Koh P.S.,University of Malaya |
Roslani A.C.,University of Malaya |
Vimal K.V.,Taiping Hospital |
Shariman M.,Raja Permaisuri Bainun Hospital |
And 2 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2010
Infective colitis can be a cause of massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding requiring acute surgical intervention. Causative organisms include entamoeba and histoplasma species. However, concurrent colonic infection with both these organisms is very rare, and the in vivo consequences are not known. A 58-year-old male presented initially to the physicians with pyrexia of unknown origin and bloody diarrhea. Amoebic colitis was diagnosed based on biopsies, and he was treated with metronidazole. Five days later, the patient developed massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding with hemorrhagic shock. Emergency total colectomy with endileostomy was performed. However, he deteriorated and died on the second postoperative day. Histopathological examination revealed multiple deep ulcers at the hepatic flexure where fungal bodies of mycelial and yeast forms were noted. Isolated lymph nodes showed abscess formation with fungal bodies. Infective fungal colitis with Histoplasma capsilatum was diagnosed. In vitro, amoebic parasites can increase virulence and pathogenicity of histoplasma which may account for the fulminant presentation in this patient. Although rare, this unusual dual infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infective colitis, as appropriate antimicrobial treatment may prevent progression to massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding, obviating the need for urgent surgical intervention. © 2010 Baishideng. All rights reserved.
Hussain B.M.,University of Manchester |
Hassam K.,University of Manchester |
Ooi Q.-X.,University of Manchester |
Ooi Q.-X.,Raja Permaisuri Bainun Hospital |
Bryce R.A.,University of Manchester
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2014
Dicoumarol and related coumarin compounds are potent inhibitors of oxidoreductase NQO1, an enzyme overexpressed in several types of solid tumour. Using density function theory, we study dicoumarol conformation in various tautomeric and ionisation states, in the gas phase and low and high dielectric environments. In aqueous solution, where the monoanionic form of dicoumarol is predominant, we predict a syn rotamer as favoured, which is the conformation crystallographically observed bound to NQO1. Comparison of internal distortion energies and protein docking calculations rationalise why only the syn form is found bound to NQO1. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
HSS A.-S.,Raja Permaisuri Bainun Hospital |
HSS A.-S.,Clinical Research Center |
Tan P.S.,Clinical Research Center |
Hashim L.,Clinical Research Center
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion | Year: 2014
This study aimed to collate data on childhood drowning in Malaysia and review existing drowning prevention measures. This study used secondary data from governmental and non-governmental agencies. All reported fatal drownings from 2000 to 2007 and all reported non-fatal drownings from 2000 to 2008 were included. Data were analysed to provide understanding of the epidemiology of drowning incidents, risk factors and available preventive efforts. On average 286 (range 248-344) children died yearly due to drowning with a death rate of 3.05 per 100,000 annually. An additional average of 207 children drowned but survived annually (1.99 per 100,000). The estimated burden of drowning in children (death and non-death) is 5 per 100,000. There was no reduction in annual drowning fatalities over time. Most drowning took place in east coast regions during the annual monsoon season. It was 3.52 (2.80-4.41) times more common in boys and most prevalent among 10-14 years. Most prevalent sites of all-age drowning were seas and rivers. Limited water safety regulations are currently available in the country. This is the first comprehensive national study in Malaysia on paediatric drowning and highlights the magnitude of the problem. It calls for concerted effort to devise effective national drowning prevention measures. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
PubMed | Raja Permaisuri Bainun Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Critical ultrasound journal | Year: 2013
In emergency settings, verification of endotracheal tube (ETT) location is important for critically ill patients. Ignorance of oesophageal intubation can be disastrous. Many methods are used for verification of the endotracheal tube location; none are ideal. Quantitative waveform capnography is considered the standard of care for this purpose but is not always available and is expensive. Therefore, this feasibility study is conducted to compare a cheaper alternative, bedside upper airway ultrasonography to waveform capnography, for verification of endotracheal tube location after intubation.This was a prospective, single-centre, observational study, conducted at the HRPB, Ipoh. It included patients who were intubated in the emergency department from 28 March 2012 to 17 August 2012. A waiver of consent had been obtained from the Medical Research Ethics Committee. Bedside upper airway ultrasonography was performed after intubation and compared to waveform capnography. Specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive value and likelihood ratio are calculated.A sample of 107 patients were analysed, and 6 (5.6%) had oesophageal intubations. The overall accuracy of bedside upper airway ultrasonography was 98.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 93.0% to 100.0%). The kappa value () was 0.85, indicating a very good agreement between the bedside upper airway ultrasonography and waveform capnography. Thus, bedside upper airway ultrasonography is in concordance with waveform capnography. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of bedside upper airway ultrasonography were 98.0% (95% CI 93.0% to 99.8%), 100% (95% CI 54.1% to 100.0%), 100% (95% CI 96.3% to 100.0%) and 75.0% (95% CI 34.9% to 96.8%). The likelihood ratio of a positive test is infinite and the likelihood ratio of a negative test is 0.0198 (95% CI 0.005 to 0.0781). The mean confirmation time by ultrasound is 16.4 s. No adverse effects were recorded.Our study shows that ultrasonography can replace waveform capnography in confirming ETT placement in centres without capnography. This can reduce incidence of unrecognised oesophageal intubation and prevent morbidity and mortality.National Medical Research Register NMRR11100810230.