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Mao Q.-Y.,Chinese National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products | Liao X.-Y.,Chinese National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products | Yu X.,Hualan Biological Engineering Inc. | Li N.,Hualan Biological Engineering Inc. | And 7 more authors.
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2010

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16) are major causative agents for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Studies indicate that the frequent HFMD outbreaks result in a few hundreds children's death in China in recent years. The vaccine and other research for HFMD need to be developed urgently. The aims of our study were: to explore dynamic development of mother-source neutralizing antibodies against EV71 and Cox A16 in infants from Jiangsu Province, China, and to provide the fundamental data for further establishing of corresponding immunization course. Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from 133 of parturient women once immediately before delivery and their infants at two and seven months of age. Method of micro-dose cytopathogenic effect was used to measure neutralizing antibodies against EV71 and Cox A16, respectively. Results Seropositive rates of anti-EV71 and anti-Cox A16 in prenatal women were 79.7% (106/133) and 92.5% (123/133), respectively; geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 29.0 and 61.9; 75.9% (101/133) prenatal women were both positive in anti-EV71 and anti-Cox A16; seropositive rates of anti-EV71 and anti-Cox A16 were 25.6% (34/133) and 38.3% (51/133) in infants at two months of age; GMTs were 12.3 and 18.0, respectively. GMTs of anti-EV71 were significantly higher for infants at seven months (82.6) compared with that at two months (P <0.05), showing infants had inapparently infected by EV71 during two to seven months. Although only one offspring (0.75%) at seven months was found having anti-Cox A16 transfered from maternal, this observation suggested no maternal antibody may remain in infants at seven months. Conclusions The prevalence of EV71 and Cox A16 were relatively high in Jiangsu Province. Bivalent vaccine against both EV71 and Cox A16 should be developed, and the ideal time point for prime immunization for infants is around 2-5 months of age.

Wu X.,Peking University | Wu X.,National Institutes for Food and Drug Control | Mao Q.,National Institutes for Food and Drug Control | Yao X.,National Institutes for Food and Drug Control | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The level of neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) induced by vaccine inoculation is an important endpoint to evaluate the efficacy of EV71 vaccine. In order to evaluate the efficacy of EV71 vaccine, here, we reported the development of a novel pseudovirus system expression firefly luciferase (PVLA) for the quantitative measurement of NtAb. We first evaluated and validated the sensitivity and specificity of the PVLA method. A total of 326 serum samples from an epidemiological survey and 144 serum specimens from 3 clinical trials of EV71 vaccines were used, and the level of each specimen's neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) was measured in parallel using both the conventional CPE-based and PVLA-based assay. Against the standard neutralization assay based on the inhibition of the cytopathic effect (CPE), the sensitivity and specificity of the PVLA method are 98% and 96%, respectively. Then, we tested the potential interference of NtAb against hepatitis A virus, Polio-I, Polio-II, and Polio-III standard antisera (WHO) and goat anti-G10/CA16 serum, the PVLA based assay showed no cross-reactivity with NtAb against other specific sera. Importantly, unlike CPE based method, no live replication-competent EV71 is used during the measurement. Taken together, PVLA is a rapid and specific assay with higher sensitivity and accuracy. It could serve as a valuable tool in assessing the efficacy of EV71 vaccines in clinical trials and disease surveillance in epidemiology studies. © 2013 Wu et al.

Mao Q.,National Institutes for Food and Drug Control | Dong C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li X.,National Vaccine and Serum Institute | Gao Q.,Sinovac Biotech | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines of different strains developed by different manufacturers in mainland China have recently entered clinical trials. Although several studies on these vaccines have been published, a study directly comparing the immunogenicity and protective effects among them has not been carried out, which makes evaluating their relative effectiveness difficult. Thus, properly comparing newly developed vaccines has become a priority, especially in China. Methods and Findings: This comparative immunogenicity study was carried out on vaccine strains (both live and inactivated), final container products (FCPs) without adjuvant, and corresponding FCPs containing adjuvant (FCP-As) produced by three manufacturers. These vaccines were evaluated by neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses induced by the same or different dosages at one or multiple time points post-immunization. The protective efficacy of the three vaccines was also determined in one-day-old ICR mice born to immunized female mice. Survival rates were observed in these suckling mice after challenge with 20 LD50 of EV71/048M3C2. Three FCP-As, in a dose of 200 U, generated nearly 100% NAb positivity rates and similar geometric mean titers (GMTs), especially at 14-21 days post-inoculation. However, the dynamic NAb responses were different among three vaccine strains or three FCPs. The FCP-As at the lowest dose used in clinical trials (162 U) showed good protective effects in suckling mice against lethal challenge (90-100% survival), while the ED50 of NAb responses and protective effects varied among three FCP-As. Conclusions: These studies establish a standard method for measuring the immunogenicity of EV71 vaccines in mice. The data generated from our mouse model study indicated a clear dose-response relationship, which is important for vaccine quality control and assessment, especially for predicting protective efficacy in humans when combined with future clinical trial results. © 2012 Mao et al.

Liang Z.,Chinese National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products | Mao Q.,Chinese National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products | Gao Q.,Sinovac Biotech | Li X.,National Vaccine and Serum Institute | And 8 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly infectious agent that causes hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in humans. Effective vaccination against EV71 infection is critically important, given the recent outbreak of HFMD in the Asia-Pacific region, where it has shown significant mortality and morbidity. There is currently no approved anti-viral therapy available to treat the disease. While several vaccine manufacturers are actively developing EV71 vaccines, there are no international reference standards available to conduct quality control on EV71 vaccines or to assess the effectiveness of EV71 vaccines in immunized populations. In the current report, antigen reference standard based on the C4 subtype of the EV71 vaccine strain was developed. In addition, neutralizing antibody (NTAb) reference panels were analyzed and standards with various neutralizing titers were selected. These reference antigens were used to calibrate vaccine samples from several producers and found that five EV71 antigens and the national reference standards showed good linearity and parallelism. Moreover, mice immunized with various vaccines at doses standardized by these national references showed comparable NTAb responses. Finally, the national NTAb reference panels were found to effectively reduce assay discrepancy between different labs. Taken together, these national reference standards are highly valuable for the standardization and evaluation of EV71 vaccines. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Lu P.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zheng L.-Q.,Yunnan University | Zheng L.-Q.,Hualan Biological Engineering Inc | Sun J.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2012

The taxonomic status of a methyl-parathion-degrading strain, OP-1T, isolated from a wastewater-treatment system in China, was determined using a polyphasic approach. The rod-shaped cells were Gram-staining-negative, non-spore-forming and non-motile. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the novel strain belonged to the genus Burkholderia, as it appeared closely related to Burkholderia glathei ATCC 29195T (97.4 % sequence similarity), Burkholderia sordidicola KCTC 12081T (96.5 %) and Burkholderia bryophila LMG 23644T (96.3 %). The major cellular fatty acids, C16: 0, C17: 0 cyclo and C18: 1ω7c, were also similar to those found in established members of the genus Burkholderia. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain OP-1T was 59.4 mol%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between the novel strain and the closest recognized species, Burkholderia glathei ATCC 29195T, was only 30 %. Based on the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic evidence, strain OP-1T represents a novel species of the genus Burkholderia, for which the name Burkholderia zhejiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OP-1T (= CCTCC AB 2010354T = KCTC 23300T). © 2012 IUMS.

Chen X.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Chen X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Liu Y.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Wang L.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2014

Surface-engineered particulate delivery systems for vaccine administration have been widely investigated in experimental and clinical studies. However, little is known about charge-coated microspheres as potential recombinant subunit protein antigen delivery systems in terms of adsorption and related immune responses. In the present study, cationic polymers, including chitosan (CS), chitosan chloride (CSC), and polyethylenimine (PEI), were used to coat PLA microspheres to build positively charged surfaces. Antigen adsorption capacity was enhanced with increased surface charge of coated microspheres. In macrophages, HBsAg adsorbed on the surface of cationic microspheres specifically enhanced antigen uptake and augmented CD86, MHC I, and MHC II expression and IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-12 release. Antigens were more likely to localize independent of lysosomes after phagocytosis in antigen-attached cationic microsphere formulations. After intraperitoneal immunization, cationic microsphere-based vaccine formulations generated a rapid and efficient humoral immune response and cytokine release as compared with aluminum-adsorbed vaccine and free antigens in vivo. Moreover, microspheres coated with cationic polymers with relatively high positive charges and higher antigen adsorption exhibited strong stimulation of the Th1 response. In conclusion, PLA microspheres coated with cationic polymers may be a potential recombinant antigen delivery system to induce strong cell and humoral immune responses. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Qiu S.,National Institutes for Food and Drug Control | Wei Q.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Liang Z.,National Institutes for Food and Drug Control | Ma G.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | And 7 more authors.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2014

Hepatitis B (HB) infection caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common liver disease in the world. HB vaccine, when administered in conjunction with alum adjuvants, induces Th2 immunity that confers protection against HBV. However, currently available vaccine formulations and adjuvants do not elicit adequate Th1 and CTL responses that are important for prevention of maternal transmission of the virus. Microspheres synthesized from poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly (D, L-lactide) (PLA) polymers have been considered as promising tools for in vivo delivery of antigens and drugs. Here we describe PLA microspheres synthesized by premix membrane emulsification method and their application in formulating a new microsphere based HB vaccine. To evaluate the immunogenicity of this microsphere vaccine, BALB/c mice were immunized with microsphere vaccine and a series of immunological assays were conducted. Results of Enzyme-linked ImmunoSpot (ELISPOT) assays revealed that the number of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-producing splenocytes and CD8+ T cells increased significantly in the microsphere vaccine group. Microsphere vaccine group showed enhanced specific cell lysis when compared with HB surface antigen (HBsAg) only group in 51Cr cytotoxicity assays. Moreover, microsphere vaccine elicited a comparable level of antibody production as that of HB vaccine administered with alum adjuvant. We show that phagocytosis of HBsAg by dendritic cells is more pronounced in microsphere vaccine group when compared with other control groups. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of using PLA microspheres as effective HB vaccine adjuvants for an enhanced Th1 immune response. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.

Zhang W.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Zhang W.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang L.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Liu Y.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | And 9 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: To compare the adjuvanticity of polymeric particles (new-generation adjuvant) and alum (the traditional and FDA-approved adjuvant) for H5N1 influenza split vaccine, and to investigate respective action mode. Methods: Vaccine formulations were prepared by incubating lyophilized poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microparticles or alum within antigen solution. Antigen-specific immune responses in mice were evaluated using ELISA, ELISpot, and flow cytometry assay. Adjuvants' action modes were investigated by determining antigen persistence at injection sites, local inflammation response, antigen transport into draining lymph node, and activation of DCs in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). Results: Alum promoted antigen-specific humoral immune response. PLA microparticles augmented both humoral immune response and cell-mediated-immunity which might enhance cross-protection of influenza vaccine. With regard to action mode, alum adjuvant functions by improving antigen persistence at injection sites, inducing severe local inflammation, slightly improving antigen transport into draining lymph nodes, and improving the expression of MHC II on DCs in SLOs. PLA microparticles function by slightly improving antigen transport into draining lymph nodes, and promoting the expression of both MHC molecules and co-stimulatory molecules on DCs in SLOs. Conclusions: Considering the adjuvanticity and side effects (local inflammation) of both adjuvants, we conclude that PLA microparticles are promising alternative adjuvant for H5N1 influenza split vaccine. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

PubMed | University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Institute of Process Engineering and Hualan Biological Engineering Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of pharmaceutics | Year: 2016

In this study, we developed the quaternized chitosan microgels without chemical crosslinking as an adjuvant of H5N1 split vaccine. The microgels with pH-sensitivity, positive surface charge and good biocompatibility, have been demonstrated in favor of enhancing both humoral and cellular immune response. However, the detailed mechanism of the chitosan-based microgels to enhance antigen specific immune responses remains unclear. Therefore, we prepared the quaternized chitosan microgels with well defined quaternization degrees (QDs, 20-80%) and particle sizes (800nm-5m) by the premix membrane emulsification technique, and investigated the effect of quaternization degree (QD) and size on the adjuvanticity of microgels. Results suggested that microgels with relatively smaller size (807nm) and moderate quaternization degree (QD 41% and 60%) were favorable for a maximum immune response. The mechanism was studied and explained by examining the characteristics of microgels and investigating the stimulation of bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Moreover, they induced significantly stronger immune responses at lower antigen doses (known as antigen sparing effect) compared to aluminum adjuvant. These data indicated that a maximum immune response can be achieved by controlling properties of chitosan microgels, which also could serve as a significant guidance for rational design of chitosan-based particle adjuvant.

An W.Q.,Hualan Biological Engineering Inc. | An W.Q.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Su Z.G.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Pan R.W.,Hualan Biological Engineering Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2014

We evaluated the effect of a β-propiolactone (BPL)-inactivated coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) vaccine, using three immunogenicity evaluation and two animal challenge systems. A CA16 virus strain, named 419, was used as the production strain. Another CA16 strain, named 1131, was isolated and used as the challenge strain in intracerebral inoculation of neonatal mice for the calculation of median lethal dose (LD50). In the passive and maternal antibody-protection challenge systems, all results indicated that the vaccine could protect mouse pups from lethal challenge with the CA16 virus. In the immunogenicity systems, three types of animal (mouse, rat, and cynomolgus monkey), were immunized with the 419/CA16 vaccine. The dose-effect relationship and the antibody-generation routine were described. The CA16 vaccine induced a more potent serum antibody effect in rat than in mouse. The serum antibody titer was detectable more than 63 days after the initial vaccination. We also identified tools to evaluate the effect of the BPL-inactivated CA16 vaccine. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.

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