HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories

Bratislava, Slovakia

HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories

Bratislava, Slovakia
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Spitalska E.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Boldis V.,HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories | Mosansky L.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Sparagano O.,Coventry University | Stanko M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8 % (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Ondriska F.,HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories | Macuhova K.,Mlynska dolina | Melicherova J.,Mlynska dolina | Reiterova K.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Helminthologia (Poland) | Year: 2013

The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of toxocariasis in Bratislava and smaller towns in western Slovakia. During 2006-2011, sand samples collected from 121 sandpits were investigated: 63 sandpits were from Bratislava City and 58 from sandpits in towns outside Bratislava (Malacky, Pezinok Stupava). In Bratislava, 27% of examined sandpits were contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs. In smaller towns eggs of Toxocara spp. were found from three sandpits (6.8 %) of Pezinok and Stupava only. In Malacky, no faeces and no eggs were found in any sandpits. Faecal samples of 1436 dogs and 263 cats were investigated. T. canis eggs were found in the faeces of 16.5 % dogs and T. cati in 18.6 % of examined cats. Toxocariasis of dogs was significantly higher in smaller towns such as the city Bratislava (χ2 = 10.88 for P ≤ 0.001). The difference in prevalence of T. cati in cats bred in Bratislava and outside Bratislava was not confirmed (P ≤ 0.05). 382 pregnant women were examined by ELISA. Anti-Toxocara antibodies were detected in 32 women (8.4 %). The difference in seroprevalence of women coming from Bratislava (6.6 %) and smaller towns outside Bratislava (11.0 %) was not statistically significant (χ2 = 1.6; P ≤ 0.05). © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.


Spitalska E.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Boldis V.,HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories | Derdakova M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Selyemova D.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Rusnakova Taragelova V.,Slovak Academy of Sciences
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases | Year: 2014

A total of 1810 Ixodes ricinus ticks was collected from the vegetation from 2 different habitat types: urban and natural. Urban habitats were represented by cemeteries and public parks in the following towns: Bratislava, Malacky, and Martin at 150. m and 400. m above sea level. Natural habitats were selected in the mountain forest of the Martinské hole Mts. in Central Slovakia at 3 different altitudinal levels, i.e. 600. m, 800. m and 1000. m. a.s.l. All ticks were tested for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae. The DNA of Rickettsia spp. was identified in 9% of all tested ticks. Rickettsia-infected ticks were present in both, urban and sylvatic sites at all studied altitudes. Four different species of Rickettsia were present in positive I. ricinus ticks. Rickettsia helvetica was identified in 77 out of 87 Rickettsia-positive I. ricinus ticks, followed by 8 samples that belonged to Rickettsia monacensis and 2 of the positive ticks were infected with different unidentified Rickettsia spp. Due to the association of R. helvetica and R. monacensis with human infections, it is essential to understand which species of Rickettsia circulate in the natural foci of Slovakia. Circulation of pathogenic rickettsiae in urban as well as natural habitats at different altitudinal levels in Slovakia emphasizes that infection risk is very common throughout this Central European country. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


Svehlova A.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Berthova L.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Sallay B.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Boldis V.,HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases | Year: 2014

Vojka nad Dunajom in the south-west of the Slovak Republic is a locality with sympatric occurrence of 3 species of ticks. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus, Ixodes ricinus, and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks in this area and determined the prevalence of Babesia and Rickettsia species in questing adults of these tick species considered as potential risk for humans and animals. Ticks were collected by blanket dragging over the vegetation from September 2011 to October 2012. All ticks were subjected to DNA extraction and individually assayed with PCR-based methods targeting the gltA, sca4, 23S rRNA genes of Rickettsia spp. and the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp.D. reticulatus was the dominant species occurring in this area (67.7%, n= 600), followed by I. ricinus (31.8%, n= 282) and H. concinna (0.5%, n= 4) ticks. Rickettsial infection was determined in 10.8% (n= 65) and 11.7% (n= 33) of D. reticulatus and I. ricinus ticks, respectively. Babesia spp. infection was confirmed in 1.8% (n= 11) of D. reticulatus and 0.4% (n= 1) of I. ricinus ticks. DNA of 6 different pathogenic tick-borne species, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii, Babesia canis, and Babesia venatorum were identified in this locality with sympatric occurrence of I. ricinus, D. reticulatus, and H. concinna ticks. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.


Spitalska E.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Stefanidesova K.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Kocianova E.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Boldis V.,HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2012

Rickettsiae, obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, responsible for mild to severe diseases in humans are associated with arthropod vectors. Dermacentor marginatus and Dermacentor reticulatus are known vectors of Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii distributed across Europe. A total of 794 D. marginatus, D. reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus adult ticks were collected from the vegetation, removed from horses, sheep, goats and dogs in Slovakia. The DNA of Rickettsia sp. was found in 229 ticks by PCR amplifying parts of gltA, ompA and sca4 genes. Next analyses of Rickettsia-positive samples by PCR-RFLP and/or sequencing showed D. reticulatus ticks were more infected with R. raoultii and D. marginatus were more infected with R. slovaca. The prevalence of R. raoultii was 8.1-8.6% and 22.3-27% in D. marginatus and D. reticulatus, respectively. The prevalence of R. slovaca was 20.6-24.3% in D. marginatus and 1.7-3.4% in D. reticulatus. Intracellular growth of R. raoultii isolate from D. marginatus tick was evaluated by rOmpA-based quantitative SybrGreen PCR assay. The highest point of multiplication was recorded on the 7th and 8th day postinfection in Vero and L929 cells, respectively. R. raoultii was transmitted during feeding of R. raoultii-positive ticks to guinea pigs and subsequently rickettsial infection was recorded in all organs, the highest infection was in spleen, liver and heart. Our study describes the detection and isolation of tick-borne pathogens R. raoultii and R. slovaca, show that they are spread in Slovakia and highlight their risk for humans. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


PubMed | HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories and Slovak Academy of Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ticks and tick-borne diseases | Year: 2014

A total of 1810 Ixodes ricinus ticks was collected from the vegetation from 2 different habitat types: urban and natural. Urban habitats were represented by cemeteries and public parks in the following towns: Bratislava, Malacky, and Martin at 150 m and 400 m above sea level. Natural habitats were selected in the mountain forest of the Martinsk hole Mts. in Central Slovakia at 3 different altitudinal levels, i.e. 600 m, 800 m and 1000 ma.s.l. All ticks were tested for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae. The DNA of Rickettsia spp. was identified in 9% of all tested ticks. Rickettsia-infected ticks were present in both, urban and sylvatic sites at all studied altitudes. Four different species of Rickettsia were present in positive I. ricinus ticks. Rickettsia helvetica was identified in 77 out of 87 Rickettsia-positive I. ricinus ticks, followed by 8 samples that belonged to Rickettsia monacensis and 2 of the positive ticks were infected with different unidentified Rickettsia spp. Due to the association of R. helvetica and R. monacensis with human infections, it is essential to understand which species of Rickettsia circulate in the natural foci of Slovakia. Circulation of pathogenic rickettsiae in urban as well as natural habitats at different altitudinal levels in Slovakia emphasizes that infection risk is very common throughout this Central European country.


PubMed | HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories, Slovak Academy of Sciences and Coventry University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology research | Year: 2015

Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Koice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia.


PubMed | HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories, Slovak Academy of Sciences and Northumbria University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ticks and tick-borne diseases | Year: 2014

Vojka nad Dunajom in the south-west of the Slovak Republic is a locality with sympatric occurrence of 3 species of ticks. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus, Ixodes ricinus, and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks in this area and determined the prevalence of Babesia and Rickettsia species in questing adults of these tick species considered as potential risk for humans and animals. Ticks were collected by blanket dragging over the vegetation from September 2011 to October 2012. All ticks were subjected to DNA extraction and individually assayed with PCR-based methods targeting the gltA, sca4, 23S rRNA genes of Rickettsia spp. and the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. D. reticulatus was the dominant species occurring in this area (67.7%, n=600), followed by I. ricinus (31.8%, n=282) and H. concinna (0.5%, n=4) ticks. Rickettsial infection was determined in 10.8% (n=65) and 11.7% (n=33) of D. reticulatus and I. ricinus ticks, respectively. Babesia spp. infection was confirmed in 1.8% (n=11) of D. reticulatus and 0.4% (n=1) of I. ricinus ticks. DNA of 6 different pathogenic tick-borne species, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii, Babesia canis, and Babesia venatorum were identified in this locality with sympatric occurrence of I. ricinus, D. reticulatus, and H. concinna ticks.


PubMed | HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories and Slovak Academy of Sciences
Type: | Journal: Experimental parasitology | Year: 2015

Human toxocarosis is an important zoonosis caused by larvae of Toxocara canis/cati. The objective was to evaluate the role of IgG anti-Toxocara antibody detection and the specific IgG avidity in diagnostics of human toxocarosis. Anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies and IgG avidity were evaluated by excretory-secretory (ES)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The IgG anti-Toxocara seroprevalence in people (n=7678) from western Slovakia was 15.3% and found to be highest in the oldest age groups. The presence of low- IgG avidity in 179 suspected patients for toxocarosis was evaluated in relation to sex, age, IgG antibody levels, eosinophilia, increased total IgE, domicile, geophagia, dog/cat ownership, anamnesis. Low- IgG avidity index was found in 30.7% of the patients. The low- IgG avidity in eosinophilic group (42.1%) was significantly higher than in non-eosinophilic group (22.0%; P=0.043). Substantially higher eosinophilia was detected in children (under 10 years old; 55.6%) than in adults (aged41 years; 17.6%; P=0.009). Significant difference between seroprevalence of total IgE in patients coming from towns (48.8%) and patients from villages (21.3%) was established (P=0.007). Mild negative correlation (r=-0.477, P=0.043) was observed between the amounts of eosinophils and the values of IgG avidity. The sensitivity and specificity of IgG avidity assay were 43.8% and 83.3%, respectively. Our results suggest that besides anti-Toxocara IgG, measurement of IgG avidity may be useful for the determination of acute toxocarosis. Moreover, these tests should be accompanied by other immunological markers and determinants of examined patients such as eosinophilia, increased total IgE and age.


PubMed | HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Folia microbiologica | Year: 2012

Cryptosporidiosis belongs to the important parasitic infections with zoonotic potential and the occurrence in European countries is rare. The first cases of cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium hominis detected in the Slovak republic were described here. Collection of examined humans consisted of five family members. Faecal specimens were examined by formalin sedimentation, by the Sheathers sugar flotation and by immunochromatography and visualised by the Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stain. A fragment of the Cryptosporidium small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and species was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with the endonucleases SspI and VspI. C. hominis was found in faeces of two immunocompetent siblings (a 7-year-old boy and a 2-year-old girl). The symptoms occurred only in the boy as gastrointestinal disorders lasting 5 days, and manifested by abdominal pain, an elevated body temperature (37.2 C), mild diarrhoea, accompanied by lassitude, depression and anorexia. Ultrasonic scan revealed enlarged spleen and mezenteric lymph nodes. Microscopic examination of the stool sample revealed numerous Cryptosporidium oocysts. The DNA typing identified C. hominis subtype IbA10G2. Cryptosporidium was also detected in the boys sister without any complications and symptoms. Their father, mother and grandmother were parasitologically negative. The source of infection remained unknown. Human cases in present study reflect necessity of systematic attention on intestinal parasites diagnostic inclusive of cryptosporidia.

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