Houghton College is a Christian liberal arts college in Houghton, in the Genesee Valley of southwestern New York State. It is affiliated with the Wesleyan Church. The college is a member of both the Christian College Consortium and the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities. Wikipedia.
Vandock K.P.,Houghton College |
Vandock K.P.,U.S. Army |
Mitchell M.J.,Edinboro University of Pennsylvania |
Fioravanti C.F.,Bowling Green State University
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2012
The reversible, membrane-associated transhydrogenase that catalyzes hydride-ion transfer between NADP(H) and NAD(H) was evaluated and compared to the corresponding NADH oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase activities in midgut and fat body mitochondria from fifth larval instar Manduca sexta. The developmentally significant NADPH-forming transhydrogenation occurs as a nonenergy- or energy-linked activity with energy for the latter derived from either electron transport-dependent NADH or succinate utilization, or ATP hydrolysis by Mg ++-dependent ATPase. In general, the plant flavonoids examined (chyrsin, juglone, morine, quercetin, and myricetin) affected all reactions in a dose-dependent fashion. Differences in the responses to the flavonoids were apparent, with the most notable being inhibition of midgut, but stimulation of fat body transhydrogenase by morin, and myricetin as also noted for NADH oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase. Although quercetin inhibited or stimulated transhydrogenase activity depending on the origin of mitochondria, it was without effect on either midgut or fat body NADH oxidase or succinate dehydrogenase. Observed sonication-dependent increases in flavonoid inhibition may well reflect an alteration in membrane configuration, resulting in increased exposure of the enzyme systems to the flavonoids. The effects of flavonoids on the transhydrogenation, NADH oxidase, and succinate dehydrogenase reactions suggest that compounds of this nature may prove valuable in the control of insect populations by affecting these mitochondrial enzyme components. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hu W.,Houghton College
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014
Influenza type A viruses are classified into subtypes based on their two surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Our time series analysis on the strains of pandemic 2009 H1N1 collected from 2009 to 2013 demonstrated that the HA receptor binding preference of this virus in USA, Europe, and Asia has been the characteristic of swine H1N1 virus since 2009. However, its binding characteristics of seasonal human H1N1 and avian H1N1 both have been on steady rise with American strains having the sharpest surge in 2013. The first increase could enhance the viral transmission and replication in humans and the second boost its ability to cause infection deep in lungs, which might explain the recent human deaths caused by this virus in Texas in December 2013. We further explored the corresponding NA activity of this virus to reveal the functional interdependence between HA and NA during the evolution and adaptation of this virus from 2009 to 2013. To understand the real causality, the amino acid substitutions in HA and NA that actually produced the mutations were also identified. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Hu W.,Houghton College |
Hu J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Computational Biology | Year: 2014
RNA interference (RNAi) can modulate gene expression at post-transcriptional as well as transcriptional levels. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) serves as a trigger for the RNAi gene inhibition mechanism, and therefore is a crucial intermediate step in RNAi. There have been extensive studies to identify the sequence characteristics of potent siRNAs. One such study built a linear model using LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) to measure the contribution of each siRNA sequence feature. This model is simple and interpretable, but it requires a large number of nonzero weights. We have introduced a novel technique, sparse logistic regression, to build a linear model using single-position specific nucleotide compositions which has the same prediction accuracy of the linear model based on LASSO. The weights in our new model share the same general trend as those in the previous model, but have only 25 nonzero weights out of a total 84 weights, a 54% reduction compared to the previous model. Contrary to the linear model based on LASSO, our model suggests that only a few positions are influential on the efficacy of the siRNA, which are the 5' and 3' ends and the seed region of siRNA sequences. We also employed sparse logistic regression to build a linear model using dual-position specific nucleotide compositions, a task LASSO is not able to accomplish well due to its high dimensional nature. Our results demonstrate the superiority of sparse logistic regression as a technique for both feature selection and regression over LASSO in the context of siRNA design. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Knapp E.J.,Houghton College
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2012
Illegal hunting poses a considerable threat to the wildlife of Serengeti National Park and its affiliated protected areas. Techniques for successful mitigation of this threat are heavily debated. Bottom-up community-based initiatives aim to curb poaching by linking local communities with wildlife conservation. Top-down anti-poaching enforcement of protected areas seeks to maintain wildlife populations through fines and prison sentences given to arrested poachers. Poverty stands as the major driver of illegal hunting as households vie for income and sustenance. Livelihoods of illegal hunters have been augmented considerably through revenue generated from bushmeat sales. Illegal hunters use bushmeat both for supplementing household protein and for economic gain. Obtaining bushmeat carries risks in the form of personal injury, fines, and/or prison sentences, if arrested. This paper compares these costs and benefits through a summary of the monetary benefits, bodily injuries, fines, and prison sentences that individuals endured over their poaching careers. Data were collected from 104 individuals, all of whom voluntarily admitted active or recent involvement in illegal hunting activities. © Eli J. Knapp.
Kaplan D.E.,Johns Hopkins University |
Krnjaic G.Z.,Johns Hopkins University |
Krnjaic G.Z.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory |
Rehermann K.R.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology |
Wells C.M.,Houghton College
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2011
We present a simple UV completion of Atomic Dark Matter (aDM) in which heavy right-handed neutrinos decay to induce both dark and lepton number densities. This model addresses several outstanding cosmological problems: the matter/anti-matter asymmetry, the dark matter abundance, the number of light degrees of freedom in the early universe, and the smoothing of small-scale structure. Additionally, this realization of aDM may reconcile the CoGeNT excess with recently published null results and predicts a signal in the CRESST Oxygen band. We also find that, due to unscreened long-range interactions, the residual unrecombined dark ions settle into a diffuse isothermal halo. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.