PubMed | Houston Methodist Hospital Houston, Cornell College and Emory University
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: International journal of clinical and experimental pathology | Year: 2014
Breast carcinoma in situ (CIS) is classified into ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). DCIS is treated with surgical excision while LCIS can be clinically followed with or without hormonal treatment. Thus, it is critical to distinguish DCIS from LCIS. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for E-cadherin is routinely used to differentiate DCIS from LCIS in diagnostically challenging cases. Circumferential diffuse membranous staining of E-cadherin is the typical pattern in DCIS, whereas LCIS lacks or shows decreased E-cadherin expression. Recent studies have shown that DCIS has membranous staining of P120 catenin and LCIS has diffuse cytoplasmic staining of P120 catenin. We developed a cocktail composed of E-cadherin and P120 catenin primary antibodies so that only one slide is needed for the double immunostains.Twenty-seven blocks of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from 26 cases of DCIS or LCIS were retrieved from the archives of Houston Methodist Hospital. Four consecutive sections from the same blocks were used for H&E and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains. The E-cadherin antibody was a rabbit polyclonal antibody and the P120 catenin antibody was a mouse monoclonal antibody. The E-cadherin primary antibody was detected using a secondary antibody raised against rabbit antibody and was visualized with a brown color. The P120 catenin primary antibody was detected using a secondary antibody raised against mouse antibody and was visualized with a red color.Using individual antibodies, 15 of 15 DCIS lesions had diffuse circumferential membranous E-cadherin staining (brown stain) or P120 catenin staining (red stain). All 12 LCIS cases showed cytoplasmic P120 red staining or loss of E-cadherin staining when the single P120 catenin or E-cadherin antibody was used. When stained with the antibody cocktail, all 15 DCIS samples showed diffuse red and brown membranous staining without cytoplasmic stain; all 12 LCIS samples showed diffuse cytoplasmic red staining for P120 catenin but no membranous staining for E-cadherin.1. This antibody cocktail can be applied in daily practice on paraffin-embedded tissue and is especially useful in small biopsies with small foci of CIS lesions. 2. Immunohistochemical staining with the antibody cocktail showed 100% concordance with the traditional single antibody immunostaining using either E-cadherin or P120 catenin antibody. 3. Our antibody cocktail includes E-cadherin as a positive membranous stain for DCIS and P120 catenin as a positive cytoplasmic stain for LCIS, which may enhance accuracy and confidence in the differential diagnoses.
Postoperative antimicrobials after lung transplantation and the development of multidrug-resistant bacterial and Clostridium difficile infections: An analysis of 500 non-cystic fibrosis lung transplant patients
Whiddon A.R.,Houston Methodist Hospital Houston |
Dawson K.L.,Houston Methodist Hospital Houston |
Fuentes A.,Chi St Lukes Health Baylor St Lukes Medical Center Houston |
Perez K.K.,Methodist Hospital Research Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Clinical Transplantation | Year: 2016
Background: Broad-spectrum antimicrobials are given prophylactically post-transplant, although these agents are a risk factor for multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). This study aimed to determine whether an association exists between the duration of antimicrobials given early post-transplant and the development of MDR infections or CDI. Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis was performed on lung transplants from September 2009 to August 2014. Patients were excluded for cystic fibrosis (CF) or postoperative survival less than 30 d. Qualifying infections were defined as any new positive MDR bacterial culture or C. difficile assay from postoperative day 7-90 d after a broad-spectrum antimicrobial. Results: A total of 500 patients, 61% male, were identified, median age of 62 yr. MDR infections occurred in 169 (34%) and CDI in 31 (6%). Non-ICU days were associated with a decreased risk of MDR/CDI (OR 0.891, p = 0.0002), and duration of Gram-positive antimicrobials (OR 1.073, p = 0.0219) was associated with an increased risk. Conclusions: One-third (34%) of non-CF lung transplants develop MDR infections and 6% develop CDI within 90 d of postoperative antimicrobials. The duration of Gram-positive antimicrobials may increase the risk of MDR/CDI, while early transfer from the ICU may have a protective effect. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
PubMed | Houston Methodist Hospital Houston, University of Houston and Baylor College of Medicine
Type: Case Reports | Journal: International journal of clinical and experimental pathology | Year: 2015
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is an uncommon tumor of young adults that typically occurs supratentorially. It is generally considered to be a low-grade, circumscribed tumor that when treated by surgical resection has a relatively favorable outcome. Cases of cerebellar PXA are rare, and those associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are even less common, with only 2 cases reported to date. We present herein a third case of PXA-NF1 with unusual features. A 33-year-old woman presented with a history of headache. Her medical and family history was significant for NF1. Brain MRI revealed a 3.4 cm ill-defined lesion with a gyriform enhancing pattern in the left cerebellum, superficially mimicking Lhermitte-Duclos disease. The patient underwent a gross total resection of the lesion and had an unremarkable postoperative course. While the lesion had histological features typical of pure PXA (WHO grade II) it had an unusual growth pattern with thickening of the superficial cerebellar folia and predominant leptomeningeal involvement. No BRAF, IDH-1, or IDH-2 mutation was identified. Three months after surgery, local recurrence was detected, and the patient was treated with radiation therapy. One year after the first surgery, she underwent surgical resection of the recurrent/residual tumor. Histologically, the recurrent tumor showed very similar features to the initially resected tumor, with no anaplastic features. Most cerebellar PXAs have an indolent clinical behavior as do most cerebral PXAs. Whether co-existence of NF1 was a factor in altering the clinical course and biologic behavior of this patients tumor is currently unknown.
PubMed | Anderson Cancer Center Houston, Houston Methodist Hospital Houston, Texas Childrens Cancer and Hematology Centers Houston and Baylor College of Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of clinical and experimental pathology | Year: 2014
Precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is the most common cancer in children and overall, has an excellent prognosis. However, the Philadelphia chromosome translocation (Ph+), t(9;22)(q34;q11), is present in a small subset of patients and confers poor outcomes. CD25 (IL-2 receptor alpha chain) expression has been associated with Ph+ B-ALL in adults, but no similar study has been performed in pediatric B-ALL.A retrospective analysis of 221 consecutive pediatric patients with a diagnosis of B-ALL (blood and/or bone marrow) from 2009 to 2012 was performed to determine an association between Ph+ B-ALL and CD25 expression. A threshold of 25% was used to define positive cases for CD25 expression by flow cytometry.There were 221 patients with a diagnosis of B-ALL ranging from 2 to 22 years (median, 6 years). Eight (3.6%) B-ALL patients were positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation (Ph+ B-ALL) and 213 were negative (Ph-negative B-ALL). CD25 expression was observed in 6 of 8 (75%) Ph+ B-ALL patients and 6 of 213 (2.8%) Ph-negative B-ALL patients. CD25 expression was significantly higher in Ph+ B-ALL compared to Ph-negative B-ALL, with median CD25 expression of 64% (range 0-93%) and 0.1% (range 0-91%), respectively (P 0.0002). Therefore, CD25 expression as a predictor of Ph+ B-ALL had 75% sensitivity, 97% specificity, 50% positive predictive value and 99% negative predictive value.CD25 expression is a specific and relatively sensitive marker for the identification of Ph+ B-ALL in the pediatric population.
PubMed | Houston Methodist Hospital Houston, Methodist University College and University of Texas Medical Branch
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neuro-ophthalmology (Aeolus Press) | Year: 2016
Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) can produce a variety of symptoms depending on fistula location, size, and venous drainage. Although cavernous sinus fistulas (CCFs) classically present with symptoms of orbital venous congestion due to retrograde venous drainage into the superior ophthalmic vein (i.e. an arterialised red eye) (Miller NR.
PubMed | York College - The City University of New York, Houston Methodist Hospital Houston, University of Texas Medical Branch and Baylor College of Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neuro-ophthalmology (Aeolus Press) | Year: 2016
This study seeks to characterise potential differences in the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) of patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) with papilloedema (IIHWP) compared with IIH without papilloedema (IIHWOP). The medical charts, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and digital optic disc photos of 30 patients (59 eyes) with IIHWP and 4 patients (8 eyes) with IIHWOP were reviewed retrospectively. The CDR values of the two groups were analysed using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results showed a statistically significant smaller CDR in patients with IIHWP as compared with IIHWOP. These findings suggest that structural factors of the optic disc may play a role in the development of or lack thereof of papilloedema in patients with IIH.