Htceramix S.A. | Date: 2016-11-17
A method for operating a solid oxide fuel cell having cathode-anode-electrolyte units, each including a first electrode for an oxidizing agent, a second electrode for combustible gas, and a solid electrolyte there between forming a metal interconnection between the CAE-units. The interconnect including a combustible gas distribution structure, and a second metallic gas distribution element having two channels for the oxidizing agent and separate channels for a tempering fluid. Cooling the second gas distribution element and a base layer of the first gas distribution element with the tempering fluid (O2). Measuring the first and second control temperatures T1 and T2. T1 being the tempering fluid temperature entering the fluid inlet side of the fuel cell. T2 being the tempering fluid temperature leaving the second gas distribution element. Where the amount of tempering fluid supplied to the second gas distribution element is controlled based on the difference between T1 and T2.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: FCH2-RIA | Phase: FCH-02-5-2016 | Award Amount: 3.15M | Year: 2017
The INSIGHT project aims at developing a Monitoring, Diagnostic and Lifetime Tool (MDLT) for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stacks and the hardware necessary for its implementation into a real SOFC system. The effectiveness of the MDLT will be demonstrated through on-field tests on a real micro-Combined Heat and Power system (2.5 kW), thus moving these tools from Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 3 to beyond 5. INSIGHT leverages the experience of previous projects and consolidates their outcomes both at methodological and application levels. The consortium will specifically exploit monitoring approaches based on two advanced complementary techniques: Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in addition to conventional dynamic stack signals. Durability tests with faults added on purpose and accelerated tests will generate the data required to develop and validate the MDL algorithms. Based on the outcome of experimental analysis and mathematical approaches, fault mitigation logics will be developed to avoid stack failures and slow down their degradation. A specific low-cost hardware, consisting in a single board able to embed the MDLT will be developed and integrated into a commercial SOFC system, the EnGenTM 2500, which will be tested on-field. INSIGHT will then open the perspective to decrease the costs of service and SOFC stack replacement by 50%, which would correspond to a reduction of the Total Cost of Ownership by 10% / kWh. To reach these objectives, INSIGHT is a cross multidisciplinary consortium gathering 11 organisations from 6 member states (France, Italy, Denmark, Slovenia, Austria, Finland) and one associated country (Switzerland). The partnership covers all competences necessary: experimental testing (CEA, DTU, EPFL), algorithms developments (UNISA, IJS, AVL), hardware development (BIT), system integration and validation (VTT, SP, HTC), supported by AK for the project management and dissemination.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2012.3.4;SP1-JTI-FCH.2012.3.5 | Award Amount: 5.53M | Year: 2013
SOFCs are good energy sources to supply reliable power at steady state. Due to their slow internal electrochemical and thermodynamic characteristics, they cannot respond to electrical load transients as quickly as desired. During peak demand a battery can provide power in addition to the fuel cell, whereas the fuel cell can recharge the battery during low demand periods. The key advantage of this system architecture is that the fuel cell is operated without major load variations close to constant load resulting in longer lifetime and thus reducing total costs of operation. The realization of a hybrid system, capable of connecting production and storage devices on the one hand, and of managing and controlling the energy and its exchange with the power grid on the other hand, represents the synergy of some innovative technologies, but already commercially available. The overall objective of ONSITE is the construction and operation of a containerized system, based on SOFC/ZEBRA battery hybridisation, that generates more than 20 kW at high efficiency and economically competitive costs. High Temperature ZEBRA batteries (NaNiCl) are intrinsically maintenance free, show long life and are fully recyclable. The choice of this kind of technology aims at exchanging thermal energy between the two devices, in order to enhance the total efficiency of the final system, as well. The natural gas (optionally LPG) operated SOFC and the ZEBRA battery will be thermally integrated. Both will provide power for TLC energy stations. Basic research will be pursued on SOFC stacks to reach FCH JU targets in terms of efficiency, duration and costs. On top of these activities, detailed analyses of final proof-of-concept life cycle cost and total cost of ownership are foreseen. The thermal energy (waste heat) of the system can be applied for heating purposes as well as for cooling applying, e.g. an absorption cooling system. The system demonstration will take place at Ericsson as a real TLC site
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2013.3.3 | Award Amount: 3.61M | Year: 2014
The DIAMOND project aims at improving the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for CHP applications by implementing innovative strategies for on-board diagnosis and control. Advanced monitoring models will be developed to integrate diagnosis and control functions with the objective of having meaningful information on the actual state-of-the-health of the entire system. A holistic view over stack and BoP components can guarantee an advanced management and a comprehensive solution to the problem of achieving improved performance, maintenance scheduling, higher reliability and thus increased lifetime of the system. The underlying idea is to improve the analytical capability of current diagnosis and control algorithms, which are nowadays developed for reference prototypes without accounting systematically for production non-homogeneity, drift, wear and degradation. The analytical work and the testing activity will exploit advanced methodologies successfully applied in other advanced industrial sectors. Two SOFC systems will be considered, namely an integrated stack module (HoTbox) and a middle-scale CHP with conventional layout. Extensive testing will be performed to validate the diagnosis and control strategies and evaluate their effectiveness in improving management actions aimed at optimizing operating conditions and increasing lifetime. The outcomes of the project will guarantee an increase of the SOFC system lifetime and performance. The results of DIAMOND will consolidate several modeling approaches that are the first step towards the development of prognostics tools for SOFC lifetime estimation. At industrial level, the proposed methodologies can be scaled up as the production increases without affecting manufacturing organization and costs. A well-balanced consortium brings together a group of research institutions and industries with different experience and capabilities to apply advanced monitoring, diagnosis and control concepts to SOFC.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2013.3.1 | Award Amount: 4.41M | Year: 2014
The project aims at developing reliable predictive models to estimate long-term (i.e. > 20 kh) performance and probability of failure of SOFC stacks based on existing materials and design produced by the industrial partners. This will allow the realization of stacks with extended service intervals and reduced maintenance cost with respect to the present stack technology. The extension of service life will be supported by the introduction of Early Warning Output Signals triggered counterstrategies. The project is structured into three phases: consolidation of knowledge and refinement of models on a previously operated State of Art stack (1st Loop); enhancement of materials, design and predictive models via iterative loops (Improvement Iterative Loop); statistical validation of achieved improvements via standard and accelerated tests (Validation Process). The stack is a system of interfaces/interphases giving rise to complex phenomena that which have to be separated in single phenomena processes. The single phenomena are generated by the minimum of interfaces/interphases in a quasi-independent way and therefore suitable for a separate deep investigation via micro-samples studies. The improvements will be especially validated by: the application of accelerated test protocols; the evaluation of robustness of stacks and components toward load cycles and thermal cycles. The comparison with an operating not cycled stack will give the value of performance (voltage) loss for the rated stack life cycle that has to be <5% for 100 load cycles (idle to rated load) or 50 thermal cycles (room temperature to operating temperature). The outcomes will be statistically demonstrated by operating 6 stacks in standard conditions and a minimum of 3 micro-sample per interphase in standard, cycled and accelerated conditions with constant monitoring via modelling.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2013.2.4 | Award Amount: 6.08M | Year: 2014
Hydrogen and other fuels are expected to play a key role as energy carrier for the transport sector and as energy buffer for the integration of large amounts of renewable energy into the grid. Therefore the development of carbon lean technologies producing hydrogen at reasonable price from renewable or low CO2 emitting sources like nuclear is of utmost importance. It is the case of water electrolysis, and among the various technologies, high temperature steam electrolysis (so-called HTE or SOE for Solid Oxide Electrolysis) presents a major interest, since less electricity is required to dissociate water at high temperature, the remaining part of the required dissociation energy being added as heat, available at a lower price level. In addition, technologies that offer the possibility not only to transform energy without CO2 emissions, but even to recycle CO2 produced elsewhere are rare. High temperature co-electrolysis offers such a possibility, by a joint electrolysis of CO2 and H2O, to produce syngas (H2\CO), which is the standard intermediate for the subsequent production of methane or other gaseous or liquid fuels after an additional processing step. These aspects are covered by the SOPHIA project. A 3 kWe-size pressurized HTE system, coupled to a concentrated solar energy source will be designed, fabricated and operated on-sun for proof of principle. Second, it will prove the concept of co-electrolysis at the stack level while operated also pressurized. The achievement of such targets needs key developments that are addressed into SOPHIA. Further, SOPHIA identifies different power to gas scenarios of complete process chain (including power, heat and CO2 sources) for the technological concept development and its end-products valorisation. A techno-economic analysis will be carried out for different case studies identified for concepts industrialization and a Life Cycle Analysis with respect to environmental aspects according to Eco-indicator 99 will be performed.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: FCH2-RIA | Phase: FCH-02.6-2015 | Award Amount: 2.94M | Year: 2016
The proposed SOSLeM project will contribute to the call objectives by improving production processes as well as developing and applying novel manufacturing technologies for FC stacks. The improvements proposed by the project will sum up to a reduction of manufacturing costs of about 70%, leading to decreased capital cost of about 2.500 /kW. Besides these outstanding economical and technical improvements, production material will be spared and environmental benefits will be realized. Specifically, the project will: - Develop new and optimized processes for cassettes production, by avoidance brushing of cassettes, improved sealing adhesion on cassettes, automation of welding, lean manufacturing processes and anode contact layer laser welding, - Improve stack preparation, by advanced glass curing and stack conditioning and improved gas stations, - Enable environmental benefits by Cu-based instead of Co-based powder and evaluation of On-site Nickel removal from waste water - Reduce production time and costs and improve flexibility, by large furnace arrangement, introduction of a multi-stack production station, examination of substituting Co-based powder by Cu-based power, Examination of partially substituting Co-based powder by enamel coating and simultaneous sintering.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: FCH2-RIA | Phase: FCH-02.3-2015 | Award Amount: 3.24M | Year: 2016
The overall goal of ECo is to develop and validate a highly efficient co-electrolysis process for conversion of excess renewable electricity into distributable and storable hydrocarbons via simultaneous electrolysis of steam and CO2 through SOEC (Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells) thus moving the technology from technology readiness level (TRL) 3 to 5. In relation to the work program, ECo will specifically: Develop and prove improved solid oxide cells (SOEC) based on novel cell structure including electrode backbone structures and infiltration and design of electrolyte/electrode interfaces to achieve high performances and high efficiencies at ~100 oC lower operating temperatures than state-of-the-art in order to reduce thermally activated degradation processes, to improve integration with hydrocarbon production, and to reduce overall costs. Investigate durability under realistic co-electrolysis operating conditions that include dynamic electricity input from fluctuating sources with the aim to achieve degradation rates below 1%/1000 h at stack level under relevant operating conditions. Design a plant to integrate the co-electrolysis with fluctuating electricity input and catalytic processes for hydrocarbon production, with special emphasis on methanation (considering both external and internal) and perform selected validation tests under the thus needed operating conditions. Test a co-electrolysis system under realistic conditions for final validation of the obtained results at larger scale. Demonstrate economic viability for overall process efficiencies exceeding 60% using results obtained in the project for the case of storage media such as methane and compare to traditional technologies with the aim to identify critical performance parameters that have to be improved. Perform a life cycle assessment with CO2 from different sources (cement industry or biogas) and electricity from preferably renewable sources to prove the recycling potential of the concept
HTceramix S.A. | Date: 2013-12-18
A gas flow dividing element for a fuel cell or an electrolyzing device comprises a supporting layer (4), which is disposed with a pattern for a fluid flow and a cathode-anode-electrolyte unit (5). The cathode-anode-electrolyte unit (5) is composed of a first electrode (51), a second electrode (53) and an electrolyte (52) sandwiched between the first electrode (51) and the second electrode (53). The supporting layer (4) is arranged in a contacting relationship with the first electrode (51), whereby a reactant fluid passage (30) is formed by the pattern for fluid flow for contacting the reactant fluid with the first electrode (51). The supporting layer (4) comprises a separating element (1, 32, 34, 38) to form a gas distribution structure (33, 35, 36, 37) for dividing the reactant fluid into a first portion of reactant fluid contacting the first electrode (51) and a second portion of reactant fluid not contacting the first electrode (51).
Htceramix S.A. | Date: 2014-01-17
A method and system for producing carbon dioxide and electricity from a gaseous hydrocarbon feed using a solid oxide fuel cell, a water-gas shift reactor and a reformer.