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Portoles J.,Hospital Universitario Puerta Of Hierro | Janeiro D.,Hospital Universitario Puerta Of Hierro | Lou-Arnal L.M.,Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet | Lopez-Sanchez P.,Fundacion Hospital Universitario Of Alcorcon | And 38 more authors.
Nefrologia | Year: 2013

Introduction: Peritonitis is one of the most common and severe complications associated with peritoneal dialysis (PD), constituting the primary cause of catheter loss and exit from the dialysis technique. The incidence and aetiology of peritonitis episodes vary based on geographical region, and change over time. For this reason, it is vital to maintain an updated understanding of the current risk factors and prognostic factors associated with peritonitis. Method: We performed an observational, multi-centre, prospective cohort study with a maximum follow-up period of 7 years (2003-2010), which included 1177 patients and a total of 476 first episodes of peritonitis (total: 1091 cases of peritonitis). Results: We describe the characteristics of the first episode of peritonitis from a large and current study sample. The factors associated with a shorter interval until the first episode of peritonitis as selected by the multivariate analysis included prior cardiovascular comorbidity (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 1.25 [1.04-1.58]), having previously received haemodialysis (HR: 1.39 [1.10-1.76]) or a kidney transplant (HR: 1.38 [1.10-1.93]), having started PD on a manual modality (HR: 1.39 [1.13-1.73]), and initial age >70 years (HR: 1.53 [1.23-1.90]). The first episode of peritonitis was associated with a 7.8% rate of recurrence, an 11.7% rate of catheter removal, and a mortality rate within one month of the episode of 1.3%. The progression of peritonitis infections depended on the type of causal microorganism. We calculated a greater risk for gram-negative bacterial infections (Odds Ratio [OR]: 5.31 [2.26- 12.48]) and the aggregate group of infections caused by multiple microorganisms, fungal infections, and mycobacterial infections (OR: 38.24 [13.84-105.63]), as compared to gram-positive bacterial infections. Conclusion: The development of a first case of peritonitis depends on the characteristics of the patient upon starting dialysis, comorbidities present, and the technique used. Patients at a greater risk for peritonitis must receive special care during training and follow-up. © 2013 Revista Nefrología. Órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Source

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