Howard University is a federally chartered, private, coeducational, nonsectarian, historically black university located in Washington, D.C., United States. It has a Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education status of RU/H: Research Universities .From its outset it has been nonsectarian and open to people of both sexes and all races. In addition to the undergraduate program, Howard has graduate schools of business, pharmacy, law, social work, medicine, dentistry and divinity. Wikipedia.
Millis R.M.,Howard University
Current Hypertension Reports | Year: 2011
Epigenetics refers to mechanisms for environment-gene interactions (mainly by methylation of DNA and modification of histones) that do not alter the underlying base sequence of the gene. This article reviews evidence for epigenetic contributions to hypertension. For example, DNA methylation at CpG islands and histone acetylation pathways are known to limit nephron development, thereby unmasking hypertension associated with exposure to a high-salt diet. Maternal water deprivation and protein deficiency are shown to increase expression of renin-angiotensin system genes in the offspring. The methylation pattern of a serine protease inhibitor gene in human placentas is shown to be a marker for preeclampsia-associated hypertension. Mental stress induces phenylethanolamine n-methyltransferase, which may act as a DNA methylase and mimic the gene-silencing effects of methyl CpG binding protein-2 on the norepinephrine transporter gene, which, in turn, may exaggerate autonomic responsiveness. A disrupter of telomeric silencing (Dot1) is known to modulate the expression of a connective-tissue growth-factor gene associated with blood vessel remodeling, which could alter vascular compliance and elastance. Dot1a also interacts with the Af9 gene to produce high sodium channel permeability and silences the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-11β2 gene, thereby preventing metabolism of cortisol to cortisone and overstimulating aldosterone receptors. These findings indicate targets for environment-gene interactions in various hypertensive states and in essential hypertension. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Carter E.L.,Howard University
Perspectives in health information management / AHIMA, American Health Information Management Association | Year: 2011
This article describes the design and implementation of an online diabetes self-management intervention for a sample of inner-city African Americans with diabetes. Study participants were randomly assigned to the treatment (26) and control (21) conditions. The results indicate that treatment group participants were more likely to achieve positive outcomes in terms of lowered hemoglobin A1c and body mass index measurements than were control group members. These findings support the development of telehealth interventions to promote effective chronic disease management in medically underserved communities.
Kalu N.,Howard University
Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research | Year: 2012
Level of response (LR) to alcohol has been shown to be associated with the risk of developing alcohol dependence and can be measured using the self-rating of the effects of alcohol (SRE) questionnaire. This study examined the heritability of the SRE-measured LR and the relationship between LR and recent alcohol drinking history (RDH) in a predominantly African American nonalcohol-dependent population. This was a sibling study of 101 social drinkers aged 21 to 35 years recruited from the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Participants were administered the SRE to assess LR and the timeline followback (TLFB) to assess RDH. The indices of SRE used were total SRE score (SRTT), early drinking SRE score (SRED), regular drinking SRE score (SRRD), and heavy drinking SRE score (SRHD). Pearson's product-moment correlation and linear regression were used to analyze SRE indices and RDH variables (quantity and drinks per drinking occasion). Heritability analysis was conducted using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR) software with SRE indices as traits of interest. There was a significant relationship between SRE and RDH measures. Drinks per drinking day, maximum drinks, and quantity of drinks were significantly associated with SRTT, SRHD, and SRRD (all p < 0.05). SRTT showed significant heritability (h(2) = 0.67, p = 0.025), however, the SRE subindices (SRED, SRRD, SRHD) were not significantly heritable. Analysis performed in the subset consisting of only African Americans (n = 86) showed similar trends. LR, as measured by the SRE, is associated with RDH. The high level of heritability of the SRE total score suggests that genetics accounts for a significant proportion of the variation in the LR to alcohol in social drinkers. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Laiyemo A.O.,Howard University
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2014
Increasing body fatness has been associated with an increased burden from colorectal cancer. An increased susceptibility spanning the entire continuum from precancerous adenomatous polyps to the development of colorectal cancer, poor outcome with treatment, and reduced survival when compared to those with normal body weight has been described. It is unknown which age period and which degree and duration of excess weight are associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. It is uncertain whether weight loss can reverse this risk. If it can, how long will the new lower or normal weight be maintained to effect enduring risk reduction? Furthermore, it is controversial whether the increased burden of colorectal cancer warrants earlier and/or more frequent screening for obese persons. This article reviews the relationship between obesity and colorectal neoplasia, explores the postulated mechanism of carcinogenesis, discusses interventions to reduce the burden of disease, and suggests future directions of research. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ricks-Santi L.,Howard University
The Prostate | Year: 2010
BACKGROUND: p53 is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle, DNA repair, and apoptosis. A variant at codon 72, rs1042522, results in altered activities for p53 and is, notably, differentially distributed among different ethnic populations. However, associations of this variant with cancer in men of African descent have not been explored. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that rs1042522 was associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP methods in a study population of African descent consisting of 266 PCa patients and 196 male controls. RESULTS: Our results indicate that the p53 polymorphism may be associated with increased risk of PCa. Genotypes were significantly and marginally associated with PCa risk using the dominant and log-additive genetic models (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.02-2.29, P=0.04; OR=1.33, 95% CI: 0.99-1.78, P=0.06, respectively). After adjusting for age, the associations with PCa remained, but results were not statistically significant (OR=1.48, 95% CI: 0.95-2.31, P=0.08; OR=1.30, 95% CI: 0.95-1.80, P=0.10, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that population-dependent differences in allele frequencies associated with health disparities provide a valuable framework for the interrogation of complex diseases in all populations. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.