Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal

Montréal, Canada

Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal

Montréal, Canada
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Aft R.,University of Washington | Perez J.-R.,Novartis | Raje N.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Hirsh V.,McGill University | Saad F.,Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2012

Although dissemination may occur early in the course of many cancers, the development of overt metastases depends upon a variety of factors inherent to the cancer cells and the tissue(s) they colonize. The time lag between initial dissemination and established metastases could be several years, during which period the bone marrow may provide an unwitting sanctuary for disseminated tumor cells (DTCs). Survival in a dormant state within the bone marrow may help DTCs weather the effects of anticancer therapies and seed posttreatment relapses. The importance of the bone marrow for facilitating DTC survival may vary depending on the type of cancer and mechanisms of tumor cell dissemination. By altering the bone microenvironment, bisphosphonates may reduce DTC viability. Moreover, some bisphosphonates have demonstrated multiple anticancer activities. These multiple mechanisms may help explain the improvement in disease outcomes with the use of zoledronic acid in malignancies like breast cancer and multiple myeloma. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Pin A.-L.,Laval University | Houle F.,Laval University | Fournier P.,Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal | Guillonneau M.,Laval University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

Endothelial cell migration induced in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an essential step of angiogenesis. It depends in part on the activation of the p38/MAPKAP kinase-2/LIMK1/annexin-A1 (ANXA1) signaling axis. In the present study, we obtained evidence indicating that miR-196a specifically binds to the 3′-UTR region of ANXA1 mRNA to repress its expression. In accordance with the role of ANXA1 in cell migration and angiogenesis, the ectopic expression of miR-196a is associated with decreased cell migration in wound closure assays, and the inhibitory effect of miR-196a is rescued by overexpressing ANXA1. This finding highlights the fact that ANXA1 is a required mediator of VEGF-induced cell migration. miR-196a also reduces the formation of lamellipodia in response to VEGF suggesting that ANXA1 regulates cell migration by securing the formation of lamellipodia at the leading edge of the cell. Additionally, in line with the fact that cell migration is an essential step of angiogenesis, the ectopic expression of miR-196a impairs the formation of capillary-like structures in a tissue-engineered model of angiogenesis. Here again, the effect of miR-196a is rescued by overexpressing ANXA1. Moreover, the presence of miR-196a impairs the VEGF-induced in vivo neo-vascularization in the Matrigel Plug assay. Interestingly, VEGF reduces the expression of miR-196a, which is associated with an increased level of ANXA1. Similarly, the inhibition of miR-196a with an antagomir results in an increased level of ANXA1. We conclude that the VEGF-induced decrease of miR-196a expression may participate to the angiogenic switch by maintaining the expression of ANXA1 to levels required to enable p38-ANXA1-dependent endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis in response to VEGF. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Mukawera E.,Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal | Chartier S.,Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal | Williams V.,Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal | Williams V.,University of Montréal | And 5 more authors.
Redox Biology | Year: 2015

Oxidative stress is considered a causative factor in carcinogenesis, but also in the development of resistance to current chemotherapies. The appropriate usage of redox-modulating compounds is limited by the lack of knowledge of their impact on specific molecular pathways. Increased levels of the IKKε kinase, as a result of gene amplification or aberrant expression, are observed in a substantial number of breast carcinomas. IKKε not only plays a key role in cell transformation and invasiveness, but also in the development of resistance to tamoxifen. Here, we studied the effect of in vitro treatment with the redox-modulating triphenylmethane dyes, Gentian Violet and Brilliant Green, and nitroxide Tempol on IKKε expression and cell proliferation in the human breast cancer epithelial cell lines exhibiting amplification of IKKε, MCF-7 and ZR75.1. We show that Gentian Violet, Brilliant Green and Tempol significantly decrease intracellular superoxide anion levels and inhibit IKKε expression and cell viability. Treatment with Gentian Violet and Brilliant Green was associated with a reduced cyclin D1 expression and activation of caspase 3 and/or 7. Tempol decreased cyclin D1 expression in both cell lines, while activation of caspase 7 was only observed in MCF-7 cells. Silencing of the superoxide-generating NOX2 NADPH oxidase expressed in breast cancer cells resulted in the significant reduction of IKKε expression. Taken together, our results suggest that redox-modulating compounds targeting NOX2 could present a particular therapeutic interest in combination therapy against breast carcinomas exhibiting IKKε amplification. © 2015 The Authors.


Soucy-Faulkner A.,Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal | Soucy-Faulkner A.,University of Montréal | Mukawera E.,Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal | Fink K.,Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal | And 13 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2010

The innate immune response is essential to the host defense against viruses, through restriction of virus replication and coordination of the adaptive immune response. Induction of antiviral genes is a tightly regulated process initiated mainly through sensing of invading virus nucleic acids in the cytoplasm by RIG-I like helicases, RIG-I or Mda5, which transmit the signal through a common mitochondria-associated adaptor, MAVS. Although major breakthroughs have recently been made, much remains unknown about the mechanisms that translate virus recognition into antiviral genes expression. Beside the reputed detrimental role, reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as modulators of cellular signaling and gene regulation. NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes are a main source of deliberate cellular ROS production. Here, we found that NOX2 and ROS are required for the host cell to trigger an efficient RIG-I-mediated IRF-3 activation and downstream antiviral IFNb and IFIT1 gene expression. Additionally, we provide evidence that NOX2 is critical for the expression of the central mitochondria-associated adaptor MAVS. Taken together these data reveal a new facet to the regulation of the innate host defense against viruses through the identification of an unrecognized role of NOX2 and ROS. © 2010 Soucy-Faulkner et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. © 2010 Soucy-Faulkner et al.


Cervantes-Ortiz S.L.,Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal | Cervantes-Ortiz S.L.,University of Montréal | Cuervo N.Z.,Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal | Cuervo N.Z.,University of Montréal | And 2 more authors.
Viruses | Year: 2016

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, is a major cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants, elderly and immunocompromised adults. Despite decades of research, a complete integrated picture of RSV-host interaction is still missing. Several cellular responses to stress are involved in the host-response to many virus infections. The endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by altered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function leads to activation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) to restore homeostasis. Formation of cytoplasmic stress granules containing translationally stalled mRNAs is a means to control protein translation. Production of reactive oxygen species is balanced by an antioxidant response to prevent oxidative stress and the resulting damages. In recent years, ongoing research has started to unveil specific regulatory interactions of RSV with these host cellular stress responses. Here, we discuss the latest findings regarding the mechanisms evolved by RSV to induce, subvert or manipulate the ER stress, the stress granule and oxidative stress responses. We summarize the evidence linking these stress responses with the regulation of RSV replication and the associated pathogenesis. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


PubMed | Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Viruses | Year: 2016

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, is a major cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants, elderly and immunocompromised adults. Despite decades of research, a complete integrated picture of RSV-host interaction is still missing. Several cellular responses to stress are involved in the host-response to many virus infections. The endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by altered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function leads to activation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) to restore homeostasis. Formation of cytoplasmic stress granules containing translationally stalled mRNAs is a means to control protein translation. Production of reactive oxygen species is balanced by an antioxidant response to prevent oxidative stress and the resulting damages. In recent years, ongoing research has started to unveil specific regulatory interactions of RSV with these host cellular stress responses. Here, we discuss the latest findings regarding the mechanisms evolved by RSV to induce, subvert or manipulate the ER stress, the stress granule and oxidative stress responses. We summarize the evidence linking these stress responses with the regulation of RSV replication and the associated pathogenesis.


PubMed | Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical science (London, England : 1979) | Year: 2014

Determining the role of NADPH oxidases in the context of virus infection is an emerging area of research and our knowledge is still sparse. The expression of various isoforms of NOX/DUOX (NADPH oxidase/dual oxidase) in the epithelial cells (ECs) lining the respiratory tract renders them primary sites from which to orchestrate the host defence against respiratory viruses. Accumulating evidence reveals distinct facets of the involvement of NOX/DUOX in host antiviral and pro-inflammatory responses and in the control of the epithelial barrier integrity, with individual isoforms mediating co-operative, but surprisingly also opposing, functions. Although in vivo studies in mice are in line with some of these observations, a complete understanding of the specific functions of epithelial NOX/DUOX awaits lung epithelial-specific conditional knockout mice. The goal of the present review is to summarize our current knowledge of the role of individual NOX/DUOX isoforms expressed in the lung epithelium in the context of respiratory virus infections so as to highlight potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention.


PubMed | Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research | Year: 2012

The interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 transcription factor plays a central role in the capacity of the host to mount an efficient innate antiviral immune defense, mainly through the regulation of type I Interferon genes. A tight regulation of IRF-3 is crucial for an adapted intensity and duration of the response. Redox-dependent processes are now well known to regulate signaling cascades. Recent reports have revealed that signaling molecules upstream of IRF-3, including the mitochondrial antiviral-signalling protein (MAVS) and the TNF receptor associated factors (TRAFs) adaptors, are sensitive to redox regulation. In the present study, we assessed whether redox regulation of thiol residues contained in IRF-3, which are priviledged redox sensors, play a role in its regulation following Sendai virus infection, using a combination of mutation of Cysteine (Cys) residues into Alanine and thiols alkylation using N-ethyl maleimide. Alkylation of IRF-3 on Cys289 appears to destabilize IRF-3 dimer in vitro. However, a detailed analysis of IRF-3 phosphorylation, dimerization, nuclear accumulation, and induction of target gene promoter in vivo led us to conclude that IRF-3 specific, individual Cys residues redox status does not play an essential role in its activation in vivo.


PubMed | Crchum Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS pathogens | Year: 2010

The innate immune response is essential to the host defense against viruses, through restriction of virus replication and coordination of the adaptive immune response. Induction of antiviral genes is a tightly regulated process initiated mainly through sensing of invading virus nucleic acids in the cytoplasm by RIG-I like helicases, RIG-I or Mda5, which transmit the signal through a common mitochondria-associated adaptor, MAVS. Although major breakthroughs have recently been made, much remains unknown about the mechanisms that translate virus recognition into antiviral genes expression. Beside the reputed detrimental role, reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as modulators of cellular signaling and gene regulation. NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes are a main source of deliberate cellular ROS production. Here, we found that NOX2 and ROS are required for the host cell to trigger an efficient RIG-I-mediated IRF-3 activation and downstream antiviral IFNbeta and IFIT1 gene expression. Additionally, we provide evidence that NOX2 is critical for the expression of the central mitochondria-associated adaptor MAVS. Taken together these data reveal a new facet to the regulation of the innate host defense against viruses through the identification of an unrecognized role of NOX2 and ROS.

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