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Xu L.,Tianjin University | Xu L.,Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology | Zhang L.,Tianjin University | Zhang L.,Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Membrane Science

The research was conducted to study the independent impact of electro-catalytic oxidation on the nanofiltration (NF) performance during the separation of C.I. Acid Red 73 (AR 73) wastewater. Ti/SnO2-Sb2O3 electrode modified with rare element yttrium (Y) was successfully prepared by the sol-gel technology, and then it was used as an anode for the degradation of azo dye AR 73 coupling with NF. The electro-catalytic oxidation could be restrained by painting insulating varnish on the surface of anode. Through comparing the permeation flux with the case of not using insulating varnish, we could identify the independent impact of electro-catalytic oxidation in the coupling process. The influence of operating parameters, e.g., applied voltage, initial feed concentration, operating pressure and cross flow velocity on the electro-catalytic oxidation flux and energy consumption was investigated respectively. The results indicated that the accelerated lifetime of the Ti/SnO2-Sb2O3-Y electrode reached 4.1h, which was 9.1 times longer than that of the Ti/SnO2-Sb2O3 electrode, and the electro-catalytic oxidation flux was enhanced to a great extent by choosing appropriate operating conditions and the coupling process could energy-effectively treat AR 73 wastewater. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Xu L.,Tianjin University | Xu L.,Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology | Guo Z.,Tianjin University | Guo Z.,Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology | And 2 more authors.
Electrochimica Acta

This work is conducted to study ability of anodic oxidation treatment azo dye C.I. Acid Red 73 (AR73) using the electrodes of Y doped Ti/SnO 2-Sb electrodes prepared by thermal decomposition and Ti/SnO 2-Sb electrodes prepared by electrodeposition. It has been shown that doping Y can enhances the electrochemical activity of the electrodes, but the accelerated service life was slightly reduced. Both the lifetime and electrochemical activity of Ti/SnO2-Sb electrodes prepared by electrodeposition in a new Sn-Sb electrodeposition bath outperform the Ti/SnO2-Sb electrodes prepared by thermal decomposition. Moreover, the effect of varying wastewater process indexes (initial pH (4-10), the addition of NaCl (0-9 mM) and initial dye concentration (0.5-2.0 g L -1)) on the performance of anodic oxidation using Ti/SnO 2-Sb electrodes prepared by electrodeposition was investigated followed by the performance indicators analyses including color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), current efficiency and specific energy consumption. Finally, the synergy technology of anodic oxidation coupling nanofiltration was adopted to treat AR73 wastewater in order to overcome the low current efficiency of anodic oxidation. Preliminary results have shown that the synergy technology could cost-effectively treat AR73 wastewater. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zhang W.H.,Northwest University, China | Zhang W.H.,Hualu Engineering and Technology CO. | Dong Z.,Northwest University, China | Wang Y.Y.,Northwest University, China | And 4 more authors.
Dalton Transactions

Along with our recent investigation on the flexible ligand of H 2ADA (1,3-adamantanediacetic acid), a series of ZnII and CdII metal-organic frameworks, namely, [Zn3(ADA) 3(H2O)2]n·5nH2O (1), [Zn(ADA)(4,4′-bipy)0.5]n (2), [Zn 2(ADA)2(bpa)]n (3), [Zn2(ADA) 2(bpa)]n (4), [Zn2(ADA)2(bpp)] n (5), [Cd(HADA)2((4,4′-bipy)]n (6), [Cd3(ADA)3(bpa)2(CH3OH)(H 2O)]n (7), and [Cd2(ADA)2(bpp) 2]n·7nH2O (8) have been synthesized and structurally characterized (where 4,4′-bipy = 4,4′-dipyridine, bpa = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane and bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). Due to various coordination modes and conformations of the flexible dicarboxylate ligand and the different pyridyl-containing coligands, these complexes exhibit structural and dimensional diversity. Complex 1 exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) framework containing one-dimensional (1D) ZnII-O-C-O-ZnII clusters. Complex 2 exhibits a 2D structure constructed by 1D double chains based on [Zn2ADA2] units and a 4,4′-bipy pillar. Complexes 3 and 4 possess isomorphic 2D layer structures, resulting from the different coordination modes of carboxylate group of ADA ligands. Complex 5 features a 2D 44 layer in which ADA ligands and ZnII atoms construct a 1D looped chain and the chains are further connected by bpp ligands. Complex 6 is composed of 1D zig-zag chains that are entangled through hydrogen-bonding interactions to generate a 2D network. Complex 7 is a rare (3,5)-connected network. Complex 8 possesses a 3D microporous framework with lots of water molecules encapsulated in the channels. The structural diversity of the complexes perhaps mainly results from using diverse secondary ligands and different metal centre ions, and means the assistant ligand and metal centre play important roles in the design and synthesis of target metal-organic frameworks. This finding revealed that ADA could be used as an effective bridging ligand to construct MOFs and change coordination modes and conformational geometries in these complexes. The thermogravimetric analyses, X-ray powder diffraction and solid-state luminescent properties of the complexes have also been investigated. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Chen X.,Zhejiang University | Zhao L.,Zhejiang University | Zhang X.,Hualu Engineering and Technology CO. | Qian C.,Zhejiang University
Energy Conversion and Management

As massive amount of solid residue is produced from plasma pyrolysis of coal, reasonable use of such residue is significant in protecting environment and improving economic performance. This work is focusing on the fundamental research of the characteristics of coal-water slurry (CWS) prepared from the solid residue of plasma pyrolysis of coal. The effect of particle size, solid concentration, pH and temperature on the rheological properties of CWS is investigated. Shear-thinning behavior of suspension has been observed depending on component content and operating conditions. Static stability is also investigated by sedimentation test. A more suitable cubic model for expressing the relation between viscosity and temperature is proposed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Hong Z.,Hualu Engineering and Technology CO.
Huaxue Gongcheng/Chemical Engineering (China)

Two different domestic processes, i.e. methanol gas phase hydrochlorination method and methanol liquid phase catalytic method for methyl chloride production were described and compared in term of raw material selection, operating conditions, catalyst life, equipment materials selection and maintenance, etc. The two methods show their advantages and disadvantages and the application in different production areas. The suggestion was proposed for selection criteria of two different processes. Source

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