Civljak R.,Klinika za infektivne bolesti Dr. Fran Mihaljevic |
Dakovic-Rode O.,Klinika za infektivne bolesti Dr. Fran Mihaljevic |
Jemersic L.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute |
Topic A.,Klinika za infektivne bolesti Dr. Fran Mihaljevic |
And 3 more authors.
Infektoloski Glasnik | Year: 2013
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a global pathogen that causes epidemic and sporadic cases of acute hepatitis in Asia and Africa. However, recently, sporadic cases have been recorded in European countries as well. In November 2012, a 62- year-old patient was admitted with suspicion of bacterial pneumonia. The disease started two weeks prior to admission with fever and respiratory symptoms. The regression of symptoms was noted during outpatient treatment with cefuroxime- axetil. On the sixth day of treatment a rash appeared and the patient was admitted to our hospital. On admission, he was icteric, with an erythematous macular rash on the trunk. Laboratory tests found moderately elevated inflammatory parameters with hyperbilirubinemia and elevated liver enzymes. On chest X-ray extensive interstitial pulmonary infiltration was recorded. Serological and molecular diagnostics confirmed acute HEV-infection. Serological diagnostics on microorganisms of atypical pneumonia suggested possible simultaneous C. pneumoniae infection. Symptomatic treatment achieved a complete cure with normalization of laboratory tests after three months follow-up, without any complications. In this paper, we presented a case of an icteric form of acute hepatitis E in a patient from Zagreb who didn' travel abroad, therefore according to avaliable literature, this is the first described case of autochthotonous hepatitis E in Croatia. During the course of the disease the patient developed a rash and pneumonic infiltration the etiology of which could not be clearly defined. In patients with clinical feature of acute viral hepatitis after exclusion of hepatitis A, B, C and EBV and CMV infections, diagnostic on HEV should be conducted.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-1-05 | Award Amount: 8.96M | Year: 2009
With the increasing impact of mankinds activities on the natural environment, disease naturally harboured by wild animals, both within the geographical limits of the EU and elsewhere, are becoming increasingly significant both for public health and health of livestock, in addition to having direct concerns for wild animal species. We are proposing a project which will combine (i) technological development to enable high through-put array-based screening of samples from a wide variety of wild animals with (ii) surveillance of terrestrial, aerial and marine wild animal species within Europe and from countries which act as portals of disease entry into the EU, (iii) epidemiological analysis and risk assessment using data generated during the project and from other sources, and (iv) development and proposal of a model framework for disease surveillance within Europe developed in parallel with the burgeoning systems in North America. The proposal will place the EU at the centre of wildlife disease surveillance and also enable the translation of high throughput array-based technologies into human and veterinary medicine.
Pandak N.,Opca bolnica Dr. Josip Bencevic' |
Pem-Novoesl I.,Hrvatski zavod za javno zdravstvo |
Cabraja I.,Opca bolnica Dr. Josip Bencevic' |
Miklausic B.,Opca bolnica Dr. Josip Bencevic' |
And 3 more authors.
Infektoloski Glasnik | Year: 2015
Although we have been familiar with the West Nile virus (WNV) for the last 80 years more intense research has been conducted in the past fifteen years, just after the huge central nervous system infection outbreak. WNV is a member of the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavvirus. Though WNV consists of a single serotype, genetically it can be divided in at least eight lineages where lineages 1, 2 and 5 are medically the most important ones. The virus originated from Africa and spread worldwide. Birds are natural reservoirs of the virus and mosquitoes are their vectors. The most usual transmission to humans is the mosquito bite but the virus can also be transmitted via blood transfusion or solid organ transplantation. After 3 –14 days of the incubation period, usually an asymptomatic or mild febrile disease occurs while a neuroinvasive disease develops in a rather small number of patients. Symptomatic therapy is the basis for treatment, however prolonged recovery and neurological sequalae are sometimes seen as well. © 2015, University Hospital of Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.
Cvrtila Fleck Z.,University of Zagreb |
Sigurnjak J.,SD S. Radic |
Sirocic V.,Jurja Skarpe 7 |
Njari B.,University of Zagreb |
And 4 more authors.
Mljekarstvo | Year: 2016
Jenny breeding and the production of jenny milk are becoming more common, especially on family farms in the area of Istria and Dalmatia, but in continental Croatia as well. The aim of this study was to explore basic chemical and fatty acid composition, somatic cell count and sensory traits of jenny milk. In total eleven milk samples were analized from two breeds: Littoral-Dinaric (Dalmatian) jennies (N=6) and Istrian jennies (N=5) originating from farms in the area of Zagreb and Istrian County. Fat content was markedly low and was 1.16 % at the most, whereas the average fat content in the milk of Istrian jennies was 0.14 %, i.e. 0.69 % in Dalmatian jennies. The average protein content was 1.29 % and average lactose content 6.5 %. The milk of Dalmatian jennies contained 3.8 log10 mL-1 of somatic cells whose values were lower in the milk of Istrian jennies (3.2 log10 mL-1). At the same time a higher total count of white blood cells (4.9-5.3 × 109/L) was determined in milk samples of Istrian jennies, in comparison to the milk of Dalmatian jennies (5.1 × 109/ L at the most). The fatty acid composition showed that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the milk of Istrian jennies was 70.45 %, while in the milk of Dalmatian jennies it was 59.92 %. The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were represented on average with 21.23 % and 24.61 %, while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with 8.31 % and 15.46 % in Istrian and Dalmatian jennies. The total ratio saturated/unsaturated fatty acids ranged from 0.37 to 0.72 at the most and it was lower in milk samples of Istrian jennies. Jenny milk is characterized by a low fat content and high lactose content, and fatty acid composition with a favourable ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The somatic cell count in the milk is lower in comparison to the milk of other domestic animals. © 2016, Hrvatska Mljekarska Udruga. All rights reserved.
Activities of the reference centre for rabies and antirabies clinic of dr. Andrija Štampar institute of public health from 2008 to 2013 [Rad Referentnog centra za bjesnoću te antirabične ambulante Nastavnog zavoda za javno zdravstvo “Dr. Andrija Štampar” u razdoblju od 2008. do 2013. godine]
Vodopija R.,Nastavni zavod za javno zdravstvo |
Tesic V.,Nastavni zavod za javno zdravstvo |
Kosanovic Licina M.L.,Nastavni zavod za javno zdravstvo |
Bedekovic T.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute |
Sucec I.,Ministarstvo poljoprivrede
Infektoloski Glasnik | Year: 2014
Rabies is an absolutely deadly disease, regardless of the few documented cases of survival, lately reported in the literature. Due to its deadly rate of 55 000 estimated deaths annually, rabies virus is eight among the world's most deadly viruses. Having this in mind, rabies is still a major public health problem in less developed countries of Africa and Asia. Without well organized help of local communities, financial support of governmental or other institutions, and cooperation between human and veterinarian medicine, this number will not begin to decrease. The last case of human rabies in the Republic of Croatia was registered 50 years ago, in 1964. Apart from this, there were two imported human rabies cases reported in the Republic of Croatia, both from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The first one in 1989, and the second in 1995. The Reference Centre (RC) for Rabies is performing numerous activities in the area of human rabies protection, and therefore cooperates with many veteri-Croatian Journal of Infection 34:3, 117–132 (2014) nary organizations, facilities and institutions and is supervising the antirabies activities of county public health institutes in the Republic of Croatia. The employees of the RC are included in numerous professional, teaching and educational activities. In the period from 2008 to 2013 in the Republic of Croatia, a total of 32 697 persons were examined after being in contact with various types of animals, of whom 9 368 (28,6%) received post-exposure rabies prophylaxis (PEP) after being bitten, scratched, having contact with saliva against broken skin or mucous membranes or having contact with domestic or wild rabid or suspect rabid animal or having contact with contaminated material (such as fox bait with oral rabies vaccine /ORV/). Out of this number, 8 668 persons received PEP with antirabies vaccine only, while 700 persons received PEP with antirabies vaccine and human rabies immune globulin. At the Dr. Andrija Štampar Institute of Public Health, as part of the Reference Centre for Rabies, an Antirabies Clinic has been established. Apart from cooperating with veterinary organizations, the medical team in this ambulance is performing physical examination of bitten patients, collects and records data in the register, keeps and issues patient medical documentation, and performs PEP according to indications. In the period from 2008 to 2013, there were 3 690 examined patients (2 094 male and 1596 female) at Antirabies Clinic, of whom 961 persons (555 male and 406 female) received PEP based on medical indications. These data refer only to the region of the city of Zagreb. Patients who came to the Zagreb Antirabies Clinic from the Zagreb county were not included in this report because they were referred to our Clinic directly by the county epidemiologists.
Leskovec P.,Horvatova 11 |
Ljoljic D.B.,University of Zagreb |
Benic M.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute |
Kostelic A.,University of Zagreb |
And 2 more authors.
Mljekarstvo | Year: 2015
Mastitis represents a big problem in modern cattle production, both in economic terms and in terms of diagnostic. Direct economic losses for the manufacturers occur due to reduction of milk production, changed composition of the milk, medical expenses, loss of one or more quarters of the udder, the withdrawal period and higher expenditure of labor. The greatest damages in dairy production are caused by subclinical (invisible) inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of some bacterial mastitis pathogens to antimicrobial agents in the compositions for the treatment of mastitis that are used in the Republic of Croatia. Pathogens which causes mastitis were isolated on esculin blood agar culture medium and subjected to a sensitivity analysis on eight antimicrobials. Highest sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus strains was determined to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and cefoperazone, while the distinct resistance was observed to penicillin and ampicillin (almost 100 %). Also it has been determined a relatively high efficiency of ampicillin (96.1 %), amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (94.1 %) and penicillin (92.8 %) on the strains of Streptococcus uberis, while the lowest sensitivity, bacteria have had on streptomycin. According to results of the analysis, it is evident that a growing number of bacteria developed resistance to certain antimicrobial agents. © 2015, Hrvatska Mljekarska Udruga. All rights reserved.
Jakovljevic T.,Hrvatski Sumarski Institute |
Radojcic Redovnikovic I.,University of Zagreb |
Cvjetko M.,University of Zagreb |
Bukovac I.,University of Zagreb |
And 3 more authors.
Sumarski List | Year: 2015
Phytoremediation is considered a promising, inexpensive and aesthetically acceptable, in situ technology to remediate heavy metals from contaminated soils. The potential use of trees in the phytoremediation of soil has been recognized in the past decades. Thus, the potential of poplar (Populus nigra var. italica) in phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) was investigated. Aims of this study were to explore the cadmium phytoextraction ability of poplar, the accumulation and distribution of cadmium in different plant parts (leaf, stem, root), the potential role of polyphenolic compounds and the activity of enzyme phenylalanine-ammonium liase (PAL) in response to plant stress caused by the accumulation of different cadmium amounts. During 55 days long growing period soil was treated with different amount of cadmium (w= 10, 25, 50 mg kg-1 soil). The accumulation of cadmium and the distribution in different parts of poplar (leaf, stem, root) were explored (Figure 1). Total cadmium accumulation in plant biomass increased with the increasement in cadmium concentration in soil. Cadmium distribution in poplar decreased in the order: root > stem > leaf. In order to evaluate phytoextraction ability of poplar, the bioaccumulation factor (BF) and the translocation factor (TF) were calculated (Figure 2 and 3). Certain BF values indicate increased accumulation ability of poplar up to 25 mg Cd kg-1 soil (Figure 2). TF values indicate specific tolerance for cadmium concentration up to 10 mg kg-1 soil (Figure 3). Further, in order to evaluate potential of polyphenolic compounds in plant response to stress caused by exposure to different concentration of cadmium, total polyphenol content in poplar leaves was analysed as well as activity of antioxidant enzyme phenylalanine-ammonium liase (PAL). Total polyphenol content in poplar treated with 10 mg Cd kg-1 soil and 25 mg Cd kg-1 soil increased compared to the control (Figure 4). Furthermore, phenylalanine-ammonium liase (PAL) activity increased only in poplar treated with 10 mg Cd kg-1 soil compared to the control (Figure 5). Observed higher total polyphenol content is connected with increased phenylalanine-ammonium liase (PAL) activity and de novo polyphenol synthesis in plant during the stress caused by exposure to cadmium. Results indicate that the tested poplar (Populus nigra var. italica) can be considered as a species with potential for phytoextraction of cadmium from polluted soil. Furthermore, antioxidant enzymes and polyphenolic compounds in poplar have the important role in the defence from oxidative stress caused by exposure to cadmium.
“One health” – detection and surveillance of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses in Croatia [Pristup “Jedno zdravlje” – primjer pojave, praćenja i nadzora emergentnih i re-emergentnih arbovirusa u Republici Hrvatskoj]
Barbic L.,University of Zagreb |
Vilibic-Cavlek T.,Hrvatski zavod za javno zdravstvo |
Stevanovic V.,University of Zagreb |
Savic V.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute |
And 9 more authors.
Infektoloski Glasnik | Year: 2015
Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases have increased in incidence over the last several decades and represent a significant threat to global health. The vast majority of emerging pathogens are zoonotic, especially arthropod-borne ones. Increase in the number of outbreaks and geographical range of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses will continue because their emergence is driven by factors resulting from changes in modern lifestyle. These complex and rapidly changing interactions of humans, animals and environment highlighted the need for integrated approach to public health protection under the "One Health" initiative. Recently confirmed autochthonous human cases of dengue virus, West Nile virus and Usutu virus infections have drawn attention to change of epidemiological situation in our country. Detection and the introduction of surveillance program for these diseases point out the importance and efficiency of multidisciplinary collaboration. Enforcing the introduction of "One Health" approach in the everyday work is the obligation of all involved professions and the warranty of successful prevention and public health protection in modern world. © 2015, University Hospital of Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.
Savic V.,Hrvatski veterinarski institute
Medicus | Year: 2011
Although influenza A viruses have been isolated from a variety of birds and mammals, their natural hosts include wild waterfowl, gulls and related birds. Other species which are infected with influenza A viruses, particularly chickens, turkeys, swine, horses, and humans, are considered aberrant hosts. The vast majority of influenza A viruses are fully adapted to water birds in which the infection causes no symptoms and the viruses in these hosts are in evolutionary stasis. On the other hand, a rapid evolution in aberrant hosts is attributed to selection pressure due to the viral adaptation to a new host. Such adaptation can result in high virulence for the new host, and sometimes even for other species.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in cows with mastitis, the presence of the mecA gene and the gene for virulence [Meticilin-rezistentni Staphylococcus aureus kod krava s mastitisom, prisutnost mecA gena i gena za virulenciju]
Jaki Tkalec V.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute |
Majnaric D.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute |
Jurmanovic J.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute |
Habrun B.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute |
And 3 more authors.
Mljekarstvo | Year: 2015
The physiological properties of 47 Staphylococcus aureus strains were investigated. The test strains were grown on bacteriological media and identified by the ID32 STAF system for biochemical identification of bacteria. Sensitivity to antimicrobial agents was performed by the disc diffusion method. The nuc gene and the virulence factors coa, hla, hlb, hld, hlg, hlg-2, tst, eta, etb, lukF-PV and lukS-PV and mecA gene were detected by the polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the spa type of the studied isolates was also set. According to the obtained results, all strains had the nuc, coa, hla and hld gene. Ten strains (21.3 %) had also the tst gene, while 37 strains (78.7 %) had the hlg gene and 35 strains (74.5 %) had the hlb and hlg-2 genes. All of the investigated S. aureus isolates were penicillin resistant (100 %), with 29 strains which were also resistant to oxacillin (61.7 %). Methicillin (oxacillin) resistance was detected by the mecA gene detection, which is also the first MRSA result from the secretion samples of cows’ mammary glands in Croatia. The researched MRSA strains proved to belong to different spa types, and the most common were spa types t005, t011 and t521, and a new spa type t9498 was detected. © 2015, Hrvatska Mljekarska Udruga. All rights reserved.