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Carmona L.,Research Unit | Descalzo M.A.,Research Unit | Ruiz-Montesinos D.,Hospital Universitario Virgen Of La Macarena | Manero-Ruiz F.J.,Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet | And 2 more authors.
Rheumatology | Year: 2011

Objective: To compare the safety and retention rate of TNF antagonists used in approved indications (AIs) and non-AIs. Methods: Analysis of the Spanish registry BIOBADASER 2.0 (February 2000 to October 2009). Patients were classified into AIs and off-label uses (OUs), according to the European Medicines Agency approval. Retention rates, incidence rates (IRs) and IR ratios (IRRs) of adverse events (AEs) with 95% CI were compared between uses, by log-rank test, cause-specific Cox regression models and generalized linear models with Poisson's distribution. Results: First treatment with TNF antagonist was available in 5150 patients, of whom 4594 (89%) were AIs (2854 RA, 882 AS and 858 PsA) and 556 (11%) were OUs [437 chronic arthropathies in the spectrum of SpAs (CA) and 119 chronic immune-mediated diseases (CIDs)]. The IR of AE was largest in CID (649 events per 1000 patient-years) and lowest in PsA (250 events per 1000 patient-years). The occurrence of AEs was significantly associated with OU [IRR of CA vs RA 1.33 (95% CI 1.19, 1.49); IRR of CID vs RA 1.94 (95% CI 1.62, 2.31). The largest hazard ratio for discontinuation was for CID vs RA (1.33; 95% CI 1.02, 1.71) and especially vs AS (2.18; 95% CI 1.63, 2.90). Conclusions: OUs of TNF antagonists need a very close ascertainment of risk/benefit. The safety and retention pattern for CID is similar to that for RA and the pattern for CA resembles that of AS. This study shows an additional value of a national registry. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. Source

Castellano D.,Hospital Universitario 12 Of Octubre | Virizuela J.A.,Hospital Universitario Virgen Of La Macarena | Cruz J.,Hospital Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria | Sepulveda J.M.,Hospital Universitario 12 Of Octubre | And 2 more authors.
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2012

Pharmacogenomics is the study of how variation in the genetic background affects an individual's response to a specific drug and/or its metabolism. Using knowledge about the genes which produce the enzymes that metabolize a specific drug, a physician may decide to raise or lower the dose, or even change to a different drug. Targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors has led to a substantial improvement in the standard of care for patients with advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although few studies have identified biomarkers that predict the response of targeted drugs in the treatment of metastatic RCC, some associations have been found. Several studies have identified genetic polymorphisms with implications in the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of TKIs and mTOR inhibitors and which are associated with a prolonged progression-free survival and/or overall survival in patients with metastatic RCC. Among the genes of interest, we should consider IL8, FGFR2, VEGFA, FLT4, and NR1I2. In this review, we discuss single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with outcome and toxicity following targeted therapies and provide recommendations for future trials to facilitate the use of SNPs in personalized therapy for this disease. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Peman J.,Servicio de Microbiologia | Iniguez C.,Centro Investigacion Salud Publica | Iniguez C.,University of Valencia | Lopez-Hontangas J.L.,Servicio de Microbiologia | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

In the absence of clinical breakpoints (CBP), epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) are useful to separate wild-type (WT) isolates (without mechanisms of resistance) from non-WT isolates (those that can harbor some resistance mechanisms), which is the goal of susceptibility tests. Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) is a widely used method to determine susceptibility of Candida spp. to antifungal agents. The CLSI CBP have been established, but not for the SYO method. The ECVs for four azoles, obtained using MIC distributions determined by the SYO method, were calculated via five methods (three statistical methods and based on the MIC50 and modal MIC). Respectively, the median ECVs (in mg/liter) of the five methods for fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole (in parentheses: the percentage of isolates inhibited by MICs equal to or less than the ECVs; the number of isolates tested) were as follows: 2 (94.4%; 944), 0.5 (96.7%; 942), 0.25 (97.6%; 673), and 0.06 (96.7%; 849) for Candida albicans; 4 (86.1%; 642), 0.5 (99.4%; 642), 0.12 (93.9%; 392), and 0.06 (86.9%; 559) for C. parapsilosis; 8 (94.9%; 175), 1 (93.7%; 175), 2 (93.6%; 125), and 0.25 (90.4%; 167) for C. tropicalis; 128 (98.6%; 212), 4 (95.8%; 212), 4 (96.0%; 173), and 2 (98.5; 205) for C. glabrata; 256 (100%; 53), 1 (98.1%; 53), 1 (100%; 33), and 1 (97.9%; 48) for C. krusei; 4 (89.2%; 93), 0.5 (100%; 93), 0.25 (100%; 33), and 0.06 (87.7%; 73) for C. orthopsilosis. All methods included ≥ 94% of isolates and yielded similar ECVs (within 1 dilution). These ECVs would be suitable for monitoring emergence of isolates with reduced susceptibility by using the SYO method. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Lete I.,Hospital Santiago Apostol | Duenas J.L.,Hospital Universitario Virgen Of La Macarena | Esplugues J.V.,University of Valencia | Esplugues J.V.,Hospital Universitario Dr Peset | Marti-Cabrera M.,University of Valencia
Current Drug Metabolism | Year: 2010

The vaginal route of drug administration provides women with a valid alternative to more conventional methods of contraception. Drugs absorbed in the upper part of the vagina can bypass the liver and, if metabolized, are subject to a reduced hepatic first-pass effect. Current vaginally-administered contraceptive formulations deliver similar doses of gestagens to those provided by oral methods but release lower amounts of oestrogens. This results in a systemic exposure to gestagens similar to that achieved via other routes, thereby maintaining contraceptive efficacy while limiting systemic, but not uterine, exposure to oestrogen. In this way, the probability of systemic oestrogen-related adverse effects are theoretically reduced without compromising cycle control. In addition, the fact that the effects of a contraceptive ring last a complete cycle makes it more user-friendly than other methods and results in better patient compliance. The present review will explain in detail the specificities of this route of delivery of hormonal contraception and will compare it to more classic forms of contraception received via the oral (pill), intramuscular (injected), transdermic (patch) and subcutaneous (implants) routes of administration. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

Sanchez-Moya A.I.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Carretero G.,Hospital Universitario Of Gran Canaria Dr Negrin | Sanchez-Carazo J.,Hospital General Universitario Of Valencia | Ferrandiz C.,Hospital Universitario Germans Trias i Pujol | And 11 more authors.
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2013

Introduction The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) or the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in psoriasis patients has not been described in the Spanish population. We carried out a study with the objectives: (i) To describe the incidence of TB in patients with psoriasis on systemic treatment in the Spanish population; (ii) To determine the prevalence of LTBI in patients who are candidates for biological treatment; and (iii) To investigate the level of compliance with current recommendations for LTBI and TB screening. Methods Data were obtained from BIOBADADERM (Spanish registry for systemic biological and non-biological treatments in psoriasis). An analysis was performed of the exposed cohort to determine the prevalence of LTBI and to describe compliance with the screening guidelines. Results A total of 1425 patients were registered in BIOBADADERM. They included 793 (56%) patients exposed to biological treatment and 632 (44%) treated with conventional systemic drug. Overall follow-up was 3720 person-years. Of the 793, 20.5% (163) were diagnosed with LTBI before starting biological treatment. The rate of active TB for the exposed cohort was 145 cases × 100 000 patient-years (95% CI 54-389). No case of TB was found in the control group. Screening for LTBI was performed in 83% of the exposed sample. Conclusion Patients with psoriasis who are exposed to biological treatment appear to be at greater risk for tuberculosis. In Spain, up to 20% of patients with psoriasis who are candidates for biological therapy have LTBI. There continues to be a significant percentage of errors in compliance with clinical guidelines. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. Source

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