Hung H.-F.,Hsin Chu General Hospital |
Chen H.-H.,National Taiwan University
PharmacoEconomics | Year: 2011
Background: As neonates born to mothers with positive hepatitis B e antigen may not be completely protected by hepatitis B vaccination, prophylactic lamivudine use in mothers with high viraemia has been proposed. However, the overall effectiveness and the balance between cost and benefit for such a prophylactic strategy have rarely been addressed. Objective: Using a review of recent literature, we aimed to assess the cost effectiveness, from the Taiwanese societal perspective, of administering prophylactic lamivudine to mothers to reduce vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus and its long-term sequelae in neonates. Methods: A meta-analysis of three randomized controlled trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of lamivudine versus placebo. A Markov decision model was constructed in which in both treatment arms infants received active and passive immunoprophylaxis. An economic evaluation was performed to calculate costs, acute infections averted, and QALYs gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve drawn. All these analyses were from the societal perspective. Costs (£US) were valued in year 2008 prices. Result: Supplemental lamivudine use gained an additional 0.0024 QALYs and averted 0.23 acute infections per birth compared with the routine activepassive immunization without lamivudine. The cost-effectiveness analysis suggested that the use of additional prophylactic lamivudine dominated the routine strategy. The acceptability curve suggested that the probability of being cost effective under the willingness-to-pay threshold of £US20 000 was 94%. Conclusion: This analysis suggests that supplemental use of lamivudine in mothers with high hepatitis B viraemia is effective in reducing vertical transmission and may be cost effective, from a Taiwanese societal perspective, compared with the routine active-passive immunization without lamivudine. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.
Liu M.-H.,Taipei Medical University |
Tsuang F.-Y.,National Taiwan University Hospital |
Sheu S.-Y.,Taipei Medical University |
Sun J.-S.,Taipei Medical University |
Shih C.-M.,Hsin Chu General Hospital
Neurological Research | Year: 2011
Objectives: Estrogen replacement therapy can decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Phytoestrogens have been proposed as potential alternatives to estrogen replacement therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro protective effects of coumestrol on mice astrocytes. Methods: Different concentrations of coumestrol were tested for their protective efficacy against two toxic insults, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and amyloid-beta peptide, on astrocytes. The mitochondrial activity of astrocytes was determined, and the protective efficacy and pathway were examined by their specific gene expression and protein change. Results: The results showed that coumestrol induced a modest but significant increase in viability of astrocytes, while the viability of astrocytes was reduced following exposure to LPS and amyloid-beta peptide. The addition of coumestrol could reverse the toxic effect induced by LPS and amyloid-beta peptide. Both the LPS and amyloid-beta peptide enhanced interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha synthesis and these effects were inhibited by 10 -9M coumestrol. This effect was more obvious on the LPS-induced inflammation. The estrogen receptor expression was upregulated by coumestrol, while the effect was more obvious on estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta). These effects can be inhibited by extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitors but not p38 inhibitor. Discussion: The current data support a possible role for astrocytes in the mediation of neuroprotection by coumestrol. An indirect extracellular signal-regulated kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway to downregulate the expression of interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytotoxic effect may act in concert with the proposed direct ER-beta biosynethsis pathway to achieve a widespread, global protection of ER-beta positive neurons. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2011.
Kuo H.-Y.,Hsin Chu General Hospital |
Lin M.-F.,Chutung Hospital |
Cheng W.-L.,Yuanpei University |
Tien N.,China Medical University at Taichung |
Liou M.-L.,Yuanpei University
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2010
We investigated the molecular epidemiology and OXA-type carbapenemase genes of 83 imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. collected from 2 university hospitals (hospitals A and B) and a regional hospital (hospital C) during 2007 in Taiwan. Genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified 51 pulsotypes. None of the pulsotypes established predominance throughout the 3 hospitals. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction of blaOXA genes showed that 100% (18/18), 91%(31/34), and 100% (31/31) of the Acinetobacter spp. collected from hospital A, B, and C, respectively, possessed blaOXA-51-like genes. None of the strains carrying blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-24-like genes were found in hospital A. The coexistences of blaOXA-51-like/blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-51-like/blaOXA-24-like genes detected in hospitals B and C were 26% (9/34) and 12% (4/34) and 58% (18/31) and 3% (1/31), respectively. Among blaOXA-23-like gene-carrying isolates collected from hospitals, clonal spread of strains carrying the blaOXA-23 gene was detected in the regional hospital but not the other 2 university hospitals. The results suggest that interhospital dissemination of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. was not found in these hospitals. The increasing percentage of OXA-23 in OXA-type carbapenemases in Acinetobacter spp. from the regional hospitals to medical centers deserves further attention in Taiwan. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chang M.-C.,Chang Gung Institute of Technology |
Chen L.-I.,National Taiwan University Hospital |
Chan C.-P.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital |
Lee J.-J.,National Taiwan University Hospital |
And 6 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2010
Biocompatibility of dentin bonding agents (DBAs) and resin composite is important to preserve the pulp vitality after operative restoration. Bisphenol-glycidyl-methacrylate (BisGMA) is one common monomer adding into DBAs and resin. In this study, we found that exposure of human dental pulp cells to BisGMA (>0.1 m. m) led to cytotoxicity, G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as analyzed by propidium iodide (PI) and PI/annexin V dual fluorescent flow cytometry. These events were associated with a decline of cdc2, cdc25C and cyclinB1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. BisGMA also induced the expression of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress responsive gene, in pulp cells. Catalase could prevent the BisGMA-induced alteration of cell cycle-related genes (cdc2, cdc25C, cyclinB1) and HO-1 expression in dental pulp cells. Interestingly, Zn-protoporphyrin (2.5-5 μ m), a HO inhibitor, enhanced the BisGMA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cytotoxicity. These results suggest that exposure to higher concentrations of BisGMA may stimulate ROS production, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and cell death. Inducing the expression of HO-1 in dental pulp cells by BisGMA is mediated by ROS production and important to protect dental pulp against the toxicity by monomers present in composite resin and DBAs. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Lin G.-J.,National Defense Medical Center |
Huang S.-H.,Tri Service General Hospital |
Chen Y.-W.,Tri Service General Hospital |
Hueng D.-Y.,Tri Service General Hospital |
And 5 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2011
Aims/hypothesis: Autoimmune diabetes results from a progressive destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreatic islets by chemokine-attracted lymphocytes. Because islet cells in NOD mice produce chemokines during the development of autoimmune diabetes, we investigated the role of inflammatory CC chemokines in disease progression in these mice. Methods: We generated a transgenic NOD mouse model that overproduces the inflammatory CC chemokine decoy receptor D6 in pancreatic islets. Results: The frequency of diabetes and insulitis scores of transgenic mice were decreased significantly, compared with non-transgenic control littermates. Transgenic expression of D6 (also known as Ccbp2) did not affect systemic lymphocyte development or alter: (1) the T cell subsets such as T helper (Th)1, Th2 and T regulatory cells; or (2) antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells or macrophages. The percentages and numbers of T and B lymphocytes were decreased significantly in the pancreas. Activation status, autoantigen-specific proliferation and diabetogenicity of lymphocytes were also markedly reduced. Conclusions/ interpretation: Inflammatory CC chemokines play a critical role in the development of autoimmune diabetes. Transgenic expression of D6 in pancreatic islets of NOD mice reduced this pathogenic process by suppressing activation of autoreactive lymphocytes and by reducing migration of lymphocytes to the pancreas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.