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Chen Y.,Chinese Peoples Liberation Army | Chen Y.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Schieppati A.,Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo | Cai G.,Chinese Peoples Liberation Army | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2013

Background and objectives The efficacy and safety of immunosuppression for idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) with nephrotic syndrome are still controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Cochrane Library, PUBMED, EMBASE, Chinese Database, and Clinical Trial Registries (June 2012) were searched to identify RCTs investigating the effect of immunosuppression on adults with IMN and nephrotic syndrome. Results This review was an update (36 RCTs, 1762 participants) of the 2004 version (18 RCTs, 1025 participants). Immunosuppression significantly reduced all-cause mortality or ESRD (15 RCTs, 791 participants; risk ratio, 0.58 [95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.95]; P=0.03). However, the result was not consistent when prespecified subgroup analyses were undertaken. Immunosuppression increased complete or partial remission (CR + PR) (16 RCTs, 864 participants; 1.31 [1.01-1.70]; P=0.04) but resulted in more withdrawals or hospitalizations (16 RCTs, 880 participants; 5.35 [2.19-13.02]; P=0.002). Corticosteroids combined with alkylating agents significantly reduced all-cause mortality or ESRD (8 RCTs, 448 participants; 0.44 [0.26-0.75]; P=0.002) and increased CR + PR (7 RCTs, 422 participants; 1.46 [1.13-1.89]; P=0.004) but led to more adverse events (4 RCTs, 303 participants; 4.20 [1.15-15.32]; P=0.03). Cyclophosphamide was safer than chlorambucil (3 RCTs, 147 participants; 0.48 [0.26-0.90]; P=0.02). Cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil failed to show superiority over alkylating agents. Tacrolimus and adrenocorticotropic hormone significantly reduced proteinuria. Conclusions Alkylating agents plus corticosteroids had long-term and short-term benefits for adult IMN, but resulted in more withdrawals or hospitalizations. © 2013 by the American Society of Nephrology.

Sainz T.,Servicio Of Pediatria E Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Hospital Gregorio Maranon | Ortega-Hernandez A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria San Carlos IdISSC | Serrano-Villar S.,Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal and | Navarro M.L.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014

We assessed high-density lipoprotein (HDL) antiinflammatory properties in a cohort of vertically HIV-infected adolescents. We hypothesized that proatherogenic mechanisms related to inflammation and immune activation during HIV infection may impair HDL functionality and impact on the atherosclerotic burden. Compared with healthy controls, HDL from HIV-infected adolescents presented impaired functionality, as determined by its ability to inhibit monocyte chemotaxis in vitro, which correlated with detectable viral loads (P = 0.044), lower CD4 nadir (P = 0.043), increased levels of CD4 T-cell activation (P = 0.018), higher C-reactive protein (P = 0.009), and a tendency toward thicker carotid intima-media thickness (P = 0.071). Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Tato M.,Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal and | Tato M.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Garcia-Castillo M.,Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal and | Garcia-Castillo M.,Institute Salud Carlos III | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2015

Ceftolozane/tazobactam is a novel antimicrobial agent with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including drug-resistant strains, and other Gram-negative pathogens, including most extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The CENIT study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam and comparators against clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa (n = 500) and Enterobacteriaceae (n = 500) collected from patients with complicated intra-abdominal, complicated urinary tract, lower respiratory tract or bloodstream infections in 10 medical centres in Spain (January-September 2013). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the ISO broth microdilution method using commercial dry-form panels and results were interpreted per EUCAST and CLSI guidelines and for ceftolozane/tazobactam with FDA criteria. Ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftolozane alone were the most potent (MIC50/90, 0.5/4 mg/L) agents tested against all P. aeruginosa isolates. This advantage was maintained regardless of resistance phenotype, even against isolates resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ceftolozane/tazobactam demonstrated excellent overall activity (MIC50/90, 0.25/0.5 mg/L) against all 250 Escherichia coli isolates, including isolates displaying a wild-type (MIC90, 0.25/0.25 mg/L) or ESBL (MIC50/90, 0.5/1 mg/L) phenotype, and good activity against isolates displaying an AmpC-like phenotype (MIC range 0.25-4 mg/L). Ceftolozane/tazobactam demonstrated good overall activity (MIC50/90, 0.25/4 mg/L) against all 104 Klebsiella spp. isolates, although activity was lower against those with an ESBL phenotype (MIC50/90, 4/16 mg/L), and was inactive against the carbapenemase-producing isolates (MIC ≥ 64 mg/L). Ceftolozane/tazobactam demonstrated excellent in vitro activity against most of the P. aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates obtained from medical centres in Spain, supporting the potential value of ceftolozane/tazobactam in treating infections due to these pathogens. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

Serrano-Villar S.,Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal and | Sobrino-Vegas P.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Monge S.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Dronda F.,Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal and | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Viral Hepatitis | Year: 2015

Summary While hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection seems to be expanding among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), the rate of coinfection in intravenous drug users (IDU) is assumed to remain constant. We evaluated the serial prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection across all risk groups for HIV infection in Spain. We used data from 7045 subjects included in the multicentre, prospective Spanish Cohort of Adult HIV-infected Patients (CoRIS) between 2004 and 2011. We analysed risk factors for HIV/HCV coinfection by logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection decreased from 25.3% (95% CI, 23.1-27.5) in 2004-2005 to 8.2% (95% CI, 6.9-9.5) in 2010-2011. This trend was consistently observed from 2004 to 2011 among all risk groups: IDU, 92.4% to 81.4%; MSM, 4.7% to 2.6%; heterosexual men, 13.0-8.9%; and heterosexual women, 14.5-4.0% (all P < 0.05). Strongest risk factors for HIV/HCV coinfection were IDU (OR, 54.9; 95% CI, 39.4-76.4), birth decade 1961-1970 (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7) and low educational level (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6-3.5). Hence, the prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection decreased in Spain between 2004 and 2011. This decline was observed across all risk groups and is likely to be explained by a declining burden of HCV in the general population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Gutierrez C.,Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal and | Diaz L.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Vallejo A.,Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal and | Hernandez-Novoa B.,Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal and | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Objective: The primary objective was to assess the effect of MVC intensification on latently infected CD4 + T cells in chronically HIV-1-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Methods: We performed an open-label pilot phase II clinical trial involving chronically HIV-1-infected patients receiving stable antiretroviral therapy whose regimen was intensified with 48 weeks of maraviroc therapy. We analyzed the latent reservoir, the residual viremia and episomal 2LTR DNA to examine the relationship between these measures and the HIV-1 latent reservoir, immune activation, lymphocyte subsets (including effector and central memory T cells), and markers associated with bacterial translocation. Results: Overall a non significant reduction in the size of the latent reservoir was found (p = 0.068). A mean reduction of 1.82 IUPM was observed in 4 patients with detectable latent reservoir at baseline after 48 weeks of intensification. No effect on plasma residual viremia was observed. Unexpectedly, all the patients had detectable 2LTR DNA circles at week 24, while none of them showed those circles at the end of the study. No changes were detected in CD4 + or CD8 + counts, although a significant decrease was found in the proportion of HLA-DR +/CD38 + CD4 + and CD8 + T-cells. LPS and sCD14 levels increased. Conclusions: Intensification with MVC was associated with a trend to a decrease in the size of the latent HIV-1 reservoir in memory T cells. No impact on residual viremia was detected. Additional studies with larger samples are needed to confirm the results. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00795444. © 2011 Gutiérrez, et al.

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