PubMed | Hospital Veterinario, Parc zoologique dAmneville, Toshiba Corporation, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014
Currently, radiography is the only imaging technique used to diagnose bone pathology in wild animals situated under field conditions. Nevertheless, while chronic foot disease in captive mega-herbivores is widely reported, foot radiographic imaging is confronted with scarcity of studies. Numerous hindrances lead to such limited numbers and it became very clear that the traditional perspective on bone imaging in domestic animals based on extensive studies and elaborated statistical evaluations cannot be extrapolated to their non-domestic relatives. For these reasons, the authors initiated a multi-modality imaging study and established a pioneering approach of synchronized computed tomography (CT) and digital radiography (DR), based on X-ray projections derived from three-dimensional CT reconstructed images. Whereas this approach can be applied in any clinical field, as a case of outstanding importance and great concern for zoological institutions, we selected foot bone pathologies in captive rhinoceroses to demonstrate the manifold applications of the method. Several advances were achieved, endowing the wildlife clinician with all-important tools: prototype DR exposure protocols and a modus operandi for foot positioning, advancing both traditional projections and, for the first-time, species-related radiographic views; assessment of radiographic diagnostic value for the whole foot and, in premiere, for each autopodial bone; together with additional insights into radiographic appearance of bone anatomy and pathology with a unique, simultaneous CT-DR correlation. Based on its main advantages in availing a wide range of keystone data in wildlife imaging from a limited number of examined subjects and combining advantages of CT as the golden standard method for bone diseases diagnostic with DRs clinical feasibility under field conditions, synchronized CT-DR presents a new perspective on wildlifes health management. With this we hope to provide veterinary clinicians with concrete imaging techniques and substantial diagnostic tools, which facilitate straightforward attainment and interpretation of field radiography images taken worldwide.
Biondi F.,Federal University of Paraná |
Biondi F.,Hospital Veterinario |
Dornbusch P.T.,Federal University of Paraná |
Dornbusch P.T.,Hospital Veterinario |
And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Ophthalmology | Year: 2015
Infrared thermography was used to measure temperature differences of the corneal surface between nasal and temporal limbus regions and central cornea of normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), in order to establish temperature values in normal canine eyes and in patients with decreased Schirmer tear tests (STT) values. Dogs investigated were all either patients seen at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Federal University of Paraná or normal dogs that belonged to the same institution. STT were performed in all eyes. A total of 40 control eyes (STT ≥15 mm/min) and 20 eyes with low STT values (STT ≤14 mm/min) were examined. The mean STT value for eyes with normal STT values was 22.9 ± 3.9 mm/min (mean ± standard deviation), and the mean STT value for eyes with low STT value was 7.2 ± 4.8 mm/min. The mean corneal temperature was significantly lower in eyes with low STT values than in control eyes (P < 0.0001). The following significant correlations were found: (i) Schirmer and breakup time (BUT) (P = 0.0001, r = 0.5); (ii) STT values and corneal surface temperature (P = 0.001, r = 0.256); (iii) STT values and age (P = 0.0001, r = -0.448); (iv) age and corneal surface temperature (P = 0.0001, r = -0.281); and (v) BUT and corneal surface temperature (P = 0.0001, r = 0.36). Thermography is a method that can differentiate between eyes with normal and abnormal STT values. In the future, thermography might be incorporated as part of the ophthalmic examination and perhaps become a popular ancillary test for the diagnoses of ocular surface disorders. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
PubMed | Estacion Experimental La Estanzuela, University of Sao Paulo, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Laboratorio Of Patologia Veterinaria and Hospital Veterinario
Type: | Journal: Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology | Year: 2015
The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Stryphnodendron fissuratum pods in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and test the hypothesis that this plant has teratogenic effects. Thus, sixteen guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups of four animals each. Groups 10, 20 and 40 consisted of guinea pigs that received commercial food that contained crushed pods of S. fissuratum at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 g/kg, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Control group consisted of guinea pigs under the same management conditions that did not receive crushed pods of S. fissuratum in their food. In all experimental groups, the main clinical signs of poisoning consisted of anorexia, prostration, absence of vocalizations, alopecia, diarrhea, and abortions within the adult guinea pigs. Those that did not abort gave birth to weak, malnourished pups, some of which had fetal malformations. The main teratogenic changes consisted of eventration, arthrogryposis, amelia of the forelimbs, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, anotia and agnathia. The reductions in the number of offspring and the malformations observed in the experimental groups suggest that S. fissuratum affects fetal development and is teratogenic.
Amorim M.G.R.,Federal University of Campina Grande |
Dantas A.F.M.,Hospital Veterinario |
Riet-Correa F.,Hospital Veterinario
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2015
With the aim to study the histologic lesions caused by Psoroptes cuniculi, the ears of 15 adult goats were collected in a slaughter house in the city of Patos, state of Paraíba, in the Brazilian semiarid region. Five goats had crusts and exudates in the external ears and were infested by 21 to 189 mites in each ear. Another 10 goats were asymptomatic, five of which had 14 to 39 mites and five of which were non-infested. From the five goats with clinical signs, three presented moderate macroscopic lesions with cerumen and dry crusts in both ears, affecting the pinna and ear canal. Two other goats presented mild lesions, characterized by exudates in the pinna without crust formation. The histologic lesions included varying degrees of parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, hypergranulosis, spongiosis, and dermatitis, with rare eosinophils. P. cuniculi were observed in the ear canal, occasionally in contact with the stratum corneum, but without causing traumatic lesions in the epithelium, which suggests that the lesions occur through a mechanical effect due to the presence of the mites together with the exudates, cerumen, and keratin residues.
Gardner D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Riet-Correa F.,Hospital Veterinario |
Lemos D.,Hospital Veterinario |
Welch K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014
Mimosa tenuiflora is a shrub/tree found in northeastern Brazil sometimes eaten by livestock and believed to be responsible for malformations observed in many animals from that region. The teratogenic compounds in M. tenuiflora are not known. This study used pregnant rats fed M. tenuiflora and components therefrom for bioassay and fractionation of possible teratogenic compounds. Rat pups were examined for cranial-facial defects and skeletal malformations. Experimental diets included M. tenuiflora leaf and seed material, extracts of leaf and seed, alkaloid extracts of leaf and seed, and N-methyltryptamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Pups from mothers who received M. tenuiflora plant material, methanol extracts, alkaloid extracts, and purified N-methyltryptamines had a higher incidence of soft tissue cleft palate and skeletal malformations. Results are summarized as to the frequency of observed cleft palate and other noted malformations for each diet versus control. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
PubMed | Regional University of Northwestern Rio Grande do Sul State, Federal University of Santa Maria and Hospital Veterinario
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology research | Year: 2016
Molecular detection of Sarcocystis spp. in tissue samples can be useful for experimental and diagnostic purposes. However, the parasite spreads unevenly through tissues, forming tissue cysts, and the cystic wall is an obstacle in DNA extraction protocols. Therefore, adequate sampling and effective disruption of the cysts are essential to improve the accuracy of DNA detection by PCR. The aims of this study were to evaluate the suitability of four protocols for DNA extraction from cysts of Sarcocystis spp. present in bovine myocardium samples or after their harvest in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution as well as determine the effects of single or multiple sampling on the accuracy of molecular diagnosis of sarcocystosis in cattle hearts. Cysts and myocardium samples from nine bovine hearts were randomly distributed to four DNA extraction protocols: kit, kit with modification, DNAzol, and cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Samples were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR as replicates of each heart (simplicate, duplicate, and triplicate), and the probability of a true positive diagnostic was calculated. Among the protocols tested, the kit with modification was determined to be the most suitable for DNA extraction from cysts in PBS solution (92.6% of DNA detection by PCR); DNAzol resulted in higher DNA detection frequency from bovine myocardium samples (48.1%). Multiple sampling improved the molecular diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. infection in cattle hearts, increasing at 22.2% the rate of true positive diagnostic.
Souza P.E.C.,Federal Rural University of Pernambuco |
Oliveira S.S.,Federal Rural University of Pernambuco |
Aguiar-Filho C.R.,Federal Rural University of Pernambuco |
Cunha A.L.B.,Federal Rural University of Pernambuco |
And 4 more authors.
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2012
Three outbreaks of primary photosensitization caused by Froelichia humboldtiana are reported in the semiarid region of the states of Pernambuco and Paraíba, in northeastern Brazil. The disease occurred from March to June 2011, affecting 27 bovines out of a total of 70. The main lesions consisted of dermatitis of the white skin, with edema and necrosis. All the bovines recovered after removal from the areas invaded by F. humboldtiana. To produce the disease experimentally, one bovine with white skin was placed for 14. days into an area with F. humboldtiana as the sole forage. This bovine presented photodermatitis on the third day of consumption. The serum concentrations of total, indirect, and conjugated bilirubin and the serum activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) in the spontaneously affected cattle and in the experimental cattle remained within normal ranges. It is concluded that F. humboldtiana causes primary photosensitization in cattle in northeastern Brazil. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Detection of nucleic acids in tissues of gerbils submitted to acute infection with Neospora caninum [Detecção de ácidos nucleicos em tecidos de gerbils submetidos à infecção aguda por Neospora caninum]
Toscan G.,Federal University of Santa Maria |
Camillo G.,Federal University of Santa Maria |
Weber A.,Federal University of Santa Maria |
de Oliveira C.S.,Federal University of Santa Maria |
And 3 more authors.
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2012
Neospora caninum is a protozoan of great importance for livestock, mainly by causing reproductive diseases in cattle. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) may be a model to reproduce experimental acute neosporosis of cattle. In this study two groups of gerbils were formed (n=10) and gerbils were inoculated with N. caninum tachyzoites (NC-1 strain) at two different doses appropriate to cause acute neosporosis: 5x106 tachyzoites ml-1 (G1) or 5x105 tachyzoites ml-1 (G2). Brain, spinal cord, heart, lung, liver, kidneys and spleen were collected and PCR was performed using samples of these tissues and organs. DNA of N. caninum was detected in at least five tissues for most animals (12/20; 60%) considering both groups. In group 1, the frequency of DNA detection, evaluating all samples, was higher (52/70; 74.28%) compared to group 2 (38/70; 54.28%). These results showed that the protozoan replicated efficiently after inoculation spreading by several tissues. Also, was demonstrated that gerbils can be used as model for acute infection with N. caninum showing clinical signs of neosporosis.
Toscan G.,Federal University of Santa Maria |
Cezar A.S.,Federal University of Santa Maria |
Pereira R.C.F.,Hospital Veterinario |
Silva G.B.,Hospital Veterinario |
And 3 more authors.
Parasitology International | Year: 2012
Several formulations of macrocyclic lactones (abamectin, ivermectin, moxidectin), including ivermectin combined with pyrantel (tetrahydropyrimidine) and ivermectin combined with praziquantel (pyrazinoisoquinolin derivative), were tested regarding their efficacy to control gastrointestinal nematodes of horses on a stud farm in southern Brazil. In addition, we tested a pharmaceutically produced generic paste containing ivermectin 4%. Similar formulations of avermectins had different efficacies measured by reduction of EPG. Levels of efficacy of the tested drugs varied against Strongylus edentatus, S. equinus and S. vulgaris. The generic paste (ivermectin 4%) was less effective than the conventional drugs. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
PubMed | Hospital Veterinario
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista chilena de infectologia : organo oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectologia | Year: 2013
Pet ownership offers undisputed benefits to immunocompromised (IC) patients, however, it poses the risk for potentially serious zoonoses. Mechanisms of transmission and manifestation of major zoonotic infections in dogs and cats that may affect IC patients are described. We also provide updated international information and local data. Recommendations are given to choose and care for pets ensuring safe and responsible ownership. This will help to prevent, detect and treat infections timely.