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Hu X.,Henan Agricultural University | Li Y.,Henan Agricultural University | Li C.,Henan Agricultural University | Li C.,Huanghuaihai Regional Innovation Center for Maize Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2010

To investigate how the mechanisms of small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) in regulating maize leaves respond to the combination of drought and heat stress, leaf protein patterns were monitored using a proteomic approach in maize plants exposed to combined drought and heat stress. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify combined drought- and heat-responsive protein spots in maize leaves. After Coomassie brilliant blue staining, approximately 450 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel, wherein 7 protein spots were expressed only under heat and combined drought and heat stress but were almost undetected under control and drought. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, a total of seven proteins were identified, including cytochrome b6-f complex iron-sulfur subunit, sHSP17. 4, sHSP17. 2, sHSP26, guanine nucleotide-binding protein β-subunit-like protein, putative uncharacterized protein, and granule-bound starch synthase IIa. Moreover, the gene expression of three sHSPs was analyzed at the transcriptional level and indicated that all three sHSPs were expressed under several treatments although their expression levels were obviously more enhanced by heat and combined drought and heat stress than by control and drought. In investigations of the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the three sHSPs, pretreatment with 100 μM ABA enhanced substantially the expression of the three sHSPs at the protein level, but only slightly at the mRNA level. These results show that transcription levels are not completely concomitant with translation and suggest that ABA induces the post-transcriptional regulation of sHSP17.2, sHSP17.4, and sHSP26 expression, which can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of plant response to the combination of drought and heat stress. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Hu X.,Henan Agricultural University | Hu X.,Key Laboratory of Physiological Ecology and Genetic Improvement of Food Crops in Henan Province | Lu M.,Henan Agricultural University | Li C.,Henan Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2011

Roots are highly sensitive organ in plant response to drought, which commonly inhibits root growth. However, less is known about the effect of ABA on root protein expression induced by drought. To help clarify the role of ABA in protein expression of root response to drought, root protein patterns were monitored using a proteomic approach in maize ABA-deficient mutant vp5 and its wild-type Vp5 exposed to drought. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to identify drought-responsive protein spots in maize roots. After coomassie brilliant blue staining, approximately 450 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel, wherein 22 protein spots related to ABA or drought were identified using MALDI-TOF MS. Results showed that the 22 proteins are involved in such several cellular processes as energy and metabolism, redox homeostasis and regulatory. An anionic peroxidase and two putative uncharacterized proteins were up-regulated by drought in ABA-dependent way; A glycine-rich RNA binding protein 2, pathogenesis-related protein 10, an enolase, a serine/threonine-protein kinase receptor and a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase were up-regulated by drought in both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent way; a nuclear transport factor 2, a nucleoside diphosphate kinase, a putative uncharacterized protein and a peroxiredoxin-5 were up-regulated by drought in ABA-independent way; a superoxide dismutase 4A, a VAP27-2, a transcription factor BTF3, a glutathione S-transferase GSTF2 and a putative uncharacterized protein were up-regulated by drought in ABA-dependent way, but not exogenous ABA treatment in the absence of drought; a O-methyltransferase and a putative uncharacterized proteins were down-regulated by ABA and drought. The identification of some novel proteins in the drought response provides new insights that can lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of root drought tolerance. © 2011 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków. Source


Wu X.,Henan Agricultural University | Wu X.,Huanghuaihai Regional Innovation Center for Maize Technology | Liu H.,Henan Agricultural University | Wang W.,Henan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2011

To identify specific proteins related to maize seed viability, seeds of Zhengdan 958 (one of the high-yield maize hybrids in China) were sorted based on viability evaluation with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) assay and used for comparative proteomic analysis. After TTC staining, embryos of high-viability seeds were deep red (R type), while embryos of dead seeds were white (W type). Proteomic analysis revealed that 28 protein spots identified were differently expressed significantly between R and W embryos, of which 20 were up-regulated and 8 down-regulated in R embryos. Among them were proteins involved in stress response, protein folding, and stabilization, as wells as proteins related to nutrient reservoir and metabolism. Prominently, small heat shock proteins, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, and antioxidant enzymes were highly up-regulated, while two proteases were highly down-regulated in R embryos compared to W embryos. One of LEA proteins was EMB564, which declined in abundance during artificial aging of seeds. Our results suggested an association of EMB564 with maize seed viability. It would be of interest to use these small proteins to develop quick tests for seed quality. © 2010 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków. Source

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