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Križevci, Croatia

Vodopija R.,Nastavni zavod za javno zdravstvo | Tesic V.,Nastavni zavod za javno zdravstvo | Kosanovic Licina M.L.,Nastavni zavod za javno zdravstvo | Bedekovic T.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute | Sucec I.,Ministarstvo poljoprivrede
Infektoloski Glasnik | Year: 2014

Rabies is an absolutely deadly disease, regardless of the few documented cases of survival, lately reported in the literature. Due to its deadly rate of 55 000 estimated deaths annually, rabies virus is eight among the world's most deadly viruses. Having this in mind, rabies is still a major public health problem in less developed countries of Africa and Asia. Without well organized help of local communities, financial support of governmental or other institutions, and cooperation between human and veterinarian medicine, this number will not begin to decrease. The last case of human rabies in the Republic of Croatia was registered 50 years ago, in 1964. Apart from this, there were two imported human rabies cases reported in the Republic of Croatia, both from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The first one in 1989, and the second in 1995. The Reference Centre (RC) for Rabies is performing numerous activities in the area of human rabies protection, and therefore cooperates with many veteri-Croatian Journal of Infection 34:3, 117–132 (2014) nary organizations, facilities and institutions and is supervising the antirabies activities of county public health institutes in the Republic of Croatia. The employees of the RC are included in numerous professional, teaching and educational activities. In the period from 2008 to 2013 in the Republic of Croatia, a total of 32 697 persons were examined after being in contact with various types of animals, of whom 9 368 (28,6%) received post-exposure rabies prophylaxis (PEP) after being bitten, scratched, having contact with saliva against broken skin or mucous membranes or having contact with domestic or wild rabid or suspect rabid animal or having contact with contaminated material (such as fox bait with oral rabies vaccine /ORV/). Out of this number, 8 668 persons received PEP with antirabies vaccine only, while 700 persons received PEP with antirabies vaccine and human rabies immune globulin. At the Dr. Andrija Štampar Institute of Public Health, as part of the Reference Centre for Rabies, an Antirabies Clinic has been established. Apart from cooperating with veterinary organizations, the medical team in this ambulance is performing physical examination of bitten patients, collects and records data in the register, keeps and issues patient medical documentation, and performs PEP according to indications. In the period from 2008 to 2013, there were 3 690 examined patients (2 094 male and 1596 female) at Antirabies Clinic, of whom 961 persons (555 male and 406 female) received PEP based on medical indications. These data refer only to the region of the city of Zagreb. Patients who came to the Zagreb Antirabies Clinic from the Zagreb county were not included in this report because they were referred to our Clinic directly by the county epidemiologists.

Civljak R.,Klinika za infektivne bolesti Dr. Fran Mihaljevic | Dakovic-Rode O.,Klinika za infektivne bolesti Dr. Fran Mihaljevic | Jemersic L.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute | Topic A.,Klinika za infektivne bolesti Dr. Fran Mihaljevic | And 3 more authors.
Infektoloski Glasnik | Year: 2013

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a global pathogen that causes epidemic and sporadic cases of acute hepatitis in Asia and Africa. However, recently, sporadic cases have been recorded in European countries as well. In November 2012, a 62- year-old patient was admitted with suspicion of bacterial pneumonia. The disease started two weeks prior to admission with fever and respiratory symptoms. The regression of symptoms was noted during outpatient treatment with cefuroxime- axetil. On the sixth day of treatment a rash appeared and the patient was admitted to our hospital. On admission, he was icteric, with an erythematous macular rash on the trunk. Laboratory tests found moderately elevated inflammatory parameters with hyperbilirubinemia and elevated liver enzymes. On chest X-ray extensive interstitial pulmonary infiltration was recorded. Serological and molecular diagnostics confirmed acute HEV-infection. Serological diagnostics on microorganisms of atypical pneumonia suggested possible simultaneous C. pneumoniae infection. Symptomatic treatment achieved a complete cure with normalization of laboratory tests after three months follow-up, without any complications. In this paper, we presented a case of an icteric form of acute hepatitis E in a patient from Zagreb who didn' travel abroad, therefore according to avaliable literature, this is the first described case of autochthotonous hepatitis E in Croatia. During the course of the disease the patient developed a rash and pneumonic infiltration the etiology of which could not be clearly defined. In patients with clinical feature of acute viral hepatitis after exclusion of hepatitis A, B, C and EBV and CMV infections, diagnostic on HEV should be conducted.

Pandak N.,Opca bolnica Dr. Josip Bencevic | Pem-Novoesl I.,Hrvatski zavod za javno zdravstvo | Cabraja I.,Opca bolnica Dr. Josip Bencevic | Miklausic B.,Opca bolnica Dr. Josip Bencevic | And 3 more authors.
Infektoloski Glasnik | Year: 2015

Although we have been familiar with the West Nile virus (WNV) for the last 80 years more intense research has been conducted in the past fifteen years, just after the huge central nervous system infection outbreak. WNV is a member of the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavvirus. Though WNV consists of a single serotype, genetically it can be divided in at least eight lineages where lineages 1, 2 and 5 are medically the most important ones. The virus originated from Africa and spread worldwide. Birds are natural reservoirs of the virus and mosquitoes are their vectors. The most usual transmission to humans is the mosquito bite but the virus can also be transmitted via blood transfusion or solid organ transplantation. After 3 –14 days of the incubation period, usually an asymptomatic or mild febrile disease occurs while a neuroinvasive disease develops in a rather small number of patients. Symptomatic therapy is the basis for treatment, however prolonged recovery and neurological sequalae are sometimes seen as well. © 2015, University Hospital of Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

Vilibic-Cavlek T.,Hrvatski zavod za javno zdravstvo | Savic V.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute | Klobucar A.,Nastavni zavod za javno zdravstvo Andrija Stampar | Pem-Novosel I.,Hrvatski zavod za javno zdravstvo | And 5 more authors.
Infektoloski Glasnik | Year: 2015

Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases have increased in incidence over the last several decades and represent a significant threat to global health. The vast majority of emerging pathogens are zoonotic, especially arthropod-borne ones. Increase in the number of outbreaks and geographical range of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses will continue because their emergence is driven by factors resulting from changes in modern lifestyle. These complex and rapidly changing interactions of humans, animals and environment highlighted the need for integrated approach to public health protection under the "One Health" initiative. Recently confirmed autochthonous human cases of dengue virus, West Nile virus and Usutu virus infections have drawn attention to change of epidemiological situation in our country. Detection and the introduction of surveillance program for these diseases point out the importance and efficiency of multidisciplinary collaboration. Enforcing the introduction of "One Health" approach in the everyday work is the obligation of all involved professions and the warranty of successful prevention and public health protection in modern world. © 2015, University Hospital of Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

Jaki Tkalec V.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute | Majnaric D.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute | Jurmanovic J.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute | Habrun B.,Hrvatski veterinarski Institute | And 3 more authors.
Mljekarstvo | Year: 2015

The physiological properties of 47 Staphylococcus aureus strains were investigated. The test strains were grown on bacteriological media and identified by the ID32 STAF system for biochemical identification of bacteria. Sensitivity to antimicrobial agents was performed by the disc diffusion method. The nuc gene and the virulence factors coa, hla, hlb, hld, hlg, hlg-2, tst, eta, etb, lukF-PV and lukS-PV and mecA gene were detected by the polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the spa type of the studied isolates was also set. According to the obtained results, all strains had the nuc, coa, hla and hld gene. Ten strains (21.3 %) had also the tst gene, while 37 strains (78.7 %) had the hlg gene and 35 strains (74.5 %) had the hlb and hlg-2 genes. All of the investigated S. aureus isolates were penicillin resistant (100 %), with 29 strains which were also resistant to oxacillin (61.7 %). Methicillin (oxacillin) resistance was detected by the mecA gene detection, which is also the first MRSA result from the secretion samples of cows’ mammary glands in Croatia. The researched MRSA strains proved to belong to different spa types, and the most common were spa types t005, t011 and t521, and a new spa type t9498 was detected. © 2015, Hrvatska Mljekarska Udruga. All rights reserved.

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