S rRNA genes of all isolates were sequenced. The phylogenetic tree places these isolates into five groups: Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides, Proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Interestingly, this is the first report of radiation-resistant bacteria belonging to the genera Knoellia, Lysobacter, Nocardioides, Paracoccus, Pontibacter, Rufibacter and Microvirga. The 16s rRNA genes of four isolates showed low sequence similarities to those of the published species. Phenotypic analysis showed that all bacteria in this study are able to produce catalase, suggesting that these bacteria possess reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes. These radiation-resistant bacteria also displayed diverse metabolic properties. Moreover, their radiation resistances were found to differ. The diversity of the radiation-resistant bacteria in the desert provides further ecological support for the hypothesis that the ionizing-radiation resistance phenotype is a consequence of the evolution of ROS-scavenging systems that protect cells against oxidative damage caused by desiccation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Attanayake R.N.,North Dakota State University | Carter P.A.,Washington State University | Jiang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Del Rio-Mendoza L.,North Dakota State University | Chen W.,Washington State University
Phytopathology | Year: 2013

Genetic and phenotypic diversity and population differentiation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates infecting canola from China and the United States were investigated. Genetic diversity was assessed with eight microsatellite markers and mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs). Phenotypic diversity was assessed with sensitivity to three fungicides, production of oxalate and sclerotia, growth rate, and virulence on two canola cultivars. No shared MCGs or multilocus haplotypes were detected between the two populations, and populations differed significantly (P < 0.001). Recombination was detected in both populations but was greater in the Chinese population. A polymerase chain reaction detection assay showed that ~60% of the isolates were inversion-plus at the mating type locus. The two populations differed significantly (P < 0.05) for all of the phenotypic traits except for sensitivity to fungicide fluazinam and virulence. Isolates in the Chinese population were unique in several aspects. Despite the phenotypic differentiation, heritabilities of the phenotypic traits were similar for both populations. Significant correlations were found among five phenotypic traits. Cross resistance to benomyl and iprodione was detected. Virulence was not significantly correlated with any other phenotypic trait and had the least heritability. However, both populations were equally virulent on either a susceptible or a moderately resistant canola cultivars. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society.

Huang Q.,Wuhan University | Huang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang L.,Wuhan University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2011

A water-insoluble (1 → 3)-α-d-glucan from Poria cocos mycelia was fractionated, followed by phosphorylation with H3PO4 in LiCl/Me2SO containing urea to synthesize water-soluble phosphated derivatives. Their structures and chain conformations were investigated by FTIR, 31P NMR, SEC-LLS and viscometry. The Mark-Houwink equation for the phosphated derivative in 0.15 M aqueous NaCl at 30 °C was established to be η=2.87×10-3Mw0.860.02. On the basis of conformational parameters calculated from wormlike cylinder model, the phosphated derivative existed as a semi-stiff chain in aqueous solution. Compared with unphosphated glucan, water-solubility and chain stiffness of the phosphated derivative increased, as a result of the introduction of phosphate group on main chain. All the phosphated derivatives exhibited significantly stronger anti-tumor activities than that of the unphosphated one, suggesting the effects of solubility and expanded chain conformation on improvement of the anti-tumor activity could not be negligible. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhu F.,Wuhan University
BMC Medical Genomics | Year: 2015

In oncology drug development, it is important to develop low risk drugs efficiently. Meanwhile, computational methods have been paid more and more attention in drug discovery. However, few studies attempt to discover the mutual gene modules shared by the drug and disease association. Here we introduce a novel method to identify repositioned drug for breast cancer by integrating the breast cancer survival data with the drug sensitivity information. Among the 140 drug candidates, we are able to filter 4 FDA approved drugs and identify 2 breast cancer drugs among 4 known breast cancer therapeutic drug in total. © 2015 Zhu and Zhu; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Benelli G.,University of Pisa | Daane K.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Canale A.,University of Pisa | Niu C.-Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2014

Tephritidae are an enormous threat to fruit and vegetable production throughout the world, causing both quantitative and qualitative losses. Investigating mating sequences could help to unravel mate choice dynamics, adding useful information to improve behaviour-based control strategies. We review current knowledge about sexual communication and related behaviours in Tephritidae, with a focus on six key agricultural pests: Anastrepha ludens, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera oleae, Ceratitis capitata and Rhagoletis pomonella. We examine features and the role of male-male combat in lekking sites, cues affecting mating dynamics, and some fitness-promoting female behaviours that occur at oviposition sites [the use of oviposition marking pheromones (OMPs) and female-female fights for single oviposition sites]. We outline future perspectives and potential contributions of knowledge about sexual communication to Integrated Pest Management programs for tephritid pests. Sexually selected traits are frequently good indicators of male fitness and knowledge of sexual selection processes may contribute to the improvement of the sterile insect technique (SIT), to select genotypes with high reproductive success and to promote sexually selected phenotypes through mass-rearing optimization. Furthermore, males' exposure to parapheromones, such as phenyl propanoids (PPs), ginger root oil and trimedlure can enhance the mating success of sterile flies used in SIT programs. PPs are also a powerful tool to improve reduced-risk monitoring dispensers and the male annihilation technique, with low side effects on non-target insects. Lastly, we outline the possibility to sensitise or train mass-reared parasitoids on OMPs during the pre-release phase, in order to improve their post-release performance in the field. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Dai K.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Wuhan University | Fan K.,Wuhan University | Peng T.,Wuhan University | Wei B.,University of Delaware
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2013

A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-TiO2 hybrid was prepared hydrothermally by direct growth of TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of functionalized SWCNTs to develop highly efficient photocatalysts. The SWCNT-TiO2 hybrid was characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, N2-adsorption analysis, FT-IR, Raman, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the SWCNT-TiO2 hybrid was examined by the photocatalytic degradation of pirimicarb. Although the SWCNT-TiO2 hybrid exhibits no visible-light-induced activity, the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of pirimicarb over TiO2 can be increased significantly with the introduction of SWCNTs (2-3 times) because SWCNTs can act as electron conductors that hinder the recombination of photo-generated electrons and holes. Compared with a multi-walled carbon nanotube-TiO2 hybrid, it can be found that the electronic configurations of carbon nanotubes significantly affect the photocatalytic activity of carbon nanotube-TiO2 hybrid. Metal-typed SWCNTs act more as an electrical conductor than a photosensitizer, which efficiently suppress charge recombination, improve interfacial charge transfer, and improve the photoactivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Wang B.J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang H.G.,Hubei University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

Among many user authentications over insecure networks, password authentication is simple, convenient and widely adopted one. Chen and Lee proposed a new hash-based password authentication using smart card and claimed that their scheme could resist seven attacks as listed in their paper. However, in this paper, it is pointed out that Chen-Lee's scheme is vulnerable to off-line password guessing, replay and impersonation attacks when the smart card is lost or stolen. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Li Y.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Li Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | McClements D.J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a non-ionic cosurfactant (Tween 20) on the formation and properties of electrostatic complexes consisting of charged oil droplets and charged biopolymers. The mean droplet diameters in oil-in-water emulsions prepared using a membrane homogenizer were considerably larger when β-lactoglobulin (BLG) was used alone (≈8μm), than when it was used in combination with Tween 20 (≈2μm). The cationic oil droplets formed by membrane homogenization (4.0μm pore size) were mixed with either alginate (anionic) solution (1% oil: 0-0.5% alginate: pH 3.5) or with alginate (anionic) and then chitosan (cationic) solutions (0.4% oil: 0.1% alginate; 0-0.2% chitosan: pH 4.5). The electrical characteristics, microstructure, and physical stability of the electrostatic complexes formed were determined. Under certain conditions multilayer emulsions consisting of oil droplets coated by alginate or alginate/chitosan layers were formed, whereas under other conditions microclusters consisting of aggregated oil droplets embedded within alginate or alginate/chitosan complexes were formed. The presence of the cosurfactant had a major impact on the electrical charge and dimensions of the electrostatic complexes formed. This study shows that various kinds of electrostatic complexes can be formed from charged oil droplets and charged biopolymers, and that their functional characteristics can be controlled using non-ionic cosurfactants. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Tan J.,Wuhan University | Tan J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zou X.,Wuhan University
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine | Year: 2015

Innate immune response plays an important role in control and clearance of pathogens following viral infection. However, in the majority of virus-infected individuals, the response is insufficient because viruses are known to use different evasion strategies to escape immune response. In this study, we use optimal control theory to investigate how to control the innate immune response. We present an optimal control model based on an ordinary-differential-equation system from a previous study, which investigated the dynamics and regulation of virus-triggered innate immune signaling pathways, and we prove the existence of a solution to the optimal control problem involving antiviral treatment or/and interferon therapy. We conduct numerical experiments to investigate the treatment effects of different control strategies through varying the cost function and control efficiency. The results show that a separate treatment, that is, only inhibiting viral replication (u 1 (t)) or enhancing interferon activity (u 2 (t)), has more advantages for controlling viral infection than a mixed treatment, that is, controlling both (u 1 (t)) and (u 2 (t)) simultaneously, including the smallest cost and operability. These findings would provide new insight for developing effective strategies for treatment of viral infectious diseases. © 2015 Jinying Tan and Xiufen Zou.

Du X.,Hubei University | Yang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ye X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li B.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

Antibacterial activity of glucomannan/chitosan (KGM/CHI) blend films and their irradiation-modified counterparts were tested. The KGM/CHI blend films after irradiation showed good antibacterial effects against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activity of the blend films increased with the increase of the content of chitosan. After different dose irradiation, there was no obvious change in the antibacterial effects against St. aureus of the blend films, but the antibacterial effects against E. coli and P. aeruginosa increased significantly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Shen M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shen M.,Wuhan University | Zhang Q.,Wuhan University | Chen H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Peng T.,Wuhan University
CrystEngComm | Year: 2011

Lead molybdate (PbMoO4) microcrystals with preferentially exposed (001) facets have been synthesized by a facile surfactant-assisted hydrothermal process in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The effects of the CTAB addition amount, hydrothermal temperature on the morphologies and the crystal facets of PbMoO4 were investigated in detail. Experimental results indicate that the diffraction peak intensity ratio of (112) to (001) crystal facets for the product can be delicately controlled by simply adjusting the addition amount of CTAB and hydrothermal temperature. And the products derived from hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C for 24 h in the presence of 0.05 M CTAB exhibit obvious exposed (001) facets with a minimum peak intensity ratio (I112/I004 = 0.08) of the (112) and (004) crystal facets. Moreover, the obtained PbMoO4 with preferentially exposed (001) facets exhibits greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under UV light irradiation in comparison with the PbMoO4 obtained in the absence of CTAB and the commercial phototcatalyst (P25). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Peng J.H.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Peng J.H.,Colorado State University | Sun D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Nevo E.,Haifa University
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2011

Domestication of plants and animals is the major factor underlying human civilization and is a gigantic evolutionary experiment of adaptation and speciation, generating incipient species. Wheat is one of the most important grain crops in the world, and consists mainly of two types: the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) accounting for about 95% of world wheat production, and the tetraploid durum wheat (T. durum) accounting for the other 5%. In this review, we summarize and discuss research on wheat domestication, mainly focusing on recent findings in genetics and genomics studies. T. aestivum originated from a cross between domesticated emmer wheat T. dicoccum and the goat grass Aegilops tauschii, most probably in the south and west of the Caspian Sea about 9,000 years ago. Wild emmer wheat has the same genome formula as durum wheat and has contributed two genomes to bread wheat, and is central to wheat domestication. Domestication has genetically not only transformed the brittle rachis, tenacious glume and non-free threshability, but also modified yield and yield components in wheat. Wheat domestication involves a limited number of chromosome regions, or domestication syndrome factors, though many relevant quantitative trait loci have been detected. On completion of the genome sequencing of diploid wild wheat (T. urartu or Ae. tauschii), domestication syndrome factors and other relevant genes could be isolated, and effects of wheat domestication could be determined. The achievements of domestication genetics and robust research programs in Triticeae genomics are of greatly help in conservation and exploitation of wheat germplasm and genetic improvement of wheat cultivars. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Du X.,Hubei University | Li J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen J.,Hubei University | Li B.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Gelation behaviors of konjac glucomannan (KGM) samples with different degree of deacetylation (DD) obtained using a heterogeneous deacetylation method were studied by dynamic viscoelastic measurements in order to probe the role of acetyl groups in the gelation process of KGM and types of molecular forces responsible for gel formation. Molecular parameters and structure of KGM samples were determined by GPC-MALLS and FT-IR spectroscopy. It was found that water solubility of KGM decreased with increasing DD, providing evidence further that the presence of acetyl groups confers water solubility on KGM. Rheological measurements suggested that hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction are both presented in KGM gels, hydrophobic interaction was strengthened whilst hydrogen bonding was weakened with increasing DD. A faster gelation rate and a more elastic modulus were facilitated by raising temperature or increasing KGM sample concentration. The conditions under which gelation can occur became easier with increasing DD. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Tan J.,Wuhan University | Tan J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Pan R.,Wuhan University | Qiao L.,Wuhan University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The investigation of the dynamics and regulation of virus-triggered innate immune signaling pathways at a system level will enable comprehensive analysis of the complex interactions that maintain the delicate balance between resistance to infection and viral disease. In this study, we developed a delayed mathematical model to describe the virus-induced interferon (IFN) signaling process by considering several key players in the innate immune response. Using dynamic analysis and numerical simulation, we evaluated the following predictions regarding the antiviral responses: (1) When the replication ratio of virus is less than 1, the infectious virus will be eliminated by the immune system's defenses regardless of how the time delays are changed. (2) The IFN positive feedback regulation enhances the stability of the innate immune response and causes the immune system to present the bistability phenomenon. (3) The appropriate duration of viral replication and IFN feedback processes stabilizes the innate immune response. The predictions from the model were confirmed by monitoring the virus titer and IFN expression in infected cells. The results suggest that the balance between viral replication and IFN-induced feedback regulation coordinates the dynamical behavior of virus-triggered signaling and antiviral responses. This work will help clarify the mechanisms of the virus-induced innate immune response at a system level and provide instruction for further biological experiments. © 2012 Tan et al.

Shi W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lei A.,Wuhan University
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2014

Conjugated diynes have attracted more and more attention not only for their unique rod like structures and wide existence in nature product, but also the abundant properties and derivations of them. Although oxidative dimerization of alkynes or Cadiot-Chodkiewicz reactions were the main pathway and have achieved great success in the synthesis of diynes, oxidative cross coupling, FBW rearrangement as well as diyne metathesis emerged rapidly recently. Moreover, diynes could be precursors of basic heterocycles, which represented an emerging research area. This Letter will cover the recent progresses in the synthesis and further derivations of diynes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Feng R.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | Feng R.,Open Key Laboratory of Agro environment and Food Safety of Ministry of Agriculture | Wei C.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Tu S.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

Selenium (Se), an essential element for animals and humans, has also been found to be beneficial to plants. In some countries around the world, such as China and Egypt, Se deficiency in the diet is a common problem. To counteract this problem, Se compounds have been used to increase the Se content in the edible parts of crops, through foliar sprays or base application of fertilizers. Se has also been shown to counteract various abiotic stresses induced in plants by cold, drought, high light, water, salinity and heavy metals (metalloids) (HMs), but the associated mechanisms are rather complicated and still remain to be fully elucidated. In this paper, we have focused on reviewing the effects of Se on HM-induced stress in plants, with an emphasis on the potential roles of Se compounds (e.g., selenite and selenate) in conferring tolerance against abiotic stresses. Numerous studies have implicated Se in the following mechanisms: the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, the inhibition of uptake and translocation of HM, changes in the speciation of HM and finally, rebuilding of the cell membrane and chloroplast structures and recovery of the photosynthetic system. In addition, two other mechanisms may be involved along with the established ones described above. Firstly, it may affect by regulating the uptake and redistribution of elements essential in the antioxidative systems or in maintaining the ion balance and structural integrity of the cell. Secondly, it may interfere with electron transport by affecting the assembly of the photosynthesis complexes. Future relevant studies should be increasingly focused on the changes in the cellular distribution of HM, the formation of Se-HM complexes, the substitution of S by the incorporation of Se into Se-Fe clusters and the relationships between Se, Fe, S and lipid peroxidation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Wang H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Jin L.,Jiangxi Academy of science | Zhang H.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2011

Aims: To (i) identify the bacterial communities in the gut of oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) adult and (ii) determine whether the different surroundings and diets influence the bacteria composition. Methods and Results: Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting was used to investigate bacterial diversity in the oriental fruit fly adult gut. The 16S rDNA cloned libraries from the intestinal tract of laboratory-reared (LR), laboratory sterile sugar-reared (LSSR) and field-collected (FC) populations of oriental fruit fly were compared. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in the all samples (73·0-98·3%). Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were judged to be major components of a given library as they constituted 10% or more of the total clones of such library. The Flavobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria were observed in small proportions in various libraries. Further phylogenetic analyses indicated common bacterial phylotypes for all three libraries, e.g. those related to Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pectobacterium and Serratia. libshuff analysis showed that the bacterial communities of B. dorsalis from the three populations were significantly different from each other (P<0·0085). Conclusions: (i) The intestinal tract of B. dorsalis adult contains a diverse bacterial community, some of which are stable. (ii) Different environmental conditions and food supply could influence the diversity of the harboured bacterial communities and increase community variations. Significance and Impact of the Study: Comparison of the microbial compositions and common bacterial species found in this paper may be very important for the biocontrol of B. dorsalis. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

He F.,Hubei University | He F.,Wuhan University of Science and Technology | Chen H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li L.,Hubei University
Information Sciences | Year: 2014

Moving least-squares method is investigated with samples drawn from unbounded sampling processes. Convergence analysis is established by imposing incremental conditions on moments of sample output and window width. Satisfied convergence rates are derived by means of projection operator and some concentration inequalities. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Zhou X.,Washington State University | Zhou X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Michal J.J.,Washington State University | Zhang L.,Washington State University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Secretion of interferons (IFNs) from virus-infected cells is a hallmark of host antiviral immunity and in fact, IFNs exert their antiviral activities through the induction of antiviral proteins. The IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) family is among hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes. This family contains a cluster of duplicated loci. Most mammals have IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5; however, bird, marsupial, frog and fish have only IFIT5. Regardless of species, IFIT5 is always adjacent to SLC16A12. IFIT family genes are predominantly induced by type I and type III interferons and are regulated by the pattern recognition and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. IFIT family proteins are involved in many processes in response to viral infection. However, some viruses can escape the antiviral functions of the IFIT family by suppressing IFIT family genes expression or methylation of 5' cap of viral molecules. In addition, the variants of IFIT family genes could significantly influence the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy. We believe that our current review provides a comprehensive picture for the community to understand the structure and function of IFIT family genes in response to pathogens in human, as well as in animals. © Ivyspring International Publisher.

Shen M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Wuhan University | Dai K.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Peng T.,Wuhan University
CrystEngComm | Year: 2013

Hierarchical PbMoO4 microspheres were synthesized via a simple nitric acid-assisted hydrothermal process without the addition of a template or an organic directing reagent. The scheelite-type tetragonal PbMoO4 with various hierarchical microstructures can be controllably fabricated by adjusting the experimental conditions such as hydrothermal temperature, time and nitric acid concentration. Experimental results indicate that hierarchical PbMoO4 microspheres with a size of 5-10 μm, which are assembled by plate-like microcrystals with an average thickness of ∼230 nm, can be obtained from a hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 24 h in the presence of HNO3 solution, whereas only irregular particles and aggregations are obtained without HNO3 solution. The hierarchical PbMoO4 microspheres show better photocatalytic activity than the irregular PbMoO 4 particles and the commercial photocatalyst (P25) for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under UV light irradiation. Furthermore, a possible nitric acid-assisted formation mechanism for the hierarchical PbMoO4 microspheres is proposed, which might represent a new fabrication strategy for other nano/microstructures with desired morphologies. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Zhou B.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Deng H.,Wuhan University | Hu Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li B.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2014

Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (GNP) and positively charged lysozyme (Lys) were alternately deposited on negatively charged cellulose mats via layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique. The fabricated multilayer films were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Morphology of the LBL film coated mats was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal degradation properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Additionally, the result of microbial inhibition assay indicated that the composite nanofibrous mats had excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which could be used for antimicrobial packing, tissue engineering, wound dressing, etc. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Liu R.,University of South Carolina | Liu R.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hu J.,University of South Carolina
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2013

Accurate prediction of DNA-binding residues has become a problem of increasing importance in structural bioinformatics. Here, we presented DNABind, a novel hybrid algorithm for identifying these crucial residues by exploiting the complementarity between machine learning- and template-based methods. Our machine learning-based method was based on the probabilistic combination of a structure-based and a sequence-based predictor, both of which were implemented using support vector machines algorithms. The former included our well-designed structural features, such as solvent accessibility, local geometry, topological features, and relative positions, which can effectively quantify the difference between DNA-binding and nonbinding residues. The latter combined evolutionary conservation features with three other sequence attributes. Our template-based method depended on structural alignment and utilized the template structure from known protein-DNA complexes to infer DNA-binding residues. We showed that the template method had excellent performance when reliable templates were found for the query proteins but tended to be strongly influenced by the template quality as well as the conformational changes upon DNA binding. In contrast, the machine learning approach yielded better performance when high-quality templates were not available (about 1/3 cases in our dataset) or the query protein was subject to intensive transformation changes upon DNA binding. Our extensive experiments indicated that the hybrid approach can distinctly improve the performance of the individual methods for both bound and unbound structures. DNABind also significantly outperformed the state-of-art algorithms by around 10% in terms of Matthews's correlation coefficient. The proposed methodology could also have wide application in various protein functional site annotations. DNABind is freely available at http://mleg.cse.sc.edu/DNABind/. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Jin L.,Wuhan University | Xin J.,Wuhan University | Huang Z.,Wuhan University | Huang Z.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Transmetalation is the rate-limiting step! The transmetalation between arylzinc reagents and ArNi IIR was confirmed as the rate-limiting step in the nickel-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions. It was proved to be an excellent model allowing the first quantitative measurement of the kinetic rate constants of transmetalation from a live catalytic system. Rate constants from 0.04 to 0.31 M -1 s -1 were obtained for different arylzinc reagents under the conditions, and the activation enthalpy ΔH † was 14.6 kcal/mol for PhZnCl. The substituent effect on the transmetalation was also gained for the first time from the catalytic reaction. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Wang Q.,Wuhan University | Hu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Du Y.,Wuhan University | Kennedy J.F.,Institute of Advanced Science and Technology
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

Fibers of alginate and starch, with salicylic acid (SA) as model drug incorporated in different concentrations, were obtained by spinning their solution through a viscose-type spinneret into a coagulating bath containing aqueous CaCl2 and ethanol. Chemical, morphological and mechanical properties characterization was carried out, as well as the studies of the factors that influence the drug releasing from alginate/starch fibers. The results of controlled release tests showed that the amount of SA released increased with an increase in the proportion of starch present in the fiber. Moreover, the release rate of drug decreased as the amount of drug loaded in the fiber increased, but the cumulative release amount is increasing. The alginate/starch fibers were also sensitive to pH and ionic strength. All the results indicated that the alginate/starch fiber was potentially useful in drug delivery systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhu Z.-H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Sun Y.-L.,Wuhan University
Dianli Xitong Baohu yu Kongzhi/Power System Protection and Control | Year: 2010

Aimed at problems of multiple solutions in the used optimizing models for grid fault diagnosis, an improved model is established considering the influence of the reclosure, the different protection and joint influence between main and backup protections. Also, quantum immune algorithm is presented for fault model in order to overcome many populations and slow convergence of genetic algorithm. Quantum immune algorithm codes the chromosome by quantum bit probability, and makes the populations evolve by clonal selection and quantum rotation gate, which makes current best individual information can be easily extended to the next generation, so rapid convergence, small populations and good global search capability are the characteristics of the quantum immune algorithm. Test results show that, the improved model is logical and quantum immune algorithm has better comprehensive performance than genetic algorithm, which proves that the algorithm is feasible.

Li X.-J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ye C.-W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Huo X.-L.,Wuhan University | Zeng Z.,Wuhan University
Microchimica Acta | Year: 2010

A fiber material for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was obtained by blending 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-dihydroxy-26,28-diglycidyloxycalix[4]arene with hydroxy-terminated silicone oil by sol-gel technology. It was used for headspace SPME combined with gas chromatography using electron capture detection to determine seven chlorobenzenes in water matrix. Optimum extraction conditions were 15 min at 20 °C with a solution containing 300 g L-1 sodium chloride. The fiber exhibits far higher extraction efficiency than the commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and PDMS-divinylbenzene fibers. The detection limits range from 0.32 to 2.25 ng L-1, and the relative standard deviations are <5%. The calibration curves display a high level of linearity, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9996 and 1. The method was applied to analyze a lake water sample that was found to be polluted with 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene. It was compared to the United States Environmental Protection Agency method and other recently introduced methods. The results demonstrate that the technique is rapid, simple, and sensitive, and thus represents an attractive alternative for ultra-trace analysis of chlorobenzenes in water samples. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Li Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li Y.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | McClements D.J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2014

The food, supplement, and pharmaceutical industries are interested in developing delivery systems that can control the biological fate of ingested lipids within the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, a simulated intestinal lipolysis model was used to elucidate the impact of cosurfactants and anionic polysaccharides on the digestion of emulsified fats. Lipid droplets were prepared by membrane homogenization using a globular protein (β-lactoglobulin) as the primary surfactant, and a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 20) as the cosurfactant. Electrostatic complexes were formed by mixing the resulting cationic lipid droplets with anionic alginate molecules. In the absence of cosurfactant, multilayer emulsions were formed consisting of lipid droplets coated by a layer of alginate. In the presence of cosurfactant, microclusters were formed that contained aggregates of alginate-coated lipid droplets linked together. The electrical charge on the complexes remained negative from pH 2 to 7.5, with the complexes formed in the presence of cosurfactant having a lower charge magnitude. The rate and extent of lipid digestion under simulated intestinal lipolysis conditions depended on cosurfactant, alginate, and digestion conditions (fasted versus fed). Under high calcium fed conditions (20mM Ca2+), lipid digestion was highly suppressed in delivery systems containing alginate but no cosurfactant, which was attributed to the formation of a calcium alginate gel that restricted access of lipase to the lipid droplets. This reduction in lipid digestion could be largely overcome by including cosurfactant in the delivery systems. The information obtained in this study may prove useful for designing oral delivery systems that control the digestion and release of lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Li Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li Y.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | McClements D.J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2014

Structured emulsion-based delivery systems, fabricated from natural lipids and polymers, are finding increasing use to control the biological fate of ingested lipids within the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of cosurfactants on the digestion behavior of structured emulsions using a simulated intestinal lipolysis model. Lipid droplets were first prepared by membrane homogenization using a globular protein (β-lactoglobulin) as the primary surfactant, and a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 20) as the cosurfactant. The structured emulsion was fabricated by mixing lipid droplets (+), alginate solution (-), and subsequently chitosan solution (+). With an outer chitosan coating, the electrical charge on the structured emulsion droplets changed from positive to negative when the pH was varied from 2 to 7.5 both in the absence and presence of cosurfactant. However, the particle size was much smaller in the presence of the cosurfactant. The rate and extent of lipid digestion under simulated intestinal lipolysis conditions were influenced by cosurfactant, interfacial structure, and digestion conditions (fasted versus fed). Under high calcium fed conditions (20mM Ca2+), lipid digestion was highly suppressed and delayed in delivery systems containing cosurfactant and chitosan, which was similar to the system containing alginate but no cosurfactant. This reduction in lipid digestion could be largely overcome by including cosurfactant in the delivery systems. The information obtained in this study may prove useful in designing oral delivery systems that control the digestion and release of lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Luo S.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Zhang Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Hu Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2012

The proper use of resistance genes (R genes) requires a comprehensive understanding of their genomics and evolution. We analyzed genes encoding nucleotide-binding sites and leucine-rich repeats in the genomes of rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Brachypodium distachyon. Frequent deletions and translocations of R genes generated prevalent presence/absence polymorphism between different accessions/species. The deletions were caused by unequal crossover, homologous repair, nonhomologous repair, or other unknown mechanisms. R gene loci identified from different genomes were mapped onto the chromosomes of rice cv Nipponbare using comparative genomics, resulting in an integrated map of 495 R loci. Sequence analysis of R genes from the partially sequenced genomes of an African rice cultivar and 10 wild accessions suggested that there are many additional R gene lineages in the AA genome of Oryza. The R genes with chimeric structures (termed type I R genes) are diverse in different rice accessions but only account for 5.8% of all R genes in the Nipponbare genome. In contrast, the vast majority of R genes in the rice genome are type II R genes, which are highly conserved in different accessions. Surprisingly, pseudogene-causing mutations in some type II lineages are often conserved, indicating that their conservations were not due to their functions. Functional R genes cloned from rice so far have more type II R genes than type I R genes, but type I R genes are predicted to contribute considerable diversity in wild species. Type I R genes tend to reduce the microsynteny of their flanking regions significantly more than type II R genes, and their flanking regions have slightly but significantly lower G/C content than those of type II R genes. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Li X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li L.,University of Minnesota | Yan J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

Meiotic recombination drives eukaryotic sexual reproduction and the generation of genome diversity. Tetrad analysis, which examines the four chromatids resulting from a single meiosis, is an ideal method to study the mechanisms of homologous recombination. Here we develop a method to isolate the four microspores from a single tetrad in maize for the purpose of whole-genome sequencing. A high-resolution recombination map reveals that crossovers are unevenly distributed across the genome and are more likely to occur in the genic than intergenic regions, especially common in the 5′- and 3′-end regions of annotated genes. The direct detection of genomic exchanges suggests that conversions likely occur in most crossover tracts. Negative crossover interference and weak chromatid interference are observed at the population level. Overall, our findings further our understanding of meiotic recombination with implications for both basic and applied research. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Ye Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Dong H.-F.,Hubei University | Grevelding C.G.,Justus Liebig University | Hu M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2013

Schistosomiasis is a serious parasitic zoonosis caused by blood-dwelling flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Understanding functions of genes and proteins of this parasite is important for uncovering this pathogen's complex biology, which will provide valuable information to design new strategies for schistosomiasis control. Effective applications of molecular tools reported to investigate schistosome gene function, such as inhibitor studies and transgenesis, rely on the developments of in vitro cultivation system of this parasite and cells. Besides the in vitro culture studies dealing with Schistosoma mansoni, there are also numerous excellent studies about the in vitro cultivation of Schistosoma japonicum, which were performed by Chinese researchers and published in Chinese journals. Nearly every stage of the life-cycle of S. japonicum, including miracidia, mother sporocysts, cercariae, schistosomula, and egg-laying adult worms, was employed for developing in vitro cultivation methods, being accompanied by the introduction of several media and supplements that helped to improve culture conditions. It was not only possible to generate mother sporocysts from miracidia in vitro, but also to obtain adult worms from cercariae through in vitro cultivation. The main obstacles to complete the life cycle of S. japonicum in the lab are the transition from mother sporocysts to cercariae, and the production of fertilized and completely developed eggs by adult worms generated in vitro. With regard to cells from S. japonicum, besides established isolation protocols and morphological observations, media optimizations were conducted by using different chemical reagents, biological supplements and physical treatment. Among these, mutagens like N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and the addition of extracellular matrix were found to be able to induce mitogenic activities. Although enzyme activities or the level of silver-stained nucleolar region associated protein in cultured cells indicated still suboptimal conditions, the achievements made point to the possibility of reaching the aim of establishing cell lines for S. japonicum. Both the improvements of the in vitro culture of larval and adult worms of S. japonicum as well as the access of cells of this parasite provide excellent advances for research on this important parasite in the future. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

China National Seed Group Co., Huazhong Agricultural University, Shenzhen Institute Of Molecular Crop Design and Frontier Laboratories of Systems Crop Design Co. | Date: 2013-02-07

The present invention provides a rice whole genome breeding chip and the application thereof. The rice whole genome breeding chip of the present invention is Rice60K, an SNP chip manufactured based on Infinium technique. Each chip can detect 24 samples simultaneously and contains 58,290 SNP sites. The marker sites have DNA sequences represented by SEQ ID NO.1-58290. The chip can be used in molecular marker fingerprint analysis of the rice variety resources, in genotype identification of the hybrid progeny population, in identification of the variety authenticity, in analysis and screening of the genetic background of the breeding materials, and in association analysis of the agronomic traits, having wide application prospects.

Yan Y.P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li W.,University of Delaware | Feng X.H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2014

Sorption and desorption characteristics of four organic phosphates (OPs) with different molecular sizes and structures (glycerophosphate, GP; glucose-6-phosphate, G6P; adenosine triphosphate, ATP; myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, IHP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) on three aluminium (Al) (oxyhydr)oxides (amorphous Al(OH)3, boehmite and α-Al2O3) were investigated. The maximum sorption amounts of OPs and Pi increased with decreasing crystallinity of the minerals on a per mass basis: α-Al2O3 < boehmite

Huang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Sun P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhou X.,University of Kentucky | Lei C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: The subterranean termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) is a serious insect pest of trees and dams in China. To date, very little is known about genomic or transcriptomic data for caste differentiation and aggression in O. formosanus. Hence, studies on transcriptome and gene expression profiling are helpful to better understand molecular basis underlying caste differentiation and aggressive behavior in O. formosanus. Methodology and Principal Findings: Using the Illumina sequencing, we obtained more than 57 million sequencing reads derived from the heads of O. formosanus. These reads were assembled into 116,885 unique sequences (mean size = 536 bp). Of the unigenes, 30,646 (26.22%) had significant similarity with proteins in the NCBI nonredundant protein database and Swiss-Prot database (E-value<10-5). Of these annotated unigenes, 10,409 and 9,009 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. In total, 19,611 (25.52%) unigenes were mapped onto 242 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG). A total of 11,661 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were predicted from the current transcriptome database. Moreover, we detected seven putative genes involved in caste differentiation and six putative genes involved in aggression. The qPCR analysis showed that there were significant differences in the expression levels of the three putative genes hexamerin 2, β-glycosidase and bicaudal D involved in caste differentiation and one putative gene Cyp6a20 involved in aggression among workers, soldiers and larvae of O. formosanus. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the complete head transcriptome of a higher fungus-cultivating termite using high-throughput sequencing. Our study has provided the comprehensive sequence resources available for elucidating molecular basis underlying caste differentiation and aggressive behavior in O. formosanus. © 2012 Huang et al.

Liu Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu Z.,Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory | Kumari S.,Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory | Zhang L.,Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Waterlogging of plants leads to low oxygen levels (hypoxia) in the roots and causes a metabolic switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic fermentation that results in rapid changes in gene transcription and protein synthesis. Our research seeks to characterize the microRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks associated with short-term waterlogging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate many genes involved in growth, development and various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To characterize the involvement of miRNAs and their targets in response to short-term hypoxia conditions, a quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the expression of the 24 candidate mature miRNA signatures (22 known and 2 novel mature miRNAs, representing 66 miRNA loci) and their 92 predicted targets in three inbred Zea mays lines (waterlogging tolerant Hz32, mid-tolerant B73, and sensitive Mo17). Based on our studies, miR159, miR164, miR167, miR393, miR408 and miR528, which are mainly involved in root development and stress responses, were found to be key regulators in the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms under short-term waterlogging conditions in three inbred lines. Further, computational approaches were used to predict the stress and development related cis-regulatory elements on the promoters of these miRNAs; and a probable miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in response to short-term waterlogging stress was constructed. The differential expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in these three inbred lines suggest that the miRNAs are active participants in the signal transduction at the early stage of hypoxia conditions via a gene regulatory network; and crosstalk occurs between different biochemical pathways.

Cao S.-Q.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Liu L.,Zhejiang Pharmaceutical College | Pan S.-Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Agricultural Sciences in China | Year: 2011

Thermal degradation kinetics of anthocyanins and visual color (Hunter a* value) of blood orange juice were studied at selected temperatures (70-90°C). Results indicated that both the thermal degradation of anthocyanin and visual color all followed first-order reaction kinetics, and they could be expressed by Arrhenius equation. The activation energy values for the anthocyanins degradation and visual color degradation were 55.81 and 47.51 kJ mol-1, respectively. The linear relationship between visual color and anthocyanin content was obtained. Furthermore, during thermal processing of blood orange juice, the formulas about the linear relationships showed no significant difference at selected temperatures. So, the relationships between visual color and anthocyanins content during thermal processing at selected temperatures could be described by the same equation: a*/a0*=0.559(C/C0)+0.43. It might be inferred that visual color measured instantaneously by tristimulus colorimeters for on-line quality control, could be used to predict the anthocyanins degradation during thermal processing of blood orange juice. © 2011 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Hu H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hu H.,University of British Columbia | Li-Chan E.C.Y.,University of British Columbia | Wan L.,China University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2013

High-intensity ultrasound (HUS; 20 kHz at 400 W for 5, 20 or 40 min) pre-treatments of soy protein isolate (SPI) changed the particle distribution and reduced particle size of SPI dispersions. Surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl (SH) content of SPI increased with HUS time. Free SH content of CaSO4-induced SPI gels (CISGs) and protein solubility in the presence of SDS and urea decreased after HUS pretreatments, suggesting HUS facilitated disulfide bond formation during CISG formation. HUS resulted in more uniform and denser gel network, water holding capacity (WHC) and gel strength of CISG. Furthermore, WHC and gel strength were positively correlated with free SH content of heated SPI and surface hydrophobicity of unheated SPI, and negatively correlated with particle size of heated SPI and free SH content of CISG. In conclusion, HUS induced structural changes in SPI molecules, leading to different microstructure and improved WHC and gel strength of CISG. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Nibert M.L.,Harvard University | Ghabrial S.A.,University of Kentucky | Maiss E.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Lesker T.,Leibniz University of Hanover | And 3 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2014

Phylogenetic analyses have prompted a taxonomic reorganization of family Partitiviridae (encapsidated, bisegmented dsRNA viruses that infect plants, fungi, or protozoa), the focus of this review. After a brief introduction to partitiviruses, the taxonomic changes are discussed, including replacement of former genera Partitivirus, Alphacryptovirus, and Betacryptovirus, with new genera Alphapartitivirus, Betapartitivirus, Gammapartitivirus, and Deltapartitivirus, as well as redistribution of species among these new genera. To round out the review, other recent progress of note in partitivirus research is summarized, including discoveries of novel partitivirus sequences by metagenomic approaches and mining of sequence databases, determinations of fungal partitivirus particle structures, demonstrations of fungal partitivirus transmission to new fungal host species, evidence for other aspects of partitivirus-host interactions and host effects, and identification of other fungal or plant viruses with some similarities to partitiviruses. Some outstanding questions are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Xie N.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen F.,State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2013

Pigments produced by Monascus are traditional food colorants and are widely used as dietary supplements. Since genes involving in pigment biosynthesis have not been reported, we describe the identification of a putative pigment-regulatory gene (pigR) obtained by molecular analysis of an albino strain of Monascus ruber M7. In the pigR-deleted strain (ΔpigR), neither the pigments nor pigR expression were detected by HPLC or reverse-transcription PCR, respectively, whereas the introduction of the pigR, together with a constitutive trpC promoter into ΔpigR, caused it to produce 5.4 U of red pigments/g dry mycelia, about 12-fold higher than Monascus ruber M7 (0.46 U/g dry mycelia). Thus pigR up-regulates pigment production in Monascus ruber M7. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Ghabrial S.A.,University of Kentucky | Caston J.R.,Centro Nacional Biotecnologia CSIC | Jiang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Nibert M.L.,Harvard University | Suzuki N.,Okayama University
Virology | Year: 2015

Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Jiang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Fu Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Guoqing L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ghabrial S.A.,University of Kentucky
Advances in Virus Research | Year: 2013

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a notorious plant fungal pathogen with a broad host range including many important crops, such as oilseed rape, soybean, and numerous vegetable crops. Hypovirulence-associated mycoviruses have attracted much attention because of their potential as biological control agents for combating plant fungal diseases and for use in fundamental studies on fungal pathogenicity and other properties. This chapter describes several mycoviruses that were isolated from hypovirulent strains except for strain Sunf-M, which has a normal phenotype. These viruses include the geminivirus-like mycovirus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1 (SsHADV-1), Sclerotinia debilitation-associated RNA virus (SsDRV), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum RNA virus L (SsRV-L), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 1 (SsHV-1), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mitoviruses 1 and 2 (SsMV-1, SsMV-2), and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum partitivirus S (SsPV-S). Unlike many other fungi, incidences of mixed infections with two or more mycoviruses in S. sclerotiorum are particularly high and very common. The interaction between SsDRV and S. sclerotiorum is likely to be unique. The significance of these mycoviruses to fungal ecology and viral evolution and the potential for biological control of Sclerotinia diseases using mycoviruses are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Chen J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Jin Y.,University of Delaware
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology | Year: 2011

To examine and quantify the effects of glass beads and chemoattractant on bacterial motility in granular media, we examined the motile behavior of P. aeruginosa in a saturated granular medium and quantified the effects of glass beads and the presence of a chemoattractant. By recording individual cell trajectories in microfluidic channels under a high-speed confocal microscope, we directly measured the cell's run direction and corresponding run-length, speed and turn angle. Bacterial run speed increased in the presence of chemoattractant in both aqueous and granular media. But it decreased in glass-beads compared to in aqueous media due to the restricted pore geometry and interactions between bacteria and grain surfaces. Notably, the relatively higher frequency distribution at turn angles of 170° decreased dramatically, while the smaller peak at 70° increased and became dominant on a bimodal distribution, showing more bacteria changed directions at smaller turn angles rather than reverse their swimming directions. Additionally, the presence of glass beads also decreased the chemotactic velocity and random motility by similar proportions due to the restrictive geometry and the interactions between bacteria and glass beads surface. Our study indicates that the swimming parameters measured from aqueous media cannot be directly adopted in models for predicting bacteria travel in granular media. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Goncearenco A.,University of Bergen | Ma B.-G.,University of Bergen | Ma B.-G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Berezovsky I.N.,Agency for Science, Technology and Research Singapore | Berezovsky I.N.,Weizmann Institute of Science
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2014

DNA, RNA and proteins are major biological macromolecules that coevolve and adapt to environments as components of one highly interconnected system. We explore here sequence/structure determinants of mechanisms of adaptation of these molecules, links between them, and results of their mutual evolution. We complemented statistical analysis of genomic and proteomic sequences with folding simulations of RNA molecules, unraveling causal relations between compositional and sequence biases reflecting molecular adaptation on DNA, RNA and protein levels. We found many compositional peculiarities related to environmental adaptation and the life style. Specifically, thermal adaptation of protein-coding sequences in Archaea is characterized by a stronger codon bias than in Bacteria. Guanine and cytosine load in the third codon position is important for supporting the aerobic life style, and it is highly pronounced in Bacteria. The third codon position also provides a tradeoff between arginine and lysine, which are favorable for thermal adaptation and aerobicity, respectively. Dinucleotide composition provides stability of nucleic acids via strong base-stacking in ApG dinucleotides. In relation to coevolution of nucleic acids and proteins, thermostability-related demands on the amino acid composition affect the nucleotide content in the second codon position in Archaea. © The Author(s) 2013.

Xiao X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Cheng J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Tang J.,University of California at San Diego | Fu Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of virology | Year: 2014

UNLABELLED: Members of the family Partitiviridae have bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes and are not generally known to cause obvious symptoms in their natural hosts. An unusual partitivirus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum partitivirus 1 (SsPV1/WF-1), conferred hypovirulence on its natural plant-pathogenic fungal host, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strain WF-1. Cellular organelles, including mitochondria, were severely damaged. Hypovirulence and associated traits of strain WF-1 and SsPV1/WF-1 were readily cotransmitted horizontally via hyphal contact to different vegetative compatibility groups of S. sclerotiorum and interspecifically to Sclerotinia nivalis and Sclerotinia minor. S. sclerotiorum strain 1980 transfected with purified SsPV1/WF-1 virions also exhibited hypovirulence and associated traits similar to those of strain WF-1. Moreover, introduction of purified SsPV1/WF-1 virions into strain KY-1 of Botrytis cinerea also resulted in reductions in virulence and mycelial growth and, unexpectedly, enhanced conidial production. However, virus infection suppressed hyphal growth of most germinating conidia of B. cinerea and was eventually lethal to infected hyphae, since very few new colonies could develop following germ tube formation. Taken together, our results support the conclusion that SsPV1/WF-1 causes hypovirulence in Sclerotinia spp. and B. cinerea. Cryo-EM (cryo-electron microscopy) reconstruction of the SsPV1 particle shows that it has a distinct structure with similarity to the closely related partitiviruses Fusarium poae virus 1 and Penicillium stoloniferum virus F. These findings provide new insights into partitivirus biological activities and clues about molecular interactions between partitiviruses and their hosts.IMPORTANCE: Members of the Partitiviridae are believed to occur commonly in their phytopathogenic fungal and plant hosts. However, most partitiviruses examined so far appear to be associated with latent infections. Here we report a partitivirus, SsPV1/WF-1, that was isolated from a hypovirulent strain of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and describe its biological and molecular features. We have demonstrated that SsPV1 confers hypovirulence. Furthermore, SsPV1 can infect and cause hypovirulence in Botrytis cinerea. Our study also suggests that SsPV1 has a vigorous ability to proliferate and spread via hyphal contact. SsPV1 can overcome vegetative incompatibility barriers and can be transmitted horizontally among different vegetative compatibility groups of S. sclerotiorum, even interspecifically. Cryo-EM reconstruction of SsPV1 shows that it has a distinct structure with similarity to closely related partitiviruses. Our studies exploit a novel system, SsPV1 and its hosts, which can provide the means to explore the mechanisms by which partitiviruses interact with their hosts. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Wu M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Jiang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ghabrial S.A.,University of Kentucky
Virology | Year: 2010

The full-length sequences of Botrytis cinerea mito. virus 1 (BcMV1) and an associated RNA (BcMV1-S) in strain CanBc-1c-78 of Botrytis cinerea were determined. Sequence analysis showed that BcMV1 is 2804 nt long and AU-rich (66.8%). BcMV1 shares 95% nucleotide sequence identity with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi mito. virus 3b (OnuMV3b). However, it is 472 nt longer than OnuMV3b. Mitochondrial codon usage revealed that BcMV1 contains one open reading frame encoding RdRp, which is 96% identical to the RdRp of OnuMV3b. These findings confirm that BcMV1 belongs to the genus Mitovirus and is a strain of OnuMV3b. BcMV1-S is 2171 nt long and derived from BcMV1 through a single internal in-frame deletion of 633 nt, suggesting that it is a defective RNA of BcMV1. BcMV1-S was found to suppress the replication of BcMV1 and to be co-transmissible with BcMV1 through hyphal anastomosis. Its presence, however, did not alleviate the BcMV1-associated debilitation phenotypes of B. cinerea. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

You L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | You L.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Wood S.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation | Wood-Sichra U.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Wu W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2014

We describe a new crop allocation model that adds further methodological and data enhancements to the available crop downscaling modeling. The model comprises the estimates of crop area, yield and production for 20 major crops under four rainfed and irrigated production systems across a global 5. arc minute grid. The new model builds on prior work by the authors (and published in this journal) in developing regional downscaled databases for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and encompasses notions of comparative advantage and potential economic worth as factors influencing the geographic distribution of crop production. This is done through a downscaling approach that accounts for spatial variation in the biophysical conditions influencing the productivity of individual crops within the cropland extent, and that uses crop prices to weigh the gross revenue potential of alternate crops when considering how to prioritize the allocation of specific crops to individual grid cells. The proposed methodology also allows for the inclusion of partial, existing sources of evidence and feedback on local crop distribution patterns through the use of spatial allocation priors that are then subjected to an entropy-based optimization procedure that imposes a range of consistency and aggregation constraints. We compare the global datasets and summarize factors that give rise to systematic differences amongst them and how such differences might influence the fitness for purpose of each dataset. We conclude with some recommendations on priorities for further work in improving the reliability, utility and periodic repeatability of generating crop production distribution data. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Yi M.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics | Liu Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2010

The investigation of enzymatic reaction under stochastic effect and spatial effect is an interesting problem. By virtue of Monte Carlo simulation, the stochastic dynamic of enzyme and the related MichaelisMenten mechanism with stochastic internal noise and spatial diffusion are explored in this article. (i) For the single-enzyme system, two cases, including the fast phosphorylation case [X. S. Xie, et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 109 (2005) 19068] and slow phosphorylation case [X. S. Xie, et al., Nat. Chem. Biol. 2 (2006) 87] are considered. It is found the micro enzymatic velocity rate shows a rough hyperbolic dependence on the substrate concentration, hence obeys the MichaelisMenten law qualitatively. In addition, our result reveals that diffusion rate can adjust the MichaelisMenten curve; especially, it is shown that increasing diffusion rate enhances the micro enzyme rate. (ii) For the multi-enzyme system, a typical example, i.e., MAPK signaling pathway is used. We apply the MichaelisMenten mechanism to the MAPK cascade and give a simple comparison for the signaling ability between the MichaelisMenten mechanism and the single collision mechanism [J. W. Locasale et al., PLOS Comput. Biol. 4 (2008) e1000099]. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Li C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Trombley J.D.,Miami University Ohio | Schmidt M.A.,Miami University Ohio | Hagerman A.E.,Miami University Ohio
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2010

We have developed a simple method for preparing and verifying suitable standards for the acid butanol assay from a readily available source. Phenolics were extracted from fresh apples with methanol, and sugars were removed from the crude extract by treatment with Amberlite resin before fractionating the proanthocyanidins into ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate fraction was chromatographed on Toyopearl TSK HW-50F to yield about 50 mg of procyanidin dimer and 35 mg of trimer from 1 kg fresh apple fruit. The purity and identity of the standards was easily confirmed by using ESI-MS. In the acid butanol assay, the pure dimer, trimer and purified Sorghum procyanidin had similar color yields on a mass basis, and produced about three times more color than purified quebracho tannin. This new standard overcomes problems associated with overestimation of tannin due to use of the unreactive quebracho tannin standard. Use of the new standard will enable accurate comparisons of tannin levels between laboratories and will standardize comparisons between species, thus promoting our understanding of the role of condensed tannins in plants. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Tan W.-F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Tan W.-F.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Yu Y.-T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang M.-X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Crystal Growth and Design | Year: 2014

Spherical, ellipsoidal, and elongated hematite particles have been obtained via a simple chemical precipitation reaction of FeCl3 and NaOH in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA). The effects of pH, molar ratio of AA/Fe(III), and time on the formation and shape of the hematite particles were investigated. The optimal conditions to well obtain crystalline hematite are 0.1 mol/L FeCl3, 6 mol/L NaOH, pH 7, and AA/Fe(III) ratios of 0.5-2.0%. The presence of AA catalyzed the formation of hematite by reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite and the molar ratio of AA/Fe(III) determined the crystal structure and morphology of hematite. As the ratio of AA increased from 0.5 to 2%, the morphology changed from spherical to ellipsoidal particles and then to elongated particles. The dissolution of Fe(II) from the ferrihydrite precursor is enhanced by AA, and this leads to the formation of hematite by precipitation and crystallization. The effect of AA on the particle shape can be explained by the difference in AA adsorption on the various crystal planes. The hematite samples with different morphologies enhanced the photodegradation of methylene blue in an acid solution with peroxide; the elongated particles that had the highest specific surface area were most effective with the methylene blue degradation. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Zhou S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhou S.,Macquarie University | Sawicki A.,Macquarie University | Willows R.D.,Macquarie University | Luo M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
FEBS Letters | Year: 2012

Oryza sativa GUN4 together with the magnesium chelatase subunits ChlI, ChlD, and ChlH have been heterologously expressed and purified to reconstitute magnesium chelatase activity in vitro. Maximum magnesium chelatase activity requires pre-activation of OsChlH with OsGUN4, Mg2+ and protoporphyrin-IX. OsGUN4 and OsChlH preincubated without protoporphyrin-IX yields magnesium chelatase activity similar to assays without OsGUN4, suggesting formation of a dead-end complex. Either 9 or 10 C-terminal amino acids of OsGUN4 are slowly hydrolyzed to yield a truncated OsGUN4. These truncated OsGUN4 still bind protoporphyrin-IX and Mg-protoporphyrin-IX but are unable to activate OsChlH. This suggests the mechanism of GUN4 activation of magnesium chelatase is different in eukaryotes compared to cyanobacteria as the orthologous cyanobacterial GUN4 proteins lack this C-terminal extension. © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wu P.,Zhejiang University | Shou H.,Zhejiang University | Xu G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lian X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Rice is one of the most important cereal crops feeding a large segment of the world's population. Inefficient utilization of phosphate (Pi) fertilizer by the plant in rice production increases cost and pollution. Developing cultivars with improved Pi use efficiency is essential for the sustainability of agriculture. Pi uptake, translocation and remobilization are regulated by complex molecular mechanisms through the functions of Pi transporters (PTs) and other downstream Pi Starvation Induced (PSI) genes. Expressions of these PSI genes are regulated by the Pi Starvation Response Regulator (OsPHR2)-mediated transcriptional control and/or PHO2-mediated ubiquitination. SPX-domain containing proteins and the type I H+-PPase AVP1 involved in the maintenance and utilization of the internal phosphate. The potential application of posttranscriptional regulation of PT1 through OsPHF1 for Pi efficiency is proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Shi Z.H.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Shi Z.H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yue B.J.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Wang L.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | And 3 more authors.
Soil Science Society of America Journal | Year: 2013

Mulching with vegetative residue is an effective soil conservation practice. A better understanding of sediment characteristics associated with various mulch rates would improve the use of this practice for soil conservation. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of straw mulch on runoff, erosion, and the particle-size distribution (PSD) of eroded sediment. Straw mulch rates of 0, 15, 30, 50, 70, and 90% cover were tested using simulated rainfall. The effective PSD of sediment (undispersed) was compared with equivalent measurements of the same samples after dispersion (ultimate PSD) to investigate the detachment and transport mechanisms involved in sediment mobilization. The maximum stream occurred at a different time from the peak sediment concentration during rainstorms under low mulch rates, which indicated the predominance of supply-limited conditions. However, at higher mulch rates the erosion processes were typical of a transportlimited sediment regime. The ratio of the sediment transported as primary clay to the soil matrix clay content was always less than 1, meaning that most of the clay was eroded in the form of aggregates. Transport selectivity was reflected by the silt enrichment, and silt-sized particles were transported mainly as primary particles since their effective-ultimate ratio was close to 1. The enrichment ratios for the sand-sized fractions decreased from 0.98 to 0.38 with increased mulch rates, and effective-ultimate ratios for sand-sized particles were always greater than 1, indicating that most of these particles were predominantly aggregates of finer particles, especially at high mulch rates. The findings reported in this study have important implications for the assessment and modeling of interrill erosion processes. © Soil Science Society of America.

Wang Y.-J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shi X.-P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhong Z.-C.,Southwest University
Russian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2013

Reproductive behaviour of clonal plants might change in contrasting habitats. In field and simulated experiments, we studied the relative importance of sexual reproduction and clonal propagation in rhizomatous herb, Iris japonica Thunb. in two forest habitats (BF, bamboo forest and OAFE, open area of forest edge), and effects of population origin (BF vs. OAFE) and environmental effects (shading) on sexual vs. clonal reproduction. In field experiment, the relative importance of reproduction in I. japonica populations was different in two habitats, which showed predominantly sexual reproduction in OAFE and clonal propagation in BF. In simulated experiment, the effect of population origin and light treatment (shading) was significant for reproduction of I. japonica. Clonal propagation was only influenced by population origin, and sexual reproduction was determined both by population origin and light treatment. A trade-off between two reproductive modes exhibited in both experiments. The trade-offs was more obvious in OAFE than in BF because sexual reproduction, resource and inter-specific competition obviously lacked in BF. The results indicated that the selective forces shaping reproduction of I. japonica in contrasting habitats might demonstrate pronounce adaptive population differentiation among forest habitats. Thus, I. japonica populations formed local differentiation by adaptation of reproduction to local heterogeneous forest habitats. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Nu-Fang F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhi-Hua S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhi-Hua S.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Lu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Cheng J.,Soil and Water Conservation Bureau of Zigui County
Geomorphology | Year: 2011

Following construction of the Three Gorges Dam, many farmers resettled in surrounding mountain areas and cultivated marginal lands, which are mostly on steep slopes with soil of poor structure. In general, high soil loss rates occur during intense storms. Therefore, soil erosion is a major environmental problem in the Three Gorges area (TGA) of China. Understanding and quantifying sediment load is important for sustainable agriculture and the environment in this region. This paper analyzes the relationships between rainfall, runoff, and sediment transport in the Wangjiaqiao watershed. Strong seasonal and monthly variability in sediment load was found. Sediment was strongly transported during summer months, a period when frequent flood events of high magnitude and intensity occurred. Analysis of the relationships between precipitation, discharge and sediment transport at an individual event scale showed significant correlations between total precipitation, peak discharge, total water yield, maximum 30. min rainfall intensity, and sediment-related variables. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that rainfall amount is the major cause of runoff, while events producing a large discharge in a short time play an important role in inducing severe soil erosion. During 40 flood events, three different types of hysteretic loops were observed: clockwise (28 events, 70%), figure-eight (5 events, 12.5%), and complex (7 events, 17.5%). The results of this study confirm the complex and heterogeneous nature of sediment response in the Wangjiaqiao watershed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Hong Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang X.,University of Missouri-St. Louis | Wang X.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center