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De Francisco A.L.M.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla | Rodriguez M.,Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia
Nefrologia | Year: 2013

Magnesium containing compounds present promising oral phosphate binders for the treatment of hyperphosphataemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the impact of magnesium in CKD patients still remains unclear in clinical routine practice. Therefore, this publication provides a practicable overview of knowledge about the physiological role of magnesium in general and in particular in CKD patients. Prevalence of hypomagnesaemia is high in the general population and especially in intensive care unit patients, but often not being detected. Magnesium deficiency increases the risk for several diseases, like diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Moderate hypermagnesaemia, however, seems to have beneficial effects on vascular calcification and mortality rates in CKD patients. On the other hand, higher serum magnesium levels are reported to be linked to lower PTH levels and results on the effects on bone are controversial. In addition, low magnesium levels are associated with low bone mass, osteoporosis and vascular calcification. In dialysis patients serum magnesium levels are dependent mainly on the dialysate magnesium concentration. To confirm the potential delay of arterial calcification and improved survival outcomes by long-term intervention with magnesium powered randomized studies are required in dialysis patients. Since a recent trial revealed that a phosphate binder containing a combination of magnesium carbonate and calcium acetate was as effective as the polymer-based agent sevelamer hydrochloride and had an equally good tolerability profile, it is time for a re-examination of the role of magnesium in CKD patients. © 2013 Revista Nefrología. Órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nefrología.


Martino J.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla | De Lucas E.M.,Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla
Clinical Anatomy | Year: 2014

Precise knowledge of the connectivities of the different white matter bundles is of great value for neuroscience research. Our knowledge of subcortical anatomy has improved exponentially during recent decades owing to the development of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging tractography (DTI). Although DTI tractography has led to important progress in understanding white matter anatomy, the precise trajectory and cortical connections of the subcortical bundles remain poorly determined. The recent literature was extensively reviewed in order to analyze the trajectories and cortical terminations of the lateral association fibers of the brain.The anatomy of the following tracts is reviewed: superior longitudinal fasciculus, middle longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, frontal aslant tract, and vertical occipital fasciculus. The functional role of a tract can be inferred from its topography within the brain. Knowing the functional roles of the cortical areas connected by a certain bundle, it is possible to develop new insights into the putative functional properties of such connections. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Corrales A.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla | Gonzalez-Juanatey C.,Hospital Lucus Augusti | Peiro M.E.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla | Blanco R.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla | And 3 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine if the use of carotid ultrasonography (US) may improve the stratification of the cardiovascular (CV) risk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A set of 370 consecutive patients without history of CV events were studied to assess carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaques. As previously proposed, CV risk was calculated according to the modified EULAR systematic coronary risk evaluation (mSCORE) for RA that was adapted by the application of a multiplier factor of 1.5 in those patients fulfilling =2 of 3 specific criteria. Results: The mean disease duration was 9.8 years, 250 (68%) had rheumatoid factor/anticyclic citrullinated peptide positivity and 61 (17%) extra-articular manifestations. 43 were excluded because they had type 2 diabetes mellitus or severe chronic kidney disease. CV risk was categorised in the remaining 327 RA patients according to the mSCORE: mild (96 cases; 29.3%), moderate (201; 61.5%) and high/very high risk (30; 9.2%). Only five patients were reclassified as having high/very high CV risk when the mSCORE was applied. Severe carotid US abnormalities (cIMT >0.90 mm and/or plaques) were uncommon in patients with low mSCORE (13%). Nevertheless, in patients with moderate mSCORE, severe carotid US abnormalities were observed in 63% of cases. A model that included a chart mSCORE risk ≥5% plus the presence of severe carotid US findings in patients with moderate mSCORE risk (≥1% and <5%) yielded high sensitivity for high/very high CV risk (93 (95% CI 88 to 96)). Conclusions Our results support the use of carotid US in the assessment of CV risk in patients with RA.


Gonzalez-Juanatey C.,Hospital Xeral Calde | Llorca J.,University of Cantabria | Gonzalez-Gay M.A.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2011

Introduction: In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (FMD) and carotid artery intima-media wall thickness (IMT), two surrogate markers of atherosclerosis, in a series of Spanish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without clinically evident cardiovascular (CV) disease.Methods: One hundred eighteen patients who fulfilled the 1987 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for RA, had no history of CV disease and had at least one year of follow-up after disease diagnosis were randomly selected. Brachial and carotid ultrasonography were performed to determine FMD and carotid IMT, respectively.Results: Carotid IMT values were higher and FMD percentages derived by performing ultrasonography were lower in individuals with a long duration from the time of disease diagnosis. Patients with a disease duration ≤ 7 years had significantly lower carotid IMT (mean ± SD) 0.69 ± 0.17 mm than those with long disease duration (0.81 ± 0.12 mm in patients with ≥ 20 years of follow-up). Also, patients with a long disease duration had severe endothelial dysfunction (FMD 4.0 ± 4.0% in patients with disease duration from 14.5 to 19.7 years) compared with those with shorter disease duration (FMD 7.4 ± 3.8% in patients with disease duration ≤ 7 years). Linear regression analysis revealed that carotid IMT was unrelated to FMD in the whole sample of 118 patients. However, carotid IMT was negatively associated with FMD when the time from disease diagnosis ranged from 7.5 to 19.7 years (P = 0.02).Conclusions: In patients with RA without CV disease, endothelial dysfunction and carotid IMT increased with the duration of RA. The association between FMD and carotid IMT values was observed only in patients with long disease duration. © 2011 González-Juanatey et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Smillie C.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Smillie C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Garcillan-Barcia M.P.,University of Cantabria | Francia M.V.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla | And 3 more authors.
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews | Year: 2010

Plasmids are key vectors of horizontal gene transfer and essential genetic engineering tools. They code for genes involved in many aspects of microbial biology, including detoxication, virulence, ecological interactions, and antibiotic resistance. While many studies have decorticated the mechanisms of mobility in model plasmids, the identification and characterization of plasmid mobility from genome data are unexplored. By reviewing the available data and literature, we established a computational protocol to identify and classify conjugation and mobilization genetic modules in 1,730 plasmids. This allowed the accurate classification of proteobacterial conjugative or mobilizable systems in a combination of four mating pair formation and six relaxase families. The available evidence suggests that half of the plasmids are nonmobilizable and that half of the remaining plasmids are conjugative. Some conjugative systems are much more abundant than others and preferably associated with some clades or plasmid sizes. Most very large plasmids are nonmobilizable, with evidence of ongoing domestication into secondary chromosomes. The evolution of conjugation elements shows ancient divergence between mobility systems, with relaxases and type IV coupling proteins (T4CPs) often following separate paths from type IV secretion systems. Phylogenetic patterns of mobility proteins are consistent with the phylogeny of the host prokaryotes, suggesting that plasmid mobility is in general circumscribed within large clades. Our survey suggests the existence of unsuspected new relaxases in archaea and new conjugation systems in cyanobacteria and actinobacteria. Few genes, e.g., T4CPs, relaxases, and VirB4, are at the core of plasmid conjugation, and together with accessory genes, they have evolved into specific systems adapted to specific physiological and ecological contexts. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Learning disorders are very frequent among children with epilepsy. The etiology is multifactorial, being affected by the type of epileptic syndrome, the cause of epilepsy, a high frequency of epileptic seizures, a previous history of status epilepticus, the age of onset of epilepsy, the antiepileptic treatment being selected, and the role of interictal epileptiform discharges. Several studies have sought to analyze to what extent cognitive impairment can be attributed to interictal epileptiform discharges among the other epilepsy factors. To review the existing evidence on the cognitive impact of interictal epileptiform discharges in children. The disruptive effect of interictal epileptiform discharges on cognition is supported by a wide range of factors, such as the concept of transient cognitive impairment, the definition of epileptic encephalopathy, the natural course of epileptic syndromes with continuous spike and wave activity during slow sleep, the concept of autistic regression related to epileptiform activity, the cognitive profile of benign rolandic epilepsy, and the cognitive impact of non convulsive status epilepticus. According to this information it has been suggested that treatment of interictal epileptiform discharges with antiepileptic drugs could improve cognition and behaviour in these children. Interictal epileptiform discharges are associated with neuropsychological disorders like cognitive impairment and behavioral problems even in absence of clinical epilepsy. Uncontrolled reports and three preliminary randomised controlled trials of antiepileptic treatment of interictal epileptiform discharges have suggested that suppression of discharges is associated with significant improvement in psychosocial function. However, a greater number of controlled studies are required to be carried out, in order to confirm this hypothesis.


Ortiz J.S.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla
Clinical and Translational Oncology | Year: 2012

Aim The aim of this study is to analyze the use of CT in terminal stage cancer and the percentage of patients who received UCPD in 2009 and 2010 on the Medical Oncology and Palliative Home Care integrated service (UCPD) ward of the Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital. Method Retrospective analysis of death rate registered on the Medical Oncology ward for 2009 and 2010 and the recorded date of the last CT given. The data are analyzed using the SPSS version 15.0 statistic package. Data were obtained from the Database Minimum Set for oncology admissions. Results The death rate on the Medical Oncology ward is 22-24 %. Total number of cases studied is 303. 47 % of patients are aged 60 or younger. 81.8 % (248) received active cancer treatment; of these, 138 (55.6 %) in the last month, and 84 (33.8 %) in the last 2 weeks. Only 66 patients out of those who died on the ward (21 %) were previously sent to the UCPD. Conclusions Even when it is known that the majority of cancer patients become resistant to CT at the end of their lives, it is often given to patients of all ages. The request for palliative care is rare and often late. © 2012 Federación de Sociedades Españolas de Oncología (FESEO).


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the 3-dimensional relationships of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) within the temporal stem using anatomic dissection and to study the surgical application. METHODS: Ten postmortem human hemispheres (5 right, 5 left) were dissected using the Klingler fiber dissection technique. The 3-dimensional relationships of the IFOF with different landmarks of the temporal stem, insula, and temporal lobe were analyzed and measured. RESULTS: An average distance of 10.9 mm (range, 8-15 mm) was observed between the limen insulae and the anterior edge of the IFOF under the inferior limiting sulcus of the insula. This anterior one-third of the temporal stem is crossed by the uncinate fasciculus. The IFOF crosses the posterior two-thirds of the temporal stem, in the space between the posterior limit of the uncinate fasciculus and the lateral geniculate body. The average superoinferior distance between the IFOF and the inferior limiting sulcus was 3.8 mm. The auditory radiations and the claustro-opercular and insulo-opercular fibers of the external and extreme capsules pass through the temporal stem above the IFOF, whereas the optic radiations pass below. CONCLUSION: In the transsylvian approach to the mesiotemporal structures in the left dominant hemisphere, an incision within the posterior 8 mm from the limen insulae is less likely to damage the IFOF than more posterior incisions along the inferior limiting sulcus. In the temporal transopercular approach to left temporo-insular gliomas, the IFOF constitutes the deep functional limit of the resection within the temporal stem.


Martin-Millan M.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla | Castaneda S.,Hospital Universitario Of La Princesa
Joint Bone Spine | Year: 2013

Estrogens participate in several biological processes through different molecular mechanisms. Their final actions consist of a combination of both direct and indirect effects on different organ and tissues. Estrogen may have pro- and anti-inflammatory properties depending on the situation and the involved tissue. In general, acute loss of estrogens increases the levels of reactive oxygen species and activates nuclear factor-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, indicating their predominant anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression has been shown to be attenuated by estrogen replacement. Osteoarthritis and cardiovascular disease are two of the more prevalent diseases once menopause is established, which has suggested the link between estrogens and both processes. In addition, deletion of estrogen receptors in female mice results in cartilage damage, osteophytosis and changes in the subchondral bone of the joints suggesting that estrogens have a protective role on the maintenance of joint homeostasis. Furthermore, in spite of the negative effect of estrogen replacement reported in 2002 by the Women's Health Initiative study, several works published afterwards have explored the potential protective effect of estrogen supplementation in animal models and have postulated that these actions may justify a beneficial role of estrogens in different diseases where inflammation is the major feature. In this review, we will analyze the effects of estrogens on certain pathological situations such as osteoarthritis, some autoimmune diseases and coronary heart disease, especially in postmenopausal women. © 2013.


This article describes the use of clinical simulations for training residents in anesthesiology and postoperative recovery care at Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla. A working group defined criteria for the competencies residents would acquire by means of simulation training, designed the scenarios to be used, and took responsibility for coordinating and funding the program. We used the platform of the Critical Events Training Center of the Marcelino Botin Foundation, now part of our center's virtual hospital. The simulation-based training modules include 4 activities in the residents' first year, 3 in each of the second and third years, and 4 in the fourth year; all center on acquisition of the identified competencies and take into consideration the time availability of residents and instructors and the budget. We have concluded that integrating clinical simulations into residency training is a challenge for educators, given that a large part of the benefit derived from this tool comes from complementing it with other instructional resources and adapting it to the syllabus. More studies are required to establish criteria to guide the integration of this tool into the curriculum in those areas of the specialty where it can work most efficiently; the effectiveness of the approach also needs to be assessed. Simulations facilitate training without putting patients at risk and provide residents with early exposure to situations that might otherwise be difficult to observe. This tool also encourages the practice of reflective clinical decision-making.

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