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Valverde de Leganés, Spain

Gandjbakhch F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Terslev L.,Copenhagen University | Joshua F.,Prince of Wales Hospital | Wakefield R.J.,University of Leeds | And 2 more authors.
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2011

Introduction: An increasing number of studies have applied ultrasound to the evaluation of entheses in spondyloarthritis patients. However, no clear agreement exists on the definition of enthesitis, on the number and choice of entheses to examine and on ultrasound technique, which may all affect the results of the examination. The objectives of this study were to first determine the level of homogeneity in the ultrasound definitions for the principal lesions of enthesitis in the published literature and second, to evaluate the metric properties of ultrasound for detecting enthesitis according to the OMERACT filter.Methods: Search was performed in PUBMED and EMBASE. Both grey-scale and Doppler definitions of enthesitis, including describing features of enthesitis, were collected and metrological qualities of studies were assessed.Results: After selection, 48 articles were analyzed. The definition of ultrasound enthesitis and elementary features varied among authors. Grey-scale enthesitis was characterized by increasing thickness (94% of studies), hypoechogenicity (83%), enthesophytes (69%), erosions (67%), calcifications (52%), associated bursitis (46%) and cortical irregularities (29%). Only 46% of studies reported the use of Doppler. High discrepancies were observed on frequency, type of probe and Doppler mode used. Face and content validity were the most frequently evaluated criteria (43%) followed by reliability (29%) and responsiveness (19%).Conclusions: Ultrasound has evidence to support face, content validity and reliability for the evaluation of enthesitis, though there is a lack of well-reported methodology in most of the studies. Consensus on elementary lesions and standardization of exam is needed to determine the ultrasound definition of enthesitis in grey-scale and in Doppler for future applications. © 2011 Gandjbakhch et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Mandl P.,National Institute of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy | Naredo E.,Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa | Wakefield R.J.,University of Leeds | Conaghan P.G.,University of Leeds | D'Agostino M.A.,University of Versailles
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2011

Objective. The OMERACT Ultrasound Task Force is currently developing a global synovitis score (GLOSS) with the objective of feasibly measuring global disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In order to determine the minimal number of joints to be included in such a scoring system, and to analyze the metric properties of proposed global (i.e., patient level) ultrasound (US) scoring systems of synovitis in RA, a systematic analysis of the literature was performed. Methods. A systematic literature search of Pubmed and Embase was performed (January 1, 1984, to March 31, 2010). Original research reports written in English including RA, ultrasound, Doppler, and scoring systems were included. The design, subjects, methods, imaging protocols, and performance characteristics studied were analyzed, as well as the ultrasound definition of synovitis. Results. Of 3004 reports identified, 14 articles were included in the review. We found a lack of clear definition of synovitis as well as varying validity data with respect to the proposed scores. Scoring systems included a wide range and number of joints. All analyzed studies assessed construct validity and responsiveness by using clinical examination, laboratory findings, and other imaging modalities as comparators. Both construct validity and responsiveness varied according to the number and size of joints examined and according to the component of synovitis measured [i.e., gray-scale (GS) or power Doppler (PD) alone or in combination]. With regard to feasibility, time of evaluation varied from 15 to 60 min and increased with the number of joints involved in the examination. Conclusions. Ultrasound can be regarded as a valuable tool for globally examining the extent of synovitis in RA. However, it is presently difficult to determine a minimal number of joints to be included in a global ultrasound score. Further validation of proposed scores is needed. The Journal of Rheumatology Copyright © 2011. All rights reserved.

Naredo E.,Complutense University of Madrid | Naredo E.,Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa | Uson J.,Hospital Universitario Of Mostoles | Jimenez-Palop M.,Hospital Puerta de Hierro | And 11 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2014

Objective: The primary objective of this prospective case-control study was to assess the diagnostic value of several intra-articular and periarticular ultrasound (US)- detected abnormalities in the upper and lower limbs in gout. The secondary objective was to test the concurrent validity of US abnormalities using as gold standard the microscopic demonstration of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Methods: Ninety-one men with gout and 42 agematched controls were prospectively recruited. All patients with gout and controls underwent US assessment of several US abnormalities in 26 joints, six bursae, eight tendons, 20 tendon compartments, four ligaments, and 18 articular cartilages by experts in US blinded to the patients' group. Patients with gout and controls with US abnormalities were asked to undergo US-guided aspiration for microscopic identification of MSU crystals. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the US assessment was evaluated in a web-based exercise. Results: The assessment of one joint (ie, radiocarpal joint) for hyperechoic aggregates (HAGs), two tendons (ie, patellar tendon and triceps tendon) for HAGs and three articular cartilages (ie, first metatarsal, talar and second metacarpal/femoral) for double contour sign showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity (84.6% and 83.3%, respectively). Intraobserver reliability was good (mean κ 0.75) and interobserver reliability was moderate (κ 0.52). The aspirated material from HAGs was positive for MSU crystals in 77.6% of patients with gout and negative in all controls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that US bilateral assessment of one joint, three articular cartilages and two tendons may be valid for diagnosing gout with acceptable sensitivity and specificity.

Collado P.,Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa | Gamir M.L.,Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal | Lopez-Robledillo J.C.,Paediatric Rheumatology | Merino R.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | And 2 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine the prevalence of abnormalities detected by ultrasonography (US) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) showing clinically inactive disease (ID) on medication and off medication. Methods: Inclusion criteria: 1) JIA patients, 2) clinician-determined ID, 3) JIA drugs withdrawal or stably dosed modified anti- rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) therapy for at least 6 months prior to inclusion, 4) biologics naïve patients. Clinical and US assessments were performed on 44 joints, which were scored for grey-scale (GS) synovitis and Power Doppler (PD) signal. PD signal inside intra-articular synovium or tendon sheath was considered as inflammatory activity. Results: Thirty-four patients were included, of whom 23 patients were labelled as ID on medication and 11 patients without medication. The duration of the current episode of ID at the inclusion time was 9.5 months. Although it was longer for the group off medication there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.06). Thirteen patients presented US findings. Number of US-detected synovial abnormalities was higher in patients on medication, but there were no significant differences between both groups in the detection of GS synovitis (p=0.86), GS tenosynovitis (p=0.78) and PD signal (p=0.38). Out of 37 joints presenting US-determined GS-synovitis, 18 joints showed PD signal. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence of synovitis and tenosynovitis on B-mode US in JIA patients with clinical inactivity. In addition, inflammatory activity upheld by power-Doppler has been shown in a few joints from patients on medication. © Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2014.

Lopez Martinez J.,Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa
Nutrición hospitalaria : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral | Year: 2011

Nutritional support in acute renal failure must take into account the patient's catabolism and the treatment of the renal failure. Hypermetabolic failure is common in these patients, requiring continuous renal replacement therapy or daily hemodialysis. In patients with normal catabolism (urea nitrogen below 10 g/day) and preserved diuresis, conservative treatment can be attempted. In these patients, relatively hypoproteic nutritional support is essential, using proteins with high biological value and limiting fluid and electrolyte intake according to the patient's individual requirements. Micronutrient intake should be adjusted, the only buffering agent used being bicarbonate. Limitations on fluid, electrolyte and nitrogen intake no longer apply when extrarenal clearance techniques are used but intake of these substances should be modified according to the type of clearance. Depending on their hemofiltration flow, continuous renal replacement systems require high daily nitrogen intake, which can sometimes reach 2.5 g protein/kg. The amount of volume replacement can induce energy overload and therefore the use of glucose-free replacement fluids and glucose-free dialysis or a glucose concentration of 1 g/L, with bicarbonate as a buffer, is recommended. Monitoring of electrolyte levels (especially those of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium) and of micronutrients is essential and administration of these substances should be individually-tailored.

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