Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd.

Delhi, India

Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd.

Delhi, India
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Kumar A.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Datta M.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Nema A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Singh R.K.,Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd.
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering | Year: 2017

Close vicinity of uncontrolled municipal waste sites (or ‘waste dumps’) to well-populated communities makes the air contamination a prominent hazard from the waste dumps. The hazard rating systems, considered useful in prioritizing these sites for remediation, are investigated for their suitability to assess air contamination of municipal solid waste (MSW) dumps. Out of the eight systems employed in the study, six rating systems respond well to changes in site conditions when applied to hazardous waste sites. However for MSW sites, all eight rating systems give scores in a narrow range and do not perform well. One system is selected for improvement by modifying the indicators for waste quantity and rainfall and, introducing the indicators for waste composition and fresh waste quantity using expert judgment. The modified system performs well for MSW dumps, produces air contamination hazard ratings in a wider range, and responds to higher number of scenarios in sensitivity analysis, thus making it an appropriate tool for site prioritization for remediation. © 2017, Canadian Science Publishing. All rights reserved.


Singh R.K.,Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd. | Datta M.,PEC University of Technology | Nema A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Journal of Environmental Engineering | Year: 2011

A time-dependent system for evaluating the groundwater-contamination hazard rating of uncontrolled municipal solid-waste landfills has been reported elsewhere. While prioritizing uncontrolled landfills for remedial actions, this system (TD-HARAS) accords equal importance to the groundwater contamination caused by a landfill in the past and the contamination to be caused in the future. Some policymakers may like to remediate first those landfills that have greater potential for future contamination; landfill age then becomes an important factor to be taken into consideration for landfill prioritization. In this note, the mathematical framework of TD-HARAS has been extended to allow differential importance to past and future contaminations and to incorporate site age in the assessment of the groundwater-contamination hazard rating of landfill sites. A sensitivity analysis of the extended system (ETD-HARAS) shows that the groundwater-contamination hazard rating of a landfill site decreases with increases in the site age. A comparison of ETD-HARAS with selected existing hazard-rating systems shows that although ETD-HARAS produces significantly differing scores for different landfills and thus responds to varied site conditions, the existing systems individually produce clustered scores and return the same rank to more than one landfill. Thus, ETD-HARAS makes a better basis for site prioritization for taking remedial actions. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Singh R.K.,Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd. | Datta M.,PEC University of Technology | Nema A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Environmental Modeling and Assessment | Year: 2010

In developing countries, several old municipal solid waste dumps (unlined landfills) exist adjacent to large cities, releasing contaminants to the underlying aquifer, thus posing the hazard of groundwater contamination. These uncontrolled waste dumps need to be prioritized in terms of the groundwater contamination hazard posed by them, so that necessary control and remedial measures can be undertaken in a phased manner. This paper presents a time-dependent system for evaluating groundwater contamination hazard rating of municipal solid waste dumps. The system is based on source-pathway-receptor relationships and evaluates the relative value of hazard posed by a site over its entire leaching life, on a scale of 0-1,000. The system parameters have been selected based on literature and expert opinions. The Delphi technique is used to derive the relative importance weights of the system parameters. The proposed system is compared with six selected existing hazard rating systems. The comparison, made by way of score range analysis, shows that the proposed system exhibits a much wider range of hazard scores for various scenarios of site conditions, and hence the proposed system is more sensitive to varied site conditions. The application of different systems to six municipal solid waste dumps located in four cities of India shows that, whereas the existing systems individually produce clustered scores and return the same rank to more than one site, the proposed system produces significantly varying scores and return different ranks to different sites. This demonstrates that the proposed system improves decision making and makes a better basis for prioritization of municipal solid waste dumps for adopting control and remedial measures. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Singh R.K.,Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd. | Datta M.,PEC University of Technology | Nema A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Perez I.V.,University of Malaga
Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste | Year: 2013

Uncontrolled municipal solid waste landfills potentially release harmful substances to the subsurface in the form of leachate, thus posing a significant hazard of groundwater contamination. The evaluation of groundwater contamination hazard posed by landfills is important for prioritizing them to undertake necessary pollution control and remedial measures in a phased manner. In this paper, a new groundwater contamination hazard rating system (HARAS), which has been presented in detail elsewhere, is applied to 11 municipal solid waste landfills-eight Indian and three European. The study shows that among the landfills studied, the Ghazipur, Okhla, and Bhalswa landfills in Delhi, the Kodungaiyur dumping ground in Chennai, the Pirana landfill in Ahmedabad, and the Dhapa landfill in Kolkata are categorized as "very high" hazard landfills, thereby indicating that these landfills are in urgent need of control and remedial measures. The study also shows that the Indian landfills pose a much greater hazard than the European landfills. This is primarily because the Indian landfills are uncontrolled, they are larger in size, and the groundwater underlying them is used for more varied purposes, including human consumption. A comparison of HARAS with existing hazard rating systems shows that the former is more sensitive to varied site conditions and makes a better tool for site ranking for adopting remedial measures. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Kumar A.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Datta M.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Nema A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Singh R.K.,Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd.
Environmental Modeling and Assessment | Year: 2015

Leachate emission from uncontrolled municipal solid waste landfills (referred to as waste sites in the present study) is a major threat to the environment and living beings in its vicinity. Surface water contamination potential resulting from leachate may be used as one of the criteria for prioritization of sites for remediation purposes. The existing hazard rating systems that prioritize waste sites considering surface water contamination potential as one of the criteria are mainly suited for the developed countries where these were developed initially. In developing countries like India, the set of conditions differ from those in developed countries, and therefore the existing systems may not be suitable for developing countries. Thus in the present study, an improved system is proposed to assess surface water contamination potential from MSW sites. The system is based on the concept of Source, Pathway and Receptor. The proposed system employs parameters derived from the review of existing rating systems and selects their best and worst values based on literature review, design standards and field conditions. The importance weights of the system parameters have been decided based on expert judgment using Delphi technique. Sensitivity analysis of the system shows that the improved system is more sensitive than the existing systems for the site conditions encountered in developing countries. Monte Carlo analysis of the proposed system confirms the spread of the scores obtained from the system over the full scale of 0–1000. The improved system is compared with existing systems by applying it to waste sites from metropolitan cities of India and performing clustering analysis on the rating scores. The clustering analysis shows that the rating scores from the improved system are less clustered as compared to the scores from the existing systems. This demonstrates that the improved system makes a better tool to distinctly prioritize the waste sites for remediation purpose. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


Gowda K.,University of Mysore | Doddaswamy R.,Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd.
Spatium | Year: 2011

Water is a scarce resource and an important basic necessity for the human survival. The quantity of potable water on earth is limited and its availability per person is reducing day by day due to increase in global population and damage to environment. Though water available in nature is free, sizeable investment is needed in order to supply water to the people at their doorsteps with required quality. This paper deals with the role of financial institutions in the balanced distribution of water for the public, the related problems with various regulatory instruments, and ethical perspectives for efficient utilization of this scarce resource through internal control aimed at long term sustainability.

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