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Ozturk G.,Maltepe University | Akbulut K.G.,Gazi University | Guney S.,Gazi University | Acuna-Castroviejo D.,University of Granada | Acuna-Castroviejo D.,Hospital Universitario San Cecilio
Experimental Gerontology

Oxidative stress is an important factor for aging. The antioxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) play a crucial role protecting the organism against the age-dependent oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) is present in nearly all living cells. GSH is one of the main antioxidants in the cell and it serves several physiological functions. Our purpose was to evaluate the age-related changes in mitochondrial GPx, GRd and SOD activities, and mitochondrial GSH pool in the brains of young (3. months) and aged rats (24. months). We also investigated whether melatonin administration influences these brain mitochondrial enzyme activities and GSH levels in young and aged rats. The results showed that GPx activity increased with age, whereas melatonin treatment decreased GPx activity in the aged rats at levels similar to those in young and young. +. melatonin groups. The activities of GRd and SOD, however, did not change with age. But, melatonin treatment increased SOD activity in the aged rats. GSH levels, which also increased with age, were not modified by melatonin treatment. The reduction in the SOD/GPx and GR/GPx ratios with age was prevented by melatonin administration. Together, our results suggest that the age-related oxidative stress in rat brain mitochondria is more apparent when the antioxidant enzyme ratios are analyzed instead of their absolute values. The antioxidative effects of melatonin were also supported by the recovery of the enzyme ratios during aging. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Acuna-Castroviejo D.,University of Granada | Acuna-Castroviejo D.,Hospital Universitario San Cecilio | Escames G.,University of Granada | Venegas C.,University of Granada | And 6 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

Endogenous melatonin is synthesized from tryptophan via 5-hydroxytryptamine. It is considered an indoleamine from a biochemical point of view because the melatonin molecule contains a substituted indolic ring with an amino group. The circadian production of melatonin by the pineal gland explains its chronobiotic influence on organismal activity, including the endocrine and non-endocrine rhythms. Other functions of melatonin, including its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, its genomic effects, and its capacity to modulate mitochondrial homeostasis, are linked to the redox status of cells and tissues. with the aid of specific melatonin antibodies, the presence of melatonin has been detected in multiple extrapineal tissues including the brain, retina, lens, cochlea, Harderian gland, airway epithelium, skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, thyroid, pancreas, thymus, spleen, immune system cells, carotid body, reproductive tract, and endothelial cells. In most of these tissues, the melatonin-synthesizing enzymes have been identified. Melatonin is present in essentially all biological fluids including cerebrospinal flluid, saliva, bile, synovial fluid, amniotic fluid, and breast milk. In several of these fluids, melatonin concentrations exceed those in the blood. The importance of the continual availability of melatonin at the cellular level is important for its physiological regulation of cell homeostasis, and may be relevant to its therapeutic applications. Because of this, it is essential to compile information related to its peripheral production and regulation of this ubiquitously acting indoleamine. Thus, this review emphasizes the presence of melatonin in extrapineal organs, tissues, and fluids of mammals including humans. © Springer Basel 2014. Source

Perinatal mortality has significantly decreased over the last decades. Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. The main objective is to analyze the evolution of perinatal mortality and its causes in newborn infants with a birth weight of less than 1000 grams over the last 20 years (1991-2010). Observational, descriptive, longitudinal and ecological study. A total of 264 infants weighing less than 1000 g out of a total of 56 024 births during the study period. Different specific perinatal mortality rates by weight were calculated. The Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient was applied to assess the relationship between mortality rates and years of study, and ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare five-year periods and ten-year periods, respectively. There were 131 perinatal deaths, 82 stillbirths and 49 early neonatal deaths; 64.1% of them occurred before 27 weeks of gestation. Only the fetal mortality rate was statistically significant, although perinatal mortality showed a downward trend, without reaching significance. The main immediate causes of death were extreme prematurity, intrauterine hypoxia and infection. The underlying causes related to death in this group of newborn infants were infection caused by premature rupture of membranes, maternal hypertension, uncontrollable preterm labor and twin pregnancy. The reduction in mortality rates in this group of newborn infants is undergoing a slowdown. Source

Leno-Duran E.,University of Granada | Munoz-Fernandez R.,Institute Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra | Garcia Olivares E.,University of Granada | Garcia Olivares E.,Hospital Universitario San Cecilio | And 2 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Immunology

A successful pregnancy relies on immunological adaptations that allow the fetus to grow and develop in the uterus, despite being recognized by maternal immune cells. Among several immunocompetent cell types present within the human maternal/fetal interface, DC-SIGN + dendritic cells (DCs) and CD56 + natural killer (NK) cells are of major importance for early pregnancy maintenance, not only generating maternal immunological tolerance but also regulating stromal cell differentiation. Previous reports show the presence of NK-DC cell conjugates in first trimester human decidua, suggesting that these cells may play a role in the modulation of the local immune response within the uterus. While effective immunity is necessary to protect the mother from harmful pathogens, some form of tolerance must be activated to avoid an immune response against fetal antigens. This review article discusses current evidence concerning the functions of DC and NK cells in pregnancy and their liaison in human decidua. © 2014 CSI and USTC. All rights reserved. Source

Cortes-Berdonces M.,Hospital Universitario San Cecilio
Nutrición hospitalaria : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral

Anemia is a common condition among surgical and critically ill patients and it is usually treated with allogenic blood transfusion (ABT). As ABT is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, alternative therapies for anemia in these patients are actively investigated. To asses the potential usefulness of intravenous iron therapy in critically-ill or surgical patients with anemia. Methods: Review of published papers with intravenous iron in these patients. Bibliographical search on database Medline (www.ncvi.nlm.nih.gov). Treatment with intravenous iron is not sufficient to treat the anemia of critically ill patients. Its association with erythropoietin (EPO) may have an effect on the rate of ABT, but it has not been shown to improve morbidity, mortality or length of hospital stay. In gastrointestinal or trauma surgery there is no evidence to support the routine preoperative treatment with intravenous iron, although it may be beneficial when it is used with erythropoietin. Intravenous iron alone or in combination with EPO in the postoperative period has not been proved useful for rapid correction of anemia, reduction of hospital stay or mortality. Source

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