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Momcilovic B.,Institute for Research and Development of the Sustainable Eco Systems IRES | Prejac J.,University of Zagreb | Brundic S.,Institute for Research and Development of the Sustainable Eco Systems IRES | Morovic S.,Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice | And 3 more authors.
Translational Neuroscience | Year: 2010

The recent development of the analytical techniques offers the unprecedented possibility to study simultaneously concentration of dozens of elements in the same biological matrix sample of 0.5 - 1.0 g (multielement profiles). The first part of this essay entitled "Think globally. An outline of trace elements in health and disease" aims to introduce the reader to the fascinating field of elements, there importance to our nutrition, their essentiality, deficiency, toxicity and bioavailability to the body and their overall role in health and disease, including the genetic metabolic impairments. In the second part of the essay entitled " and act locally. The multielement profile of depression" we aimed to show the potential of such a hair multielement profile analysis for the study of human depression in a randomized, double blind, prospective, observational, cross-sectional, clinical, epidemiological, and analytical study. The preliminary results of this ongoing study lead us to put forward the hypothesis that the metabolic origin of depression may be due to some "energostat" failure, probably located in the thalamus, and activated by several essential element deficiencies. © Versita Sp. z o.o.

Amass L.,Schering | Pukeleviciene V.,Kaunas District Center for Addictive Disorders | Subata E.,Vilnius Center for Addictive Disorders | Pieri M.C.,SerT Polo Est | And 6 more authors.
Addiction | Year: 2012

Aims To provide controlled data on direct induction with buprenorphine/naloxone (BNX) versus indirect buprenorphine (BPN)-to-BNX induction. Design Phase 4, prospective, randomized, active-drug controlled, parallel-group trial consisting of a 2-day, double-blind, double-dummy induction phase followed by 26 days of open-label treatment with BNX. Setting Nineteen sites in 10 European countries from March 2008 to December 2009. Participants A total of 187 opioid-dependent men and women ≥15 years of age. Measurements The primary objective was assessment of patient response to direct and indirect BNX induction [proportion of patients receiving the scheduled 16-mg BNX dose on day 3 (i.e. first day post-induction)]. Secondary assessments included illicit drug use, treatment retention and compliance, withdrawal scale scores, and safety. Findings Patient response to direct- versus indirect-BNX induction was similar [direct 91.4% (85/93) versus indirect 90.4% (85/94); 95% confidence interval (CI): -7.3%, 9.2%]. Rapid dose induction (16mg of BPN equivalent on day 2) was acceptable and 72% of patients completed treatment (day 28). There were no significant differences in secondary measures across groups. An average BNX maintenance dose of 15.3mg across groups was associated with substantial reductions in illicit opioid use and no self-reported intravenous misuse. Treatment compliance and retention rates were similar (98.5% and 81.3%, respectively). Treatment-emergent adverse event rates were comparable: 75% versus 74% for direct- versus indirect-induction groups, respectively. Conclusions Direct buprenorphine/naloxone induction was a safe and effective strategy for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. Response to high-dose direct buprenorphine/naloxone induction appears to be similar to indirect buprenorphine-to-buprenorphine/naloxone induction and was not associated with reports of intravenous buprenorphine/naloxone misuse. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

Emanuele E.,University of Pavia | Altabas V.,Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice | Altabas K.,Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice | Berardesca E.,San Gallicano Dermatological Institute
Journal of Drugs in Dermatology | Year: 2013

The exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is one of the most important risk factors for skin aging and increases the risk of malignant transformation. Telomere shortening and an altered expression of the proto-oncogene c-FOS are among the key molecular mechanisms associated with photoaging and tumorigenesis. Photolyase from A. nidulans and endonuclease from M. luteus are xenogenic DNA repair enzymes which can reverse the molecular events associated with skin aging and carcinogenosis caused by UVR exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the topical application of preparations containing DNA repair enzymes may prevent UVR-induced acute telomere shortening and FOS gene hyperexpression in human skin biopsies. Twelve volunteers (Fitzpatrick skin types I and II) were enrolled for this experimental study, and six circular areas (10 mm diameter) were marked out on the nonexposed lower back of each participant. One site was left untreated (site 1: negative control), whereas the remaining five sites (designated sites 2-6) were exposed to solar-simulated UVR at 3 times the MED on four consecutive days. Site 2 received UVR only (site 2: positive control), whereas the following products were applied to sites 3-6, respectively: vehicle (moisturizer base cream; applied both 30 minutes before and immediately after each irradiation; site 3); a traditional sunscreen (SS, SPF 50) 30 minutes before irradiation and a vehicle immediately after irradiation (site 4); a SS 30 minutes before irradiation and an endonuclease preparation immediately after irradiation (site 5); a SS plus photolyase 30 minutes before irradiation and an endonuclease preparation immediately after irradiation (site 6). Skin biopsies were taken 24 h after the last irradiation. The degree of telomere shortening and c-FOS gene expression were measured in all specimens. Strikingly, the combined use of a SS plus photolyase 30 minutes before irradiation and an endonuclease preparation immediately after irradiation completely abrogated telomere shortening and c-FOS gene hyperexpression induced by the experimental irradiations. We conclude that the topical application of preparations containing both photolyase from A. nidulans and endonuclease from M. luteus may be clinically useful to prevent skin aging and carcinogenesis by abrogating UVR-induced telomere shortening and c-FOS gene hyperexpression. Copyright © 2013.

Berardesca E.,San Gallicano Dermatological Institute | Bertona M.,University of Pavia | Altabas K.,Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice | Altabas V.,Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice | Emanuele E.,University of Pavia
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2012

The exposure of human skin to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) results in the formation of DNA photolesions that give rise to photoaging, mutations, cell death and the onset of carcinogenic events. Photolyase (EC is a DNA repair enzyme that reverses damage caused by exposure to UVR. We sought to investigate whether addition of photolyase enhances the protection provided by a traditional sunscreen (SS), by reducing the in vivo formation of cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and UVR-induced apoptosis in human skin. Ten volunteers (Fitzpatrick skin type II) were exposed to solar-simulated (ss) UVR at a three times minimal erythema dose for 4 consecutive days. Thirty minutes prior to each exposure, the test materials [vehicle, SS (sun protection factor 50) alone, and SS plus photolyase from Anacystis nidulans] were applied topically to three different sites. One additional site was left untreated and one received ssUVR only. Biopsy specimens were taken 72 h after the last irradiation. The amount of CPDs and the extent of apoptosis were measured by ELISA. Photolyase plus SS was superior to SS alone in reducing both the formation of CPDs and apoptotic cell death (both P<0.001). In conclusion, the addition of photolyase to a traditional SS contributes significantly to the prevention of UVR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis when applied topically to human skin.

Pavic I.,Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice | Pavic P.,Elementary School Trilj | Palcic I.,Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice | Nenadic N.,Srebrnjak Childrens Hospital
International Journal of Environmental Health Research | Year: 2012

Passive smoking has been found to be associated with a large number of disorders of passive smokers. It seems that the children are the most susceptible population for harmful effects of passive smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of passive smoking on children's functional abilities. The target population was 199 children who were 13-15 years old at the time of the study. For the assessment of motor skills 6-min run test was used. Children exposed to passive smoking by their mothers had statistically significant lower functional abilities (r =0.7029; 95% CI 0.7707 to 0.6194; p < 0.0001). We also found statistically significant difference if the both parents are smokers (r =0.3343; 95% CI 0.4595 to 0.1961; p < 0.0001). The results of our study did not show statistically significant difference if the children are exposed to cigarette smoke by their fathers (r = 0.03139; 95% CI 0.1171 to 0.1785; p = 0.6792). Public health preventive actions should go toward minimizing the exposure of children to passive smoking by counseling the smoking parents that quitting smoking provides enormous health benefits not only to them but also to their children. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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