Miravitlles M.,Hospital Universitari Vall dHebron |
Anzueto A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2013
Prevention and effective treatment of exacerbations are major objectives in the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Antibiotics are mainstay treatment for patients with severe COPD with an acute exacerbation that includes increased sputum purulence and worsening shortness of breath. Although such treatment is associated with clinical benefit, treatment failure and relapse rates may be high, particularly in cases of inadequate antibiotic therapy through incomplete resolution of the initial exacerbation and persistent bacterial infection. These aspects have led to recommendations for a stratified approach to antibiotic therapy based on patient characteristics associated with increased risk factors for failure. Patients at greatest risk for poor outcome (i.e., those with severe COPD) are likely to derive greatest benefit from early treatment with antibiotics. Long-term or intermittent antibiotic treatment has been shown to prevent COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations. These effects may be achieved by reducing bacterial load in the airways in stable state and/or bronchial inflammation. Although systemic antibiotics are likely to remain the core treatment for patients with moderate to severe exacerbated COPD, inhaled antibiotics may represent a more optimal approach for the treatment and prevention of COPD exacerbations in the future. Regardless of the route of administration, further studies are required to evaluate the potential long-term adverse events of antibiotics and the development of bacterial resistance. Copyright © 2013 by the American Thoracic Society.
Comabella M.,Hospital Universitari Vall dHebron |
Khoury S.J.,Harvard University
Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disorder of the central nervous system characterized by autoimmune inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage. MS etiology remains unknown, but disease phenotype is most likely the result of an interaction between complex genetic factors and environmental influences. The better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the immunopathogenesis of MS has led to the development of promising new therapeutic strategies for the disease. This review will discuss the key pathogenic steps implicated in the disease and the role of the main cellular populations that drive the immune responses in MS. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Miravitlles M.,Hospital Universitari Vall dHebron |
Calle M.,Servicio de Neumologia |
Soriano J.B.,Program of Epidemiology and Clinical Research
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2013
The new Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease update has moved the principles of treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) forward by including the concepts of symptoms and risks into the decision of therapy. However, no mention of the concept of clinical phenotypes is included. It is recognised that COPD is a very heterogeneous disease and not all patients respond to all drugs available for treatment. The identification of responders to therapies is crucial in chronic diseases to provide the most appropriate treatment and avoid unnecessary medications. The classically defined phenotypes of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, together with the newly described phenotypes of overlap COPD-asthma and frequent exacerbator, allow a simple classification of patients that share clinical characteristics and outcomes and, more importantly, similar responses to existing treatments. These clinical phenotypes can help clinicians identify patients that respond to specific pharmacological interventions. For example, frequent exacerbators are the only subjects with an indication for anti-inflammatory treatment in COPD. Among them, those with chronic bronchitis are the only candidates to receive phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors. Patients with overlap COPDasthma phenotype show an enhanced response to inhaled corticosteroids and infrequent exacerbators should only receive bronchodilators. These well-defined clinical phenotypes could potentially be incorporated into treatment guidelines. Copyright©ERS 2013.
Qureshi A.,Hospital Universitari Vall dHebron
International Review of Psychiatry | Year: 2011
Although research has demonstrated that mental health services function with patients from different cultural backgrounds, a variety of culture- and race-related factors can result in services being of lower quality than that which occurs when the clinician and patient are from the same culture. The provision of culturally competent care requires many institutional and organizational adaptations that lie beyond the control of most mental health professionals. The therapeutic relationship, however, remains a key factor of mental healthcare that can be attended to by individual therapists. The therapeutic relationship plays an important role in almost every therapeutic approach, and has been increasingly recognized as representing a means to the provision of quality intercultural and interracial treatment. At the same time, a host of cultural and racial factors relating to both the patient and clinician can compromise the development of the therapeutic relationship. This paper will explore some of the key issues that complicate therapeutic contact and communication, and will outline means by which to strengthen key components of the therapeutic relationship. © 2011 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved.
Lopez-Cano M.,Hospital Universitari Vall dHebron |
Armengol-Carrasco M.,Hospital Universitari Vall dHebron
Hernia | Year: 2013
Introduction Frequent complications Incisionalhernia surgery are re-herniation, wound infection and seromaformation. The use of subatmospheric pressure dressings such as the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device has been shown to be an eiective way to accelerate healing of various wounds. Here, we describe the application of the VAC device as a postoperative dressing to prevent seroma formation after open incisional hernia repair. Methods Three consecutive patients (63, 65 and 60 years of age, respectively) underwent incisional hernia repair. Patient body mass index was 30.9, 26.6 and 29 kg/m2, respectively. All hernias were complex with a defect size greater than 10 cm and were repaired using the onlay technique. After suture skin closure the incision was covered with a thin VAC sponge (KCI, San Antonio, TX) that was set at 125 mm Hg and left in place for 5 days before removal. Results An abdominal CT scan performed before discharge from the hospital did not show seroma formation. Physical examination 3 months after surgery was normal with no evidence of seroma (abdominal bulge and/or Xuid wave). Conclusions This successful preliminary experience in three patients encourages the use of the VAC system in incisional hernia repair, particularly in selected patients with risk factors for seroma formation (e.g., large defects, obesity, patient comorbidities, nutritional status, number of prior abdominal incisions, etc.). Therefore, prevention of seroma formation after incisional hernia repair may be added as a novel application of the VAC device. © Springer-Verlag 2011.