Hospital de Órbigo, Spain
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Aso E.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Palomer E.,University Pompeu Fabra | Juves S.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Maldonado R.,University Pompeu Fabra | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2012

The present study shows that chronic administration of the Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB 1) receptor agonist arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA) at pre-symptomatic or at early symptomatic stages, at a non-amnesic dose, reduces the cognitive impairment observed in double AβPP(swe)/ PS1(1dE9) transgenic mice from 6 months of age onwards. ACEA has no effect on amyloid-β (Aβ) production, aggregation, or clearance. However, ACEA reduces the cytotoxic effect of Aβ 42 oligomers in primary cultures of cortical neurons, and reverses Aβ-induced dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) in vitro and in vivo. Reduced activity of GSK3β in ACEA-treated mice is further supported by the reduced amount of phospho-tau (Thr181) in neuritic processes around Aβ plaques. In addition, ACEA-treated mice show decreased astroglial response in the vicinity of Aβ plaques and decreased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ in astrocytes when compared with age-matched vehicle-treated transgenic mice. Our present results show a beneficial effect of ACEA at both the neuronal, mediated at least in part by GSK3β inhibition, and glial levels, resulting in a reduction of reactive astrocytes and lower expression of interferon-γ. As a consequence, targeting the CB 1 receptor could offer a versatile approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. © 2012-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Aso E.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Juves S.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Juves S.,CIBER ISCIII | Maldonado R.,University Pompeu Fabra | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2013

The specific CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist JWH-133 induced cognitive improvement in double AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice, a genetic model of Alzheimer's disease. This effect was more pronounced when administered at the pre-symptomatic rather than the early symptomatic stage. The cognitive improvement was associated with decreased microglial reactivity and reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and IFNγ. In addition, JWH-133 reduced the expression of active p38 and SAPK/JNK, increased the expression of inactive GSK3β, and lowered tau hyperphosphorylation at Thr181 in the vicinity of amyloid-β plaques. Moreover, JWH-133 produced a decrease in the expression of hydroxynonenal adducts, and enhanced the expression of SOD1 and SOD2 around plaques. In contrast, the chronic treatment with JWH-133 failed to modify the amyloid-β production or deposition in cortex and hippocampus. In conclusion, the present study lends support to the idea that stimulation of CB2 receptors ameliorates several altered parameters in Alzheimer's disease such as impaired memory and learning, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress damage and oxidative stress responses, selected tau kinases, and tau hyperphosphorylation around plaques. © 2013 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Furst D.O.,University of Bonn | Goldfarb L.G.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Kley R.A.,University Hospital Bergmannsheil | Vorgerd M.,University Hospital Bergmannsheil | And 2 more authors.
Acta Neuropathologica | Year: 2013

The term filaminopathy was introduced after a truncating mutation in the dimerization domain of filamin C (FLNc) was shown to be responsible for a devastating muscle disease. Subsequently, the same mutation was found in patients from diverse ethnical origins, indicating that this specific alteration is a mutational hot spot. Patients initially present with proximal muscle weakness, while distal and respiratory muscles become affected with disease progression. Muscle biopsies of these patients show typical signs of myofibrillar myopathy, including disintegration of myofibrils and aggregation of several proteins into distinct intracellular deposits. Highly similar phenotypes were observed in patients with other mutations in Ig-like domains of FLNc that result in expression of a noxious protein. Biochemical and biophysical studies showed that the mutated domains acquire an abnormal structure causing decreased stability and eventually becoming a seed for abnormal aggregation with other proteins. The disease usually presents only after the fourth decade of life possibly as a result of ageing-related impairments in the machinery that is responsible for disposal of damaged proteins. This is confirmed by mutations in components of this machinery that cause a highly similar phenotype. Transfection studies of cultured muscle cells reflect the events observed in patient muscles and, therefore, may provide a helpful model for testing future dedicated therapeutic strategies. More recently, FLNC mutations were also found in families with a distal myopathy phenotype, caused either by mutations in the actin-binding domain of FLNc that result in increased actin-binding and non-specific myopathic abnormalities without myofibrillar myopathy pathology, or a nonsense mutation in the rod domain that leads to RNA instability, haploinsufficiency with decreased expression levels of FLNc in the muscle fibers and myofibrillar abnormalities, but not to the formation of desmin-positive protein aggregates required for the diagnosis of myofibrillar myopathy. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Angiolillo D.J.,University of Florida | Ferreiro J.L.,University of Florida | Ferreiro J.L.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs | Year: 2013

Coronary atherothrombotic disease, including chronic stable angina and acute coronary syndromes (ACS), is associated with significant global burden. The acute clinical manifestations of atherothrombotic disease are mediated by occlusive arterial thrombi that impair tissue perfusion and are composed of a core of aggregated platelets, generated by platelet activation, and a superimposed fibrin mesh produced by the coagulation cascade. Long-term antithrombotic therapies, namely oral antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, have demonstrated variable clinical effects. Aspirin and P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists have been shown to reduce the risk for thrombosis and ischaemic events by blocking the thromboxane (Tx) A 2 and platelet P2Y12 activation pathways, respectively, whereas the benefits of oral anticoagulants have not been consistently documented. However, even in the presence of aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, the risk for ischaemic events remains substantial because platelet activation continues via pathways independent of TxA2 and ADP, most notably the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 platelet activation pathway stimulated by thrombin. Emerging antithrombotic therapies include those targeting the platelet, such as the new P2Y12 antagonists and a novel class of oral PAR-1 antagonists, and those inhibiting the coagulation cascade, such as the new direct factor Xa antagonists, the direct thrombin inhibitors, and a novel class of factor IX inhibitors. The role of emerging antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants in the long-term management of patients with atherothrombotic disease will be determined by the balance of efficacy and safety in large ongoing clinical trials. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Garcia-Ovejero D.,Hospital Nacional Of Paraplejicos Sescam | Arevalo-Martin A.,Hospital Nacional Of Paraplejicos Sescam | Paniagua-Torija B.,Hospital Nacional Of Paraplejicos Sescam | Florensa-Vila J.,Hospital Nacional Of Paraplejicos Sescam | And 3 more authors.
Brain : a journal of neurology | Year: 2015

Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.


Ferreiro J.L.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Gomez-Hospital J.A.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Angiolillo D.J.,Jacksonville University
Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research | Year: 2010

Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have accelerated atherosclerosis, which is the main underlying factor contributing to the high risk of atherothrombotic events in these patients. Atherothrombotic complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with DM. Among factors contributing to the prothrombotic condition which characterise patients with DM, platelet hyperreactivity plays a pivotal role. Platelets of DM patients are characterised by dysregulation of several signalling pathways leading to intensified adhesion, activation and aggregation. Multiple mechanisms are involved in platelet dysfunction of patients with DM, which can be categorised as follows: a) hyperglycaemia, b) insulin deficiency and resistance, c) associated metabolic conditions, and d) other cellular abnormalities.The present manuscript aims to provide an overview on the current status of knowledge on platelet abnormalities that characterise patients with DM. © The Author(s) 2010.


Varani A.P.,CONICET | Aso E.,University Pompeu Fabra | Aso E.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Moutinho L.M.,CONICET | And 3 more authors.
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2014

Rationale: Nicotine is a major active ingredient in tobacco and plays a major role in tobacco addiction. In rodents, repeated nicotine administration produces behavioral responses related to its addictive properties, such as reinforcing effects and physical dependence. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible role of GABAB receptor in responses induced by repeated nicotine administration in Swiss Webster mice. Results: Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) administration induced rewarding properties in the conditioning place preference test. The GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen (3 mg/kg, i.p.) abolished the rewarding properties induced by nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). In addition, naloxone-precipitated nicotine withdrawal induced somatic manifestations, anxiety-like effects in the elevated plus maze test and dysphoric manifestations in the conditioned place aversion paradigm. Baclofen (2 and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the somatic manifestations and the anxiety-like effects associated with naloxone-precipitated nicotine withdrawal but not the dysphoric manifestations. Conclusions: These results showed that nicotine rewarding properties and negative aspects of nicotine withdrawal, such as anxiety-like effects and somatic manifestations, can be modulated by the GABAB receptor activity. This study now reveals a novel possible application of baclofen to develop new therapeutic strategies to achieve smoking cessation. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


Ferreiro J.L.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Cequier A.R.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Angiolillo D.J.,Jacksonville University
Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research | Year: 2010

Currently approved antiplatelet treatment strategies have proved successful for reducing cardiovascular adverse events in patients with CAD. However, despite the use of recommended antiplatelet treatment strategies, the presence of DM has been consistently associated with a negative impact on outcomes and a high rate of adverse cardiovascular events continue to occur in patients with DM. The elevated prevalence of low response to standard oral antiplatelet agents contribute to these impaired outcomes. Thus, the search for more potent antiplatelet treatment strategies is warranted in high-risk patients, such as those with DM. The present manuscript provides an overview on the current status of knowledge on currently available antiplatelet agents, focusing on the benefits and limitations of these therapies in DM patients, and evaluating the potential role of new antithrombotic agents and treatment strategies currently under development to overcome these limitations. © The Author(s) 2010.


Martinez A.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Portero-Otin M.,University of Lleida | Pamplona R.,University of Lleida | Ferrer I.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge
Brain Pathology | Year: 2010

Human neurodegenerative diseases with abnormal protein aggregates are associated with aberrant post-translational modifications, solubility, aggregation and fibril formation of selected proteins which cannot be degraded by cytosolic proteases, ubiquitin-protesome system and autophagy, and, therefore, accumulate in cells and extracellular compartments as residual debris. In addition to the accumulation of "primary" proteins, several other mechanisms are involved in the degenerative process and probably may explain crucial aspects such as the timing, selective cellular vulnerability and progression of the disease in particular individuals. One of these mechanisms is oxidative stress, which occurs in the vast majority of, if not all, degenerative diseases of the nervous system. The present review covers most of the protein targets that have been recognized as modified proteins mainly using bidimensional gel electrophoresis, Western blotting with oxidative and nitrosative markers, and identified by mass spectrometry in Alzheimer disease; certain tauopathies such as progressive supranuclear palsy, Pick disease, argyrophilic grain disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration linked to mutations in tau protein, for example, FTLD-tau, Parkinson disease and related α-synucleinopathies; Huntington disease; and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, together with related animal and cellular models. Vulnerable proteins can be mostly grouped in defined metabolic pathways covering glycolysis and energy metabolism, cytoskeletal, chaperoning, cellular stress responses, and members of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Available information points to the fact that vital metabolic pathways are hampered by protein oxidative damage in several human degenerative diseases and that oxidative damage occurs at very early stages of the disease. Yet parallel functional studies are limited and further work is needed to document whether protein oxidation results in loss of activity and impaired performance. A better understanding of proteins susceptible to oxidation and nitration may serve to define damaged metabolic networks at early stages of disease and to advance therapeutic interventions to attenuate disease progression. © 2009 International Society of Neuropathology.


Ferrer I.,Idibell Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2010

The term cognitive impairment of vascular origin is used to designate global cognitive deficits as well as focal neurological deficits such as aphasia, apraxia and agnosia of vascular/circulatory origin. It has been useful for identifying early clinical and neuroradiological alterations that might permit therapeutic strategies geared to curbing the progression of cerebrovascular disease. Multi-infarct encephalopathy, infarcts in strategic areas, lacunae and lacunar status, Binswanger's encephalopathy, hippocampal sclerosis, cortical granular atrophy and watershed infarcts are common lesions. Hypertension and vascular diseases such as arteriosclerosis, small blood vessel disease, inflammatory diseases of the blood vessels, Sneddon syndrome, cerebral amyloid angiopathies, cerebral autosomic dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and Maeda's syndrome are causative of cognitive impairment of vascular origin. Other less common causes are hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, neuropathy and strokes (HERNS), cerebro-retinian vasculopathy (CRV), hereditary vascular retinopathy (HVR) (all three linked to 3p21.1-p21.3), hereditary infantile hemiparesis with arteriolar retinopathy and leukoencephalopathy (HIHRATL) (not linked to 3p21), fibromuscular dysplasia, and moya-moya disease. Lack of uniformity of clinical manifestations, the variety of vascular diseases and circulatory factors, the diverse, but often convergent, neuropathological substrates, and the common association with unrelated neurodegenerative diseases in the elderly, make it hard to assume a single clinical approach in the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin. Rather, environmental and genetic risk factors, underlying vascular diseases, associated systemic, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases and identification of extent and distribution of lesions with morphological and functional neuroimaging methods should be applied in every individual patient. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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