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The current definition and severity stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) focus excessively on spirometric criteria alone. Measurement of chronic airflow obstruction and its degree of reversibility is complex. The etiology of this disease cannot be fully explained in relation to smoking and the heterogeneity of this systemic disease septiemthat affects mainly the lung cannot be expressed through forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1) alone. This simplification was useful for a period but the loss of clinical subtlety in large studies hampers interpretation of their results and their conclusions lose external validity. Accepting the complexity of COPD requires substituting the analytic focus centered on FEV1 for a multifaceted approach that integrates other aspects in the analysis of real COPD patients. Identifying and classifying clinically significant subgroups or "COPD phenotypes" may help to guide treatment more efficiently. In patients with COPD, mortality due to cardiovascular diseases or malignancies occurs earlier than that due to respiratory causes; that is, deaths from COPD occur in patients not succumbing to cardiovascular diseases or cancer. To prolong survival in these patients, comorbidity should be evaluated and treated. COPD treatment based on severity measured by lung function can no longer be recommended. The various therapeutic options should be individualized according to the patient's other characteristics. © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved. Source

Martin-Escudero J.C.,Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega
Revista Clinica Espanola | Year: 2010

A 60-year old male patient with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus consulted due to high blood pressure, fearful of suffering ischemic heart disease. He also had a background of smoking 20 cigarettes/day for the last 30 years, but this did not concern him. In the questioning, he reported, although he did not consider it important, that he had cough and dyspnea on moderate exertions for some years. It is very unlikely that any internal medicine physician would doubt about whether to evaluate and treat his type 2 diabetes mellitus or high blood pressure, calculate his cardiovascular risk or if he has a metabolic syndrome, attempt to reduce his obesity and to make him stop smoking. However, should we label him as having chronic bronchitis or COPD? Should we perform a spirometry and bronchodilater test, treat his probable COPD? All his current symptoms are probably only due to COPD. © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved. Source

Montalvillo E.,University of Valladolid | Montalvillo E.,Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega | Montalvillo E.,Imperial College London | Arranz E.,Imperial College London
Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas | Year: 2014

The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response –so-called innate immunity– to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions. © 2014 Arán Ediciones, S. L. Source

San Roman J.A.,Hospital Clinico Universitario | Vilacosta I.,Hospital Clinico San Carlos | Lopez J.,Hospital Clinico Universitario | Revilla A.,Hospital Clinico Universitario | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography | Year: 2012

The added value of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) over transthoracic echocardiography in the assessment of left-sided infective endocarditis has been extensively validated in the literature. Little research has dealt with the role of echocardiography in right-sided infective endocarditis (RSE), however. In this review, the differences between RSE and left-sided endocarditis and the different types of RSE according to the types of patients who have the disease are described. Both issues have important implications for echocardiographic workup. Moreover, a systematic echocardiographic protocol to avoid missing right-sided vegetations and several specific morphologic aspects of RSE are reviewed. Normal right-sided structures, which may mimic vegetations, particularly when the clinical picture is compatible, are described. Finally, the value of transthoracic echocardiography and TEE in RSE is reviewed according to the publications available. The diagnostic yield of transthoracic echocardiography is comparable with that of TEE in intravenous drug users. On the contrary, TEE is mandatory in patients with cardiac devices. A Bayesian-based diagnostic approach is proposed for a third poorly characterized group of patients with RSE who are not drug addicts, have no cardiac devices, and have no left-sided endocarditis (the "three no's" endocarditis group). © 2012 American Society of Echocardiography. Source

Perez-Miranda M.,Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega
Current gastroenterology reports | Year: 2013

EUS-guided biliary access procedures can target the gallbladder or the bile duct for drainage in selected cases. EUS-guided gallbladder drainage offers comparable results to percutaneous cholecystostomy in high-surgical risk patients with acute cholecystitis refractory to medical treatment. The procedure is not yet widely available. Novel lumen-apposing stents may improve long-term outcomes, resulting in rapid dissemination. EUS access to the bile duct is coupled with ERCP techniques into a hybrid procedure, endosono-cholangiopancreatography (ESCP). ESCP admits six variant approaches to bile duct drainage based on the combination of two access routes (intrahepatic and extrahepatic) with three drainage routes: transmural, retrograde transpapillary and antegrade transpapillary. A thousand ESCP cases have been reported to date with good outcomes. When the expertise is available, ESCP is increasingly replacing percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage to provide biliary drainage in patients in whom ERCP is not feasible, predominantly in the setting of palliation, but not limited to it. Source

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