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Porto Alegre, Brazil

Perizzolo P.F.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Perizzolo P.F.,Scientific and Tecnological Development Center | Dalla Costa E.R.,Scientific and Tecnological Development Center | Ribeiro A.W.,Scientific and Tecnological Development Center | And 9 more authors.
Tuberculosis | Year: 2012

A major threat to tuberculosis (TB) control programs is the emergence of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that cause TB that cannot be cured by standard anti-TB drug regimens. Because few data exist on MDR-TB in this region of the country, we performed an epidemiologic study that combined conventional and molecular analysis of MDR-TB cases from Rio Grande do Sul (RS) that were diagnosed in this period and included cases that were under treatment with second line drug schemes. Included were 121 MDR cases and sequencing of rpoB and katG showed that 106 (87.6%) strains were mutated in rpoB and 97 (80.2%) in katG. Spoligotyping demonstrated that the LAM genotype was predominant (n = 70, 57.8%) and included the largest group composed by 22 (18.1%) strains with the LAM5 ST93 genotype. Other main genotypes belonged to the families T (n = 22, 18.2%), U family (n = 16, 13.2%), Haarlem (n = 5, 4.1%) and X (n = 1, 0.8%). Genotyping by IS6110-RFLP analysis showed 51 distinct fingerprints, 38 (31.4%) of these observed only once and the other 13 patterns being shared among the rest of the isolates (n = 83, 68.6%). Among the 22 strains that were LAM5 ST93, only two had different IS6110-RFLP genotypes. In conclusion, there exists a high degree of M. Tuberculosis genotype clustering among MDR-TB cases in Rio Grande do Sul. Moreover, we observed a large MDR-TB outbreak. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Milano M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Moraes M.O.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz | Carvalho C.X.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz | Delcroix M.,University of California at Berkeley | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection, the complex interaction of host immune system and the mycobacteria is associated with levels of cytokines production that play a major role in determining the outcome of the disease. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytokine genes have been associated with tuberculosis (TB) outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between previously reported SNPs IL2-330 T>G (rs2069762); IL4-590 C>T (rs2243250); IL6-174 G>C (rs1800795); IL10-592 A>C (rs1800872); IL10-1082 G>A (rs1800896); IL17A -692 C>T (rs8193036); IL17A -197 G>A (rs2275913); TNF -238 G>A (rs361525); TNF -308 G>A (rs1800629) and IFNG +874 T>A (rs2430561) and pulmonary TB (PTB) susceptibility. We conducted a case-control study in individuals from Southern Brazil who were recruited between February 2012 and October 2013 in a high incidence TB city. We performed a multiplex genotyping assay in 191 patients with PTB and 175 healthy subjects. Our results suggest a decreased risk for PTB development associated with the IL17A -197A allele (OR = 0.29; p = 0.04), AA genotype (OR = 0.12; p = 0.04) and A carrier (AG/AA) (OR = 0.29; p = 0.004) and IL6 -174C carrier (CC/CG) (OR = 0.46; p = 0.04). We could not properly analyze IL17A -692 C>T (rs8193036) and IFNG +874T>A due to genotypic inconsistencies and found no evidence of association for the IL2, IL4, IL10 and TNF polymorphisms and PTB. In conclusion, our results show a protective effect of IL17 and IL6 polymorphisms on PTB outcome in Southern Brazilian population. © 2016 Milano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Laux Da Costa L.,Fundacao Estadual de Producao e Pesquisa em Saude | Laux Da Costa L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Delcroix M.,University of California at Berkeley | Dalla Costa E.R.,Fundacao Estadual de Producao e Pesquisa em Saude | And 9 more authors.
Tuberculosis | Year: 2015

Abstract Summary The goal of this study was to identify a host gene signature that can distinguish tuberculosis (TB) from other pulmonary diseases (OPD). We conducted real-time PCR on whole blood samples from patients in Brazil. TB and OPD patients (asthma and non-TB pneumonia) differentially expressed granzyme A (GZMA), guanylate binding protein 5 (GBP5) and Fc gamma receptor 1A (CD64). Receiver operating characteristic, tree classification and random forest analyses were applied to evaluate the discriminatory power of the three genes and find the gene panel most predictive of patients' disease classification. Tree classification produced a model based on GBP5 and CD64 expression. In random forest analysis, the combination of the three genes provided a robust biosignature to distinguish TB from OPD with 95% specificity and 93% sensitivity. Our results suggest that GBP5 and CD64 in tandem may be the most predictive combination. However, GZMA contribution to the prediction model requires further investigation. Regardless, these three genes show promise as a rapid diagnostic marker separating TB from OPD. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ikeda M.L.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Barcellos N.T.,Hospital Sanatorio Partenon | Alencastro P.R.,Hospital Sanatorio Partenon | Wolff F.H.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Methods Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Results Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6-13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9-3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Conclusions Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIVinfected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population. © 2016 Ikeda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Prellwitz I.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancer | Alves B.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancer | Ikeda M.L.R.,Secretaria de Saude de Viamao | Kuhleis D.,Secretaria de Seguranca Publica | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667). Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24%) of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired) drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV), low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons. © 2013 Prellwitz et al. Source

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