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Chilton Foliat, United Kingdom

Cauwels V.,Belgian Nuclear Research Center | Vanhavere F.,Belgian Nuclear Research Center | Dumitrescu D.,Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant | Chirosca A.,University of Bucharest | And 4 more authors.
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2013

Near a nuclear reactor or a fuel container, mixed neutron/gamma fields are very common, necessitating routine neutron dosimetry. Accurate neutron dosimetry is complicated by the fact that the neutron effective dose is strongly dependent on the neutron energy and the direction distribution of the neutron fluence. Neutron field characterisation is indispensable if one wants to obtain a reliable estimate for the neutron dose. A measurement campaign at CANDU nuclear power plant located in Cernavoda, Romania, was set up to characterise the neutron fields in four different locations and to investigate the behaviour of different neutron personal dosemeters. This investigation intends to assist in choosing a suitable neutron dosimetry system at this nuclear power plant. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


The 12th European ALARA Network (EAN) workshop on "ALARA issues arising for safety and security of radiation sources and security screening devices" took place in Vienna (Austria) in October 2009. The aim of that workshop was to consider how the implementation of ALARA3, in terms of planned and emergency situations, involving worker and public doses, is affected by the introduction of security-related measures. In the case of new equipment and procedures, there was also the question of whether exposures arising from security screening devices can be justified and optimised. This workshop consisted of invited oral presentations, which highlighted the main issues, and half of the programme was devoted to discussions within working groups on specific topics. During their discussions, the working groups identified recommendations dealing with the following topics: the implementation of the Code of Conduct and HASS4 - ensuring ALARA; balancing security and safety - how to achieve an optimum solution; the management of an emergency exposure situation from an ALARA perspective; the justification and optimisation of the use of security devices. The objective of this paper is to present the main conclusions and recommendations produced during the workshop. Individual presentations (papers and slides) as well as the reports from the working groups are available to download on the EAN website (http://www.eu-alara.net). © 2010 EDP Sciences. Source


Watson S.,HPA | Higgins N.,HPA
Journal of Radiological Protection | Year: 2010

Advice was published in 2005 (NRPB 2005Doc.NRPB161-29) to provide a framework for the protection of on-site personnel who are not involved in mitigating actions in the event of a radiation accident. Such persons could include employees of the site operator, contractors and visitors. Following on from this advice, the HPA has developed additional on-site protection guidance (Watson et al 2007Report to HSE) (the guidance produced by Watson et al (2007) was written as a commercial contract report for the Health and Safety Executive. Parties who have relevant interest in this guidance, or who wish to comment on it, can request a copy from the HPA). The issues discussed are protection of the unborn child, measures to protect against serious deterministic injury and high individual risk of stochastic effects, implications of off-site and public exposure considerations, and development of on-site neighbouring areas. In each case particular thought is required to ensure that protective measures are efficient and do not lead to any discontinuities in the level of protection offered. Although not formal HPA advice, the new guidance is intended to aid discussions between operators and regulators. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Shaw P.V.,HPA | Crouail P.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | Bataille C.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | Ely S.Y.,HPA
Journal of Radiological Protection | Year: 2010

OTHEA is the name of a new website (www.othea.net), created by the Health Protection Agency (UK) and the Centre d'étude sur l'évaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucléaire (CEPN, France), and supported by several other stakeholders including national societies and associations. The website is bilingual (French and English) and the purpose is to share the lessons learnt from radiological incidents that have occurred in the industrial, medical, research and teaching, and other non-nuclear sectors. OTHEA contains a collection of incident reports, categorised according to the sector and the type of application, and a search facility. The reports can be freely downloaded and printed, for example for use in radiation protection training activities. To encourage dissemination, the incident reports have been made anonymous, i.e. any information that could identify a particular individual, organisation or site has been removed. Each report contains a brief summary of the incident, the radiological consequences, and the lessons learnt. The aim is not to capture every single incident, but to provide a range of reports selected according to the value of the lessons learnt. For OTHEA to be a long-term success, it needs to be sustained with new reports. Therefore users are encouraged to submit incident reports that can be considered for inclusion in OTHEA. This note summarises the background to OTHEA, and provides a description of the operating features and content at its launch in summer 2010. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Reynolds R.,Southmead Hospital | Hope R.,Public Health England | Warner M.,Public Health England | Macgowan A.P.,Southmead Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Objectives: There have been several reports of upward creep in vancomycin MICs for Staphylococcus aureus [predominantly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)] over recent years, but only in single centres or using contemporaneous results. We aimed to test the hypothesis of MIC creep in a multicentre study, testing all the isolates concurrently. Methods: Nineteen laboratories in the UK and Ireland contributed isolates from blood to the BSAC Bacteraemia Resistance Surveillance Programme every year between 2001 and 2007. MICs for 271 MRSA from these sites were re-measured at a single central laboratory during a single week by the BSAC agar dilution method, but with √2-fold instead of conventional 2-fold dilutions. Re-test results were compared with the original results obtained each year at the same central laboratory. Results: The re-test results were much less variable than the original results and avoided the confounding of experimental variation with year of collection. They demonstrated statistically significant but very slow downward trends in MICs of vancomycin and teicoplanin, at 0.027 and 0.055 doubling dilutions/year, respectively. The original results had suggested more rapid trends in MICs, upward for vancomycin and downward for teicoplanin. The proportion of EMRSA-16 fell from 21% to 9% over the study period, while EMRSA-15 rose from 76% to 85%. Conclusions: Historical data can give a misleading impression of trends in MIC values because of experimental variation between tests conducted at different times. There was no upward creep in glycopeptide MICs for MRSA in the UK and Ireland between 2001 and 2007. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source

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