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Yao Y.,Rockefeller University | Yao Y.,University of Minnesota | Norris E.H.,Rockefeller University | Mason C.E.,New York Medical College | And 4 more authors.
Nature Communications

Muscle-resident PDGFRβ+ cells, which include pericytes and PW1 + interstitial cells (PICs), play a dual role in muscular dystrophy. They can either undergo myogenesis to promote muscle regeneration or differentiate into adipocytes and other cells to compromise regeneration. How the differentiation and fate determination of PDGFRβ+ cells are regulated, however, remains unclear. Here, by utilizing a conditional knockout mouse line, we report that PDGFRβ+ cell-derived laminin inhibits their proliferation and adipogenesis, but is indispensable for their myogenesis. In addition, we show that laminin alone is able to partially reverse the muscle dystrophic phenotype in these mice at the molecular, structural and functional levels. Further RNAseq analysis reveals that laminin regulates PDGFRβ+ cell differentiation/fate determination via gpihbp1. These data support a critical role of laminin in the regulation of PDGFRβ+ cell stemness, identify an innovative target for future drug development and may provide an effective treatment for muscular dystrophy. © 2016, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Source

Rosenfeld J.A.,American Museum of Natural History | Rosenfeld J.A.,Rutgers University | Reeves D.,New York Medical College | Reeves D.,HRH Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Bin Abdulaziz Alsaud Institute for Computational Biomedicine | And 36 more authors.
Nature Communications

The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) has been a persistent pest of humans for thousands of years, yet the genetic basis of the bed bug's basic biology and adaptation to dense human environments is largely unknown. Here we report the assembly, annotation and phylogenetic mapping of the 697.9-Mb Cimex lectularius genome, with an N50 of 971 kb, using both long and short read technologies. A RNA-seq time course across all five developmental stages and male and female adults generated 36,985 coding and noncoding gene models. The most pronounced change in gene expression during the life cycle occurs after feeding on human blood and included genes from the Wolbachia endosymbiont, which shows a simultaneous and coordinated host/commensal response to haematophagous activity. These data provide a rich genetic resource for mapping activity and density of C. lectularius across human hosts and cities, which can help track, manage and control bed bug infestations. © 2016, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Source

Lin P.-C.,The New School | Giannopoulou E.,HRH Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Bin Abdulaziz Alsaud Institute for Computational Biomedicine | Alves P.,Yale University | Tewari A.K.,ak Center for Robotic Surgery | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Research

Androgen receptor signaling plays a critical role in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Yet, the regulation of androgen receptor signaling remains elusive. Even with stringent androgen deprivation therapy, androgen receptor signaling persists. Here, our data suggest that there is a complex interaction between the expression of the tumor suppressor miRNA, miR-31, and androgen receptor signaling. We examined primary and metastatic prostate cancer and found that miR-31 expression was reduced as a result of promoter hypermethylation, and importantly, the levels of miR-31 expression were inversely correlated with the aggressiveness of the disease. As the expression of androgen receptor and miR-31 was inversely correlated in the cell lines, our study further suggested that miR-31 and androgen receptor could mutually repress each other. Upregulation of miR-31 effectively suppressed androgen receptor expression through multiple mechanisms and inhibited prostate cancer growth in vivo. Notably, we found that miR-31 targeted androgen receptor directly at a site located in the coding region, which was commonly mutated in prostate cancer. In addition, miR-31 suppressed cell-cycle regulators including E2F1, E2F2, EXO1, FOXM1, and MCM2. Together, our findings suggest a novel androgen receptor regulatory mechanism mediated through miR-31 expression. The downregulation of miR-31 may disrupt cellular homeostasis and contribute to the evolution and progression of prostate cancer. We provide implications for epigenetic treatment and support clinical development of detecting miR-31 promoter methylation as a novel biomarker. © 2012 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

Maduro V.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Pusey B.N.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Cherukuri P.F.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Atkins P.,University of British Columbia | And 21 more authors.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases

Background: Mutations of TCF4, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) via multiple genetic mechanisms. TCF4 is a complex locus expressing multiple transcripts by alternative splicing and use of multiple promoters. To address the relationship between mutation of these transcripts and phenotype, we report a three-generation family segregating mild intellectual disability with a chromosomal translocation disrupting TCF4. Results: Using whole genome sequencing, we detected a complex unbalanced karyotype disrupting TCF4 (46,XY,del(14)(q23.3q23.3)del(18)(q21.2q21.2)del(18)(q21.2q21.2)inv(18)(q21.2q21.2)t(14;18)(q23.3;q21.2)(14pter®14q23.3::18q21.2®18q21.2::18q21.1®18qter;18pter®18q21.2::14q23.3®14qter). Subsequent transcriptome sequencing, qRT-PCR and nCounter analyses revealed that cultured skin fibroblasts and peripheral blood had normal expression of genes along chromosomes 14 or 18 and no marked changes in expression of genes other than TCF4. Affected individuals had 12-33 fold higher mRNA levels of TCF4 than did unaffected controls or individuals with PTHS. Although the derivative chromosome generated a PLEKHG3-TCF4 fusion transcript, the increased levels of TCF4 mRNA arose from transcript variants originating distal to the translocation breakpoint, not from the fusion transcript. Conclusions: Although validation in additional patients is required, our findings suggest that the dysmorphic features and severe intellectual disability characteristic of PTHS are partially rescued by overexpression of those short TCF4 transcripts encoding a nuclear localization signal, a transcription activation domain, and the basic helix-loop-helix domain. © 2016 Maduro et al. Source

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