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Thompson B.A.,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute | Thompson B.A.,University of Queensland | Spurdle A.B.,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute | Plazzer J.-P.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | And 144 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

The clinical classification of hereditary sequence variants identified in disease-related genes directly affects clinical management of patients and their relatives. The International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT) undertook a collaborative effort to develop, test and apply a standardized classification scheme to constitutional variants in the Lynch syndrome-associated genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Unpublished data submission was encouraged to assist in variant classification and was recognized through microattribution. The scheme was refined by multidisciplinary expert committee review of the clinical and functional data available for variants, applied to 2,360 sequence alterations, and disseminated online. Assessment using validated criteria altered classifications for 66% of 12,006 database entries. Clinical recommendations based on transparent evaluation are now possible for 1,370 variants that were not obviously protein truncating from nomenclature. This large-scale endeavor will facilitate the consistent management of families suspected to have Lynch syndrome and demonstrates the value of multidisciplinary collaboration in the curation and classification of variants in public locus-specific databases. © 2014 Nature America, Inc.


Vidriales M.-B.,Hospital Universitario Of Salamanca | Vidriales M.-B.,Institute Biologia Molecular y Celular del Cancer CIC CSIC | Perez-Lopez E.,Hospital Universitario Of Salamanca | Pegenaute C.,Hospital Universitario Of Salamanca | And 26 more authors.
Leukemia Research | Year: 2015

The clinical utility of minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is not yet defined. We analysed the prognostic impact of MRD level at complete remision after induction therapy using multiparameter flow cytometry in 306 non-APL AML patients. First, we validated the prognostic value of MRD-thresholds we have previously proposed (≥0.1%; ≥0.01-0.1%; and <0.01), with a 5-year RFS of 38%, 50% and 71%, respectively (p = 0.002). Cytogenetics is the most relevant prognosis factor in AML, however intermediate risk cytogenetics represent a grey zone that require other biomarkers for risk stratification, and we show that MRD evaluation discriminate three prognostic subgroups (p = 0.03). Also, MRD assessments yielded relevant information on favourable and adverse cytogenetics, since patients with favourable cytogenetics and high MRD levels have poor prognosis and patients with adverse cytogenetics but undetectable MRD overcomes the adverse prognosis. Interestingly, in patients with intermediate or high MRD levels, intensification with transplant improved the outcome as compared with chemotherapy, while the type of intensification therapy did not influenced the outcome of patients with low MRD levels. Multivariate analysis revealed age, MRD and cytogenetics as independent variables. Moreover, a scoring system, easy in clinical practice, was generated based on MRD level and cytogenetics. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Castillejo A.,Hospital Universitario Elche | Guarinos C.,Hospital Universitario Elche | Martinez-Canto A.,Hospital Universitario Elche | Barbera V.,Hospital Universitario Elche | And 18 more authors.
BMC Medical Genetics | Year: 2011

Background: Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndrome characterized by early onset cancers of the colorectum, endometrium and other tumours. A significant proportion of DNA variants in LS patients are unclassified. Reports on the pathogenicity of the c.1852_1853AA>GC (p.Lys618Ala) variant of the MLH1 gene are conflicting. In this study, we provide new evidence indicating that this variant has no significant implications for LS.Methods: The following approach was used to assess the clinical significance of the p.Lys618Ala variant: frequency in a control population, case-control comparison, co-occurrence of the p.Lys618Ala variant with a pathogenic mutation, co-segregation with the disease and microsatellite instability in tumours from carriers of the variant. We genotyped p.Lys618Ala in 1034 individuals (373 sporadic colorectal cancer [CRC] patients, 250 index subjects from families suspected of having LS [revised Bethesda guidelines] and 411 controls). Three well-characterized LS families that fulfilled the Amsterdam II Criteria and consisted of members with the p.Lys618Ala variant were included to assess co-occurrence and co-segregation. A subset of colorectal tumour DNA samples from 17 patients carrying the p.Lys618Ala variant was screened for microsatellite instability using five mononucleotide markers.Results: Twenty-seven individuals were heterozygous for the p.Lys618Ala variant; nine had sporadic CRC (2.41%), seven were suspected of having hereditary CRC (2.8%) and 11 were controls (2.68%). There were no significant associations in the case-control and case-case studies. The p.Lys618Ala variant was co-existent with pathogenic mutations in two unrelated LS families. In one family, the allele distribution of the pathogenic and unclassified variant was in trans, in the other family the pathogenic variant was detected in the MSH6 gene and only the deleterious variant co-segregated with the disease in both families. Only two positive cases of microsatellite instability (2/17, 11.8%) were detected in tumours from p.Lys618Ala carriers, indicating that this variant does not play a role in functional inactivation of MLH1 in CRC patients.Conclusions: The p.Lys618Ala variant should be considered a neutral variant for LS. These findings have implications for the clinical management of CRC probands and their relatives. © 2011 Castillejo et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Egoavil C.M.,Hospital Universitario Elche | Egoavil C.M.,Hospital Naval | Montenegro P.,Instituto Nacional Enfermedades Neoplasicas INEN | Soto J.L.,Hospital Universitario Elche | And 11 more authors.
Pathology | Year: 2011

Background: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Peru has been increasing, and no data have been published on the molecular features. We explored the most relevant genetic events involved in colorectal carcinogenesis, with clinical implications. Methods: Using immunohistochemistry for mismatch-repair (MMR) proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) and microsatellite instability analysis, we evaluated the status of 90 non-selected CRC Peruvian patients followed in a nationwide reference hospital for cancer (INEN, Lima). Tumours with loss of hMLH1 were evaluated further for hMLH1 promoter hypermethylation and all cases were evaluated for the presence of KRAS and BRAF-V600E mutations. Results: MMR deficiency was found in 35 (38.8%) patients. We identified an unexpected association between MMR deficiency and older age. Among the 14 cases with lossof MLH1, 10 samples exhibited hypermethylation. Of the 90 cases evaluated, 15 (16.7%) carried KRAS mutations; we found one previously unreported mutation (G13R). Conclusions: Peruvian CRC tumours exhibited the highest prevalence of MMR deficiency reported to date. The expected hereditary component was also high. The age of onset of these MMR deficient tumours was greater than that observed for non-MMR deficient cases, suggesting the ineffectiveness of the Bethesda criteria for Lynch syndrome screening in Peru. Prospective studies are warranted to define the molecular characteristics of CRC in this population. © 2011 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia.


De Castro J.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Garcia R.,Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Of runa | Garrido P.,IRYCIS Hospital Ramon y Cajal | Isla D.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Lozano Blesa | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Lung Cancer | Year: 2015

Approximately up to 40% of patients with lung cancer develop bone metastasis, with 22% to 59% of them experiencing skeletal-related events (SREs), which result in an important quality of life deterioration and economic burden. Denosumab, a fully human antibody that targets the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL), is indicated for prevention of SREs in patients with solid tumors and has demonstrated superiority in breast and prostate cancer, and in other solid tumors, in reducing the risk of first SRE by 17% versus zoledronic acid. In the subset of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), denosumab has also shown a positive trend to SRE risk reduction. Denosumab might have direct or indirect antitumor effects. Cancer cells produce factors that stimulate increased bone resorption by osteoclasts, which in turn release tumor growth factors into the bone microenvironment, initiating a tumor/bone vicious cycle. An increasing body of evidence suggests RANK/RANKL signaling plays a role in this tumorigenesis. Both proteins are overexpressed in different tumor types including lung cancer cells. RANK/RANKL signaling activates nuclear factor-κB pathways related to lung carcinogenesis and increases intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression and MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, which in turn enhances tumor cell migration. In animal NSCLC models, denosumab delayed bone metastases and reduced skeletal tumor growth. In patients with lung cancer (post hoc analysis), denosumab prolonged overall survival by 1.2 months versus zoledronic acid (P =.01). This hypothesis-generating outcome warrants further investigation and 2 studies in lung cancer are ongoing to elucidate the therapeutic potential of denosumab beyond SRE prevention. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Hospital Universitario La Paz, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Of runa, Hospital Universitario Alicante, Hospital Clinico Universitario Lozano Blesa and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical lung cancer | Year: 2015

Approximately up to 40% of patients with lung cancer develop bone metastasis, with 22% to 59% of them experiencing skeletal-related events (SREs), which result in an important quality of life deterioration and economic burden. Denosumab, a fully human antibody that targets the receptor activator of nuclear factor-B (RANK) ligand (RANKL), is indicated for prevention of SREs in patients with solid tumors and has demonstrated superiority in breast and prostate cancer, and in other solid tumors, in reducing the risk of first SRE by 17% versus zoledronic acid. In the subset of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), denosumab has also shown a positive trend to SRE risk reduction. Denosumab might have direct or indirect antitumor effects. Cancer cells produce factors that stimulate increased bone resorption by osteoclasts, which in turn release tumor growth factors into the bone microenvironment, initiating a tumor/bone vicious cycle. An increasing body of evidence suggests RANK/RANKL signaling plays a role in this tumorigenesis. Both proteins are overexpressed in different tumor types including lung cancer cells. RANK/RANKL signaling activates nuclear factor-B pathways related to lung carcinogenesis and increases intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression and MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, which in turn enhances tumor cell migration. In animal NSCLC models, denosumab delayed bone metastases and reduced skeletal tumor growth. In patients with lung cancer (post hoc analysis), denosumab prolonged overall survival by 1.2 months versus zoledronic acid (P= .01). This hypothesis-generating outcome warrants further investigation and 2 studies in lung cancer are ongoing to elucidate the therapeutic potential of denosumab beyond SRE prevention.


PubMed | Hospital Universitario La Paz, University of Salamanca, Hospital Universitario Of San Carlos, Complejo Hospitalario Of Leon and 11 more.
Type: | Journal: Leukemia research | Year: 2016

The clinical utility of minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is not yet defined. We analysed the prognostic impact of MRD level at complete remision after induction therapy using multiparameter flow cytometry in 306 non-APL AML patients. First, we validated the prognostic value of MRD-thresholds we have previously proposed ( 0.1%; 0.01-0.1%; and <0.01), with a 5-year RFS of 38%, 50% and 71%, respectively (p=0.002). Cytogenetics is the most relevant prognosis factor in AML, however intermediate risk cytogenetics represent a grey zone that require other biomarkers for risk stratification, and we show that MRD evaluation discriminate three prognostic subgroups (p=0.03). Also, MRD assessments yielded relevant information on favourable and adverse cytogenetics, since patients with favourable cytogenetics and high MRD levels have poor prognosis and patients with adverse cytogenetics but undetectable MRD overcomes the adverse prognosis. Interestingly, in patients with intermediate or high MRD levels, intensification with transplant improved the outcome as compared with chemotherapy, while the type of intensification therapy did not influenced the outcome of patients with low MRD levels. Multivariate analysis revealed age, MRD and cytogenetics as independent variables. Moreover, a scoring system, easy in clinical practice, was generated based on MRD level and cytogenetics.

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