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Bratislava, Slovakia

Ondriska F.,HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories | Macuhova K.,Mlynska dolina | Melicherova J.,Mlynska dolina | Reiterova K.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Helminthologia (Poland) | Year: 2013

The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of toxocariasis in Bratislava and smaller towns in western Slovakia. During 2006-2011, sand samples collected from 121 sandpits were investigated: 63 sandpits were from Bratislava City and 58 from sandpits in towns outside Bratislava (Malacky, Pezinok Stupava). In Bratislava, 27% of examined sandpits were contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs. In smaller towns eggs of Toxocara spp. were found from three sandpits (6.8 %) of Pezinok and Stupava only. In Malacky, no faeces and no eggs were found in any sandpits. Faecal samples of 1436 dogs and 263 cats were investigated. T. canis eggs were found in the faeces of 16.5 % dogs and T. cati in 18.6 % of examined cats. Toxocariasis of dogs was significantly higher in smaller towns such as the city Bratislava (χ2 = 10.88 for P ≤ 0.001). The difference in prevalence of T. cati in cats bred in Bratislava and outside Bratislava was not confirmed (P ≤ 0.05). 382 pregnant women were examined by ELISA. Anti-Toxocara antibodies were detected in 32 women (8.4 %). The difference in seroprevalence of women coming from Bratislava (6.6 %) and smaller towns outside Bratislava (11.0 %) was not statistically significant (χ2 = 1.6; P ≤ 0.05). © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

Boldis V.,HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories | Ondriska F.,HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories | Kovac L.,HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories | Nohynkova E.,Charles University | Spitalska E.,Slovak Academy of Sciences
Biologia (Poland) | Year: 2013

In the past, Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly P. carinii) belonged to the Protozoa group, but the studies on structure of the cell wall and nucleotide sequence resulted in the reclassification of this organism in the kingdom Fungi. P. jiroveci is an opportunistic pathogen, responsible for pneumocystis pneumonia with frequent complications of immunocompromised patients. Delayed initiation of appropriate therapy increases the risk of death in immunocompromised patient. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of P. jiroveci from patients suspected of having respiratory tract infections in southwestern Slovakia over a 10-year period. Due to the increasing number of immunosuppressed persons, the diagnostic of P. jiroveci in patients with pulmonary complications is essential to improve recovery onsets. Effective diagnosis is currently based on microscopic examination and detection of parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and induced sputum. In total, 386 clinical samples originated from patients suspected of pneumocystis infection were tested within ten years. Requirements for diagnosis of the pathogen were growing during the period. Three hundred and sixteen BALs, 59 induced sputa, 10 lung biopsies and 1 liquor were subjected to the detection of P. jiroveci. P. jiroveci DNA was detected in 30 patients using PCR, but cysts of microorganism were present only in 4 cases by microscopy. The pathogen was confirmed in 24 BALs and 6 sputa samples. The presence of P. jiroveci has been demonstrated mainly in immunocompromised individuals with cancer (20), but also in patients with pneumonia (6+1 HIV), with unspecified parasitic diseases (1+1HIV) and with systemic lupus erythematosus (1). © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

Svehlova A.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Berthova L.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Sallay B.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Boldis V.,HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases | Year: 2014

Vojka nad Dunajom in the south-west of the Slovak Republic is a locality with sympatric occurrence of 3 species of ticks. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus, Ixodes ricinus, and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks in this area and determined the prevalence of Babesia and Rickettsia species in questing adults of these tick species considered as potential risk for humans and animals. Ticks were collected by blanket dragging over the vegetation from September 2011 to October 2012. All ticks were subjected to DNA extraction and individually assayed with PCR-based methods targeting the gltA, sca4, 23S rRNA genes of Rickettsia spp. and the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp.D. reticulatus was the dominant species occurring in this area (67.7%, n= 600), followed by I. ricinus (31.8%, n= 282) and H. concinna (0.5%, n= 4) ticks. Rickettsial infection was determined in 10.8% (n= 65) and 11.7% (n= 33) of D. reticulatus and I. ricinus ticks, respectively. Babesia spp. infection was confirmed in 1.8% (n= 11) of D. reticulatus and 0.4% (n= 1) of I. ricinus ticks. DNA of 6 different pathogenic tick-borne species, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii, Babesia canis, and Babesia venatorum were identified in this locality with sympatric occurrence of I. ricinus, D. reticulatus, and H. concinna ticks. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Spitalska E.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Boldis V.,HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories | Derdakova M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Selyemova D.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Rusnakova Taragelova V.,Slovak Academy of Sciences
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases | Year: 2014

A total of 1810 Ixodes ricinus ticks was collected from the vegetation from 2 different habitat types: urban and natural. Urban habitats were represented by cemeteries and public parks in the following towns: Bratislava, Malacky, and Martin at 150. m and 400. m above sea level. Natural habitats were selected in the mountain forest of the Martinské hole Mts. in Central Slovakia at 3 different altitudinal levels, i.e. 600. m, 800. m and 1000. m. a.s.l. All ticks were tested for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae. The DNA of Rickettsia spp. was identified in 9% of all tested ticks. Rickettsia-infected ticks were present in both, urban and sylvatic sites at all studied altitudes. Four different species of Rickettsia were present in positive I. ricinus ticks. Rickettsia helvetica was identified in 77 out of 87 Rickettsia-positive I. ricinus ticks, followed by 8 samples that belonged to Rickettsia monacensis and 2 of the positive ticks were infected with different unidentified Rickettsia spp. Due to the association of R. helvetica and R. monacensis with human infections, it is essential to understand which species of Rickettsia circulate in the natural foci of Slovakia. Circulation of pathogenic rickettsiae in urban as well as natural habitats at different altitudinal levels in Slovakia emphasizes that infection risk is very common throughout this Central European country. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Spitalska E.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Boldis V.,HPL Ltd Medical Laboratories | Mosansky L.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Sparagano O.,Coventry University | Stanko M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8 % (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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