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Old Forge, PA, United States

Scott Mackenzie D.,Houghton International Inc | Lynn Ferguson B.,Deformation Control Technology, Inc.
International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering | Year: 2011

In previous work, the distortion of 8620 carburised automotive pinions was determined via computational fluid dynamics, finite element analysis and actual measurements. In an effort to increase performance and to reduce the distortion further, AISI 4320 was examined for the effect of alloy content on distortion. The methodology and results of this work are shown. © 2011 IHTSE Partnership. Source


Mackenzie D.S.,Houghton International Inc
65th ABM International Congress, 18th IFHTSE Congress and 1st TMS/ABM International Materials Congress 2010 | Year: 2010

Polymer quenchants are used extensively in induction hardening because of cost, ease of control and effective hardening. However, these quenchants must be controlled and maintained. The basic principles of care and maintenance of polymer quenchants are described. Source


MacKenzie D.S.,Houghton International Inc
Advanced Materials and Processes | Year: 2014

The size of a batch immersion quench tank depends on the dimensions of the workload, as well as the allowable temperature rise. The temperature rise permitted is dependent on whether the quenchant is oil, water, or polymer. Care should be taken in a batch operation to ensure that a sufficient amount of quenchant covers the top of the workload. The physical dimensions of the tank should be large enough to ensure full immersion of the quench load and fixtures, and, at the same time, should allow enough space for agitators and manipulators. When using hot quenching oils, it is necessary to make an allowance for thermal expansion of the oil, either by making provision for an overflow system, or by manual adjustment of the fluid level. A quench tank must contain sufficient fluid to quench the load without an excessive rise in temperature of the quenching fluid. To obtain maximum efficiency from cooling systems, the direction of circulation should be such that hot quenchant is removed from the top of the tank and then passed through the heat exchanger. Source


Alexander J.N.,Albany State University | Higashiya S.,Albany State University | Caskey Jr. D.,Houghton International Inc | Efstathiadis H.,Albany State University | Haldar P.,Albany State University
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2014

A uniform ultrathin (<30 nm) CdS buffer layer was deposited by CBD by utilizing an alternative bath based on N-methylthiourea and was compared with the standard sulfur source. The CdS deposited by this new bath formulation was deposited separately on soda lime glass (SLG), sputtered molybdenum/glass and co-evaporated copper indium gallium di-selenide (CIGS)/Mo/glass substrates. The CdS film properties were investigated by scanning electric microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy, and quantum efficiency (QE). The films deposited with N-methylthiourea were found to have a similar granular structure, deposit in the same stoichiometry, and have similar device performance as the standard when deposited in the 60-80 nm film thickness range. When the CdS layer was deposited ultrathin in the 20-30 nm range, it was found to have good surface coverage with no evidence pinholes or device shunting. QE data indicated 40 nm thick CdS samples deposited using Thiourea as a sulfur source demonstrated better overall results however depositing a 20 nm thick CdS demonstrated N-methylthiourea as a sulfur source could deposit with good quantum efficiency and more consistently. Devices fabricated with ultrathin CdS using N-metyhlthiourea showed better device performance compared with devices fabricated using the standard CdS chemistry. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Scott MacKenzie D.,Houghton International Inc
Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering - Proceedings of Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering, HTSE 2013 | Year: 2013

Modern quenching oils offer a wide range of capability and performance. The selection of the proper quench oil is critical for proper heat treating operations. Improper selection of quench oilcan result in short oil life, orsoftparts. This paper will illustrate the selection factors in choosing a quench oil to insure proper quality parts. Source

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