Sanz M.A.,Hospital Universitario La Paz
Thrombosis research | Year: 2010
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by a specific genetic alteration, affecting the retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RAR-alpha), and leading to the accumulation of the promyelocytic blasts in the bone marrow and blood which is frequently associated with a life-threatening consumptive coagulopathy. The body of biological information on APL establishes this leukemia as a unique entity that has to be promptly recognized to counteract the coagulopathy, especially in light of its striking response to treatment with all-trans retinoic acid. In fact, the current standard for induction therapy results in extremely high antileukemic efficacy, achieving 90 to 95% complete remission rate. However, while primary leukemia resistance has virtually disappeared as a cause of remission induction failure, death due to hemorrhage remains the major problem during the early treatment phase. As a part of the clotting activation commonly present in APL, thrombosis is a less recognized and probably underestimated life-threatening manifestation in patients with this disease. In addition to reviewing the available data on the incidence, outcome and prognostic factors of bleeding and thrombosis in APL, we discuss the current consensus and controversies on the most appropriate management of these complications.
Espinosa E.,Hospital Universitario La Paz
Cancer metastasis reviews | Year: 2012
Gene signatures can provide prognostic and predictive information to help in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Although many of these signatures have been described, only a few have been properly validated. MammaPrint and OncoType offer prognostic information and identify low-risk patients who do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. With regard to prediction of response, molecular subtypes of breast cancer differ in their sensitivity to chemotherapy, although further studies are needed in this field. Cost, small sample size, and the need to use central laboratories are common limitations to the widespread use of these tools.
Villanueva R.,Hospital Universitario La Paz
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2012
Relative to non-human primates, in humans the cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex are brain regions which have undergone major evolutionary changes. In recent decades, progress in molecular biology and advances in the development of functional neuroimaging analysis have shown that the evolution of the human cerebellum was accompanied by the acquisition of more functions than were previously deduced from human post-mortem studies and animal experimentation. These new cerebellar functions included the control of attention and other cognitive functions, emotions and mood, and social behavior, which were all thought to represent cortical functions. The importance of this new view of cerebellar physiology has been confirmed by the frequency of neuropsychiatric disorders in individuals with cerebellar abnormalities. The information collected in this review emphasizes the importance of cerebellar studies in establishing the physiological substrate of mental diseases. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Rodriguez-Merchan E.C.,Hospital Universitario La Paz
Haemophilia | Year: 2012
If continuous prophylaxis is not feasible due to expense or lack of venous access, we must aggressively treat major haemarthroses (including arthrocentesis) to prevent progression to synovitis, recurrent joint bleeds, and ultimately end-stage osteoarthritis (haemophilic arthropathy). For the treatment of chronic haemophilic synovitis, radiosynovectomy should always be indicated as the first procedure. If, after three procedures with 6-month interval, radiosynovectomy fails, an arthroscopic synovectomy must be indicated. Between the second and fourth decades, many haemophilic patients develop joint destruction (arthropathy). At this stage possible treatments include alignment osteotomy, arthroscopic joint debridement, arthrodesis (joint fusion) and total joint arthroplasty. For the hip press-fit uncemented components (hemispherical acetabulum, flanged femoral stem, metal-to-polyethylene) are recommended whilst for the knee a posterior-stabilized (PS) cemented design is advised. Muscular problems must not be underestimated in haemophilia due to their risk of developing compartment syndromes (which will require surgical decompression) and pseudotumours (which will require surgical removal or percutaneous treatment). Regarding patients with inhibitors, the advent of APCCs and rFVIIa has made major orthopaedic surgery possible, leading to an improved quality of life for haemophilia patients. Concerning local fibrin seal, it is not always necessary to achieve haemostasis in all surgical procedures performed in persons with haemophilia. However, it could be a good adjunct therapy, mainly when a surgical field potentially will bleed more than expected (i.e. patients with inhibitors), and also in some orthopaedic procedures (mainly the surgical removal of pseudotumours). © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Rodriguez-Merchan E.C.,Hospital Universitario La Paz
Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery | Year: 2013
The clinical use of PRP therapy in the practical setting of orthopaedic fields is increasing partly because of the accessibility of devices that are used in outpatient preparation and delivery. Another reason is the strong advertisement of PRP procedures as the ultimate treatment and novel technology for knee problems by a few orthopaedic surgeons based on claims of abundant scientific evidence. Hence, PubMed articles related to the clinical use of PRP in knee osteoarthritis were searched using the key words: PRP, knee and osteoarthritis in order to study these claims. A total of 20 reports were found directly related to the topic. The aforementioned clinical studies suggest that intraarticular injections of PRP could have preventive effects against osteoarthritis progression. However, presently there is no clear evidence from well-designed clinical trials that intraarticular injections of PRP are efficacious in osteoarthritis. Therefore, at this time the efficacy of PRP requires more investigation, wherein better scientific studies should be performed that include high powered randomized controlled trials. © 2013 BY The Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery.