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Thompson C.C.,U.S. Army | Hale P.S.,U.S. Army | Arno R.G.,HP Critical Facility Services
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2012

Since the last publication of the Gold Book, a team of engineers and statisticians has been pouring over a mountain of data through a public-private partnership. This effort has compressed equipment reliability data from 223 sites-hospitals, utility plants, universities, and the like. This paper discusses the major results of the effort, the quantity of data extracted, and the process of incorporation into the existing IEEE database. © 2011 IEEE.


Arno R.G.,HP Critical Facility Services | Stoyas E.,Power Systems Consulting | Schuerger R.,HP Critical Facility Services
IEEE Industry Applications Magazine | Year: 2011

The National Electrical Code (NEC) has a new section that was added in 2008: Article 708-Critical Operations Power Systems (COPSs). Although theNEC applies only to the United States, the methodology of evaluating risk and performing reliability analysis applies to any type of critical facility. This article will provide an overview of the requirements listed in Article 708 and present some existing technologies that can be used to fulfill the specific requirements listed in the section on risk assessment. © 2011 IEEE.


Arno R.,HP Critical Facility Services | Friedl A.,HP Critical Facility Services | Gross P.,HP Critical Facility Services | Schuerger R.J.,HP Critical Facility Services
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2012

When the concept of reliability began to formally become an integrated engineering approach in the 50s, reliability was associated with failure rate. Today the term reliability is used as an umbrella definition covering a variety of subjects including availability, durability, quality, and sometimes the function of the product. Reliability engineering was developed to quantify how reliable a component, product, or system was when used in a specific application for a specific period of time. The data center industry has come to rely on tier classifications as presented in a number of papers by the Uptime Institute as a gradient scale of data center configurations and requirements from least (Tier 1) to most reliable (Tier 4). This paper will apply the principles and modeling techniques of reliability engineering to specific examples of each of the tier classifications and discuss the results. A review of the metrics of reliability engineering being used will also be included. © 2011 IEEE.


Anthony M.,University of Michigan | Arno R.,HP Critical Facility Services | Saba P.S.,HP Critical Facility Services | Schuerger R.,HP Critical Facility Services | Beirne M.,DLB Associates
Conference Record - Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference | Year: 2011

At the request of the US Homeland Security Department in 2005 the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) developed the first leading practice criterion for building premises wiring in emergency management facilities. These criteria first appeared in the 2008 National Electrical Code (NEC) as a new section - Article 708: Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS). Article 708 establishes minimum design, commissioning and maintenance requirements for facilities with engineering documentation that identifies them as designated critical operations areas (DCOAs). One of the key features of Article 708 is the application of quantitative methods for assessing risk and conveying the results into a power system design that is scaled according to hazards present in any given emergency management district. These methods employ classical lumped parameter modeling of power chain architectures and can be applied to any type of critical facility, whether it is a stand-alone structure, or a portion of stand-alone structure, such as a police station or government center. This article will provide a risk assessment roadmap for a typical COPS facility that is most common - a "911" Call Center (the facility that takes and routes the 911 calls to the police or fire departments). The existing methods of reliability engineering will be used in the risk assessment. © 2011 IEEE.


Arno R.,HP Critical Facility Services | Friedl A.,HP Critical Facility Services | Gross P.,HP Critical Facility Services | Schuerger R.,HP Critical Facility Services
Conference Record - Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference | Year: 2010

When the concept of reliability began to formally become an integrated engineering approach in the 50's, reliability was associated with failure rate. Today the term "reliability" is used as an umbrella definition covering a variety of subjects including availability, durability, quality and sometimes the function of the product. Reliability engineering was developed to quantify "how reliable" a component, product or system was when used in a specific application for a specific period of time. The data center industry has come to rely on "tier classifications" as presented in a number of papers by the Uptime Institute [1] as a gradient scale of data center configurations and requirements from least (Tier 1) to most reliable (Tier 4). This paper will apply the principles and modeling techniques of reliability engineering to specific examples that were selected based on gradient scale provided by the Tier Classifications and discuss the results. A review of the metrics of reliability engineering being used will also be included. © IEEE 2010.


Schuerger R.,HP Critical Facility Services
Conference Record - Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference | Year: 2013

The existing standards for the proper grounding of electronic equipment were developed over 20 years ago. At the time, one of the primary concerns was the proper operation of main frame computers installed in a data center. The solution was to provide a signal reference grid and thus a 'high frequency ground' that all of the electronic equipment used as a reference. Electronic equipment in a modern data center has evolved significantly since then and its proper operation is much less dependent on the quality of the grounding system. Proper grounding continues to be very important for all facilities for the safe operation of the electrical equipment and distribution system, along with surge and lightning protection. However, modern electronic equipment will operate properly with or without the high frequency ground reference. © 2013 IEEE.


Anthony M.,University of Michigan | Arno R.,Exelis | Dowling N.,MTechnology | Schuerger R.,HP Critical Facility Services
Conference Record - Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference | Year: 2012

One of the most common questions in the early stages of designing a new facility is whether the normal utility supply to a fire pump is reliable enough to tap ahead of the main or whether the fire pump supply is so unreliable that it must have an emergency power source; typically an on-site generator. Apart from the obligation to meet life safety objectives, it is not uncommon that capital on the order of $100,000 to $ 1 million is at stake for a fire pump backup source. Until now, that decision has only been answered with intuition using a combination of utility outage history and anecdotes about what has worked before. There are processes for making the decision about whether a facility needs a second source of power using quantitative analysis. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) are two quantitative methods used in reliability engineering for assessing risk. This paper will use a simple one line for the power to a fire pump to show how each of these techniques can be used to calculate the reliability of electric power to a fire pump. The paper will also discuss the strengths and weakness of the two methods. The hope is that these methods will begin tracking in the NFPA documents that deal with fire pump power sources and can be used as another tool to inform design engineers and authorities having jurisdiction about public safety and property protection. These methods will enlighten decisions about the relative cost of risk control with quantitative information about the incremental cost of additional 9's of operational availability. © 2012 IEEE.


Schuerger B.,HP Critical Facility Services | Githu G.,HP Critical Facility Services | Arno B.,HP Critical Facility Services | Kurkjian C.,HP Critical Facility Services
ASHRAE Transactions | Year: 2012

The purpose of this paper is to provide a broader understanding of Reliability Engineering and how it can be successfully used as a tool for designing better mechanical cooling systems. We will also point out a few of the pitfalls when using reliability modeling to be avoided along the way. The use of probabilistic methods of predicting failure developed in Reliability Engineering has greatly assisted the design of reliable electrical power distribution systems for data centers. These same proven techniques have been applied to the mechanical cooling systems. A review of the metrics of Reliability Engineering will also be included. ©2012 ASHRAE.


Arno R.,HP Critical Facility Services | Githu G.,HP Critical Facility Services | Gross P.,HP Critical Facility Services | Schuerger R.,HP Critical Facility Services | Wilson S.,HP Critical Facility Services
Conference Record - IAS Annual Meeting (IEEE Industry Applications Society) | Year: 2010

This is the second paper of a series on data center design. The first paper "Reliability of Example Data Center Designs Selected by Tier Classifications," presented at the 2010 I&CPS Conference addressed electrical designs. This paper will discuss the reliability of the mechanical cooling systems that would be required for data centers with similar designs to the examples used in the previous paper. The review of the metrics of reliability engineering from the first paper will also be included. The data center industry has come to rely on "tier classifications" as presented in a number of papers by the Uptime Institute [1] as a gradient scale of data center configurations and requirements from least (Tier 1) to most reliable (Tier IV). This paper will apply the principles and modeling techniques of reliability engineering to specific examples that were selected based on gradient scale provided by the Tier Classifications and discuss the results. © 2010 IEEE.

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