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Leon Fradejas M.,Hospital Universitario Regional Carlos Haya | Kandil D.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Papadimitriou J.C.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Del Pino Florez Rial M.,Hospital Universitario Regional Carlos Haya | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Transplantation | Year: 2015

Long-term results with whole pancreas (WPTx) and islet transplantation (IT) continue to be suboptimal. Graft failure with undetectable C-peptide level is attributed to graft sclerosis (chronic rejection), recurrence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), or insufficient islet mass. In contrast, graft failure with measurable C-peptide has overlapping clinical features with Type 2 DM (suggesting persistent but insufficient β cell function), but is poorly understood. In general, the morphological substrate for islet failure is unclear because grafted islets are not routinely evaluated. We present two patients with graft failure at 5 and 8 years after successful WPTx for Type 1 DM, presenting with preserved C-peptide levels. On histopathology, the islets had preserved both α and β cell populations but also prominent accumulation of islet amyloid (IA), the morphological hallmark of Type 2 DM. IA previously reported in IT, represents fibrillary aggregates of islet amyloid polypeptide, a hormone normally cosecreted with insulin. Accumulation of IA correlates quantitatively with the development of hyperglycemia and is known to cause β cell dysfunction and loss. Accumulation of IA and development of Type 2 DM should be considered and studied as a potential cause of long-term islet failure in IT and WPTx. Islet amyloidosis, a histological feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and detectable C-peptide were found in two otherwise normal pancreas allografts that failed at 5 and 8 years after transplantation, respectively. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. Source

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