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Miralles F.,Hospital Universitari Son Espases
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing | Year: 2016

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune postsynaptic disorder of neuromuscular transmission caused, in most patients, by antibodies against postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors. Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a presynaptic autoimmune disease in which there is a reduction in Ca2+ entry with each impulse due to the action of antibodies against Ca2+ channels. These diseases have a distinct pattern of response to low-frequency repetitive nerve stimulation which allows its recognition in a particular subject. Nevertheless, the physiologic basis of this response is not entirely known. A model of the time-course of release probability of neuromuscular junctions that incorporates facilitation and a depression–recovery mechanism has been developed with the aim to investigate these response patterns. When the basal value of release probability was in the physiologic range, as in MG, release probability showed an increment after its initial decrease only if the recovery from depression was accelerated by presynaptic residual Ca2+. Otherwise, when the basal release probability was low, as in LEMS, a progressive reduction in the release probability without any late increase was only obtained if the efficacy of Facilitation and Ca2+-dependent recovery from depression were reduced. © 2016 International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering

Bauca J.M.,Hospital Universitari Son Espases | Martinez-Morillo E.,Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute | Diamandis E.P.,University of Toronto
Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of most current cancer biomarkers make early cancer diagnosis a challenging task. The comprehensive study of peptides and small proteins in a living system, known as "peptidomics," represents an alternative technological approach to the discovery of potential biomarkers for the assessment of a wide variety of pathologies. This review examines the current status of peptidomics for several body fluids, with a focus on urine, for cancer diagnostics applications. CONTENT: Several studies have used high-throughput technologies to characterize the peptide content of different body fluids. Because of its noninvasive collection and high stability, urine is a valuable source of candidate cancer biomarkers. A wide variety of preanalytical issues concerning patient selection and sample handling need to be considered, because not doing so can affect the quality of the results by introducing bias and artifacts. Optimization of both the analytical strategies and the processing of bioinformatics data is also essential to minimize the false-discovery rate. SUMMARY: Peptidomics-based studies of urine and other body fluids have yielded a number of biomolecules and peptide panels with potential for diagnosing different types of cancer, especially of the ovary, prostate, and bladder. Large-scale studies are needed to validate these molecules as cancer biomarkers. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

Llompart-Pou J.A.,Hospital Universitari Son Espases
Nutrición hospitalaria : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral | Year: 2012

Stress hyperglycaemia is common in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting and has been related to a worst outcome. The objective was to characterize the association of glucoregulatory hormones, mainly incretins, with the levels of glycaemia, and its relationship with outcome in ICU patients. We prospectively studied 60 patients. Stress hyperglycaemia was diagnosed when glycaemia was < 115 mg/dL. At ICU admission we determined glycaemia, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) plasma levels. Groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test. The association between glycaemia levels and glucoregulatory hormones was evaluated using linear regression. Forty-five patients (75%) had hyperglycaemia. We observed no differences in glucoregulatory hormones levels between normo- and hyper- glycaemia groups. Glycaemia levels were not significantly correlated with insulin, glucagon, cortisol or GIP levels, but were correlated with GLP-1 (p = 0.04). GLP-1 was also correlated with cortisol (p = 0.01), but failed to show a significant correlation with insulin, glucagon or GIP levels. Lower levels of plasma GLP-1 were found in patients with stress hyperglycaemia requiring vasoactive support (p = 0.02). Glycaemia levels were correlated with GLP-1 levels in ICU patients. GLP-1 levels were also associated with cortisol. Patients with stress hyperglycaemia who required vasoactive support had lower incretin levels compared with those patients with stress hyperglycaemia who were hemodynamically stables. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01087372).

Rosell J.,Hospital Universitari Son Espases
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2016

The IQSEC2 gene is located on chromosome Xp11.22 and encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the ADP-ribosylation factor family of small GTPases. This gene is known to have a significant role in cytoskeletal organization, dendritic spine morphology and synaptic organization. Variants in IQSEC2 cause moderate to severe intellectual disability in males and a variable phenotype in females because this gene escapes from X-chromosome inactivation. Here we report on the first splicing variant in IQSEC2 (g.88032_88033del; NG_021296.1) that co-segregates in a family diagnosed with an X-linked form of ID. In a percentage of the cells, the variant activates an intraexonic splice acceptor site that abolishes 26 amino acids from the highly conserved PH domain of IQSEC2 and creates a premature stop codon 36 amino acids later in exon 13. Interestingly, the percentage of aberrant splicing seems to correlate with the severity of the disease in each patient. The impact of this variant in the target tissue is unknown, but we can hypothesize that these differences may be related to the amount of abnormal IQSEC2 transcript. To our knowledge, we are reporting a novel mechanism of IQSEC2 involvement in ID. Variants that affect splicing are related to many genetic diseases and the understanding of their role in disease expands potential opportunities for gene therapy. Modulation of aberrant splicing transcripts can become a potent therapeutic approach for many of these diseases.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 6 January 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.267. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Yates C.,Hospital Universitari Son Espases | Manini A.F.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Current Cardiology Reviews | Year: 2012

The ECG is a rapidly available clinical tool that can help clinicians manage poisoned patients. Specific myocardial effects of cardiotoxic drugs have well-described electrocardiographic manifestations. In the practice of clinical toxicology, classic ECG changes may hint at blockade of ion channels, alterations of adrenergic tone, or dysfunctional metabolic activity of the myocardium. This review will offer a structured approach to ECG interpretation in poisoned patients with a focus on clinical implications and ECG-based management recommendations in the initial evaluation of patients with acute cardiotoxicity. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

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