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PubMed | Pediatric Endocrinology and DiabetologyBretagne Sud Hospital Center, Pediatric EndocrinologyRobert Debre Hospital, Molecular Endocrinology and Rare DiseasesLyon University Hospital, Pediatric Endocrinology and DiabetologyAmerican Memorial Hospital and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of endocrinology | Year: 2016

Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT), one of the several genes recently discovered in familial glucocorticoid deficiencies (FGD), is involved in reactive oxygen species detoxification, suggesting that extra-adrenal manifestations may occur, due to the sensitivity to oxidative stress of other organs rich in mitochondria. Here, we sought to identify NNT mutations in a large cohort of patients with primary congenital adrenal insufficiency without molecular etiology and evaluate the degree of adrenal insufficiency and onset of extra-adrenal damages.Sanger or massive parallel sequencing of NNT and patient monitoring.Homozygous or compound heterozygous NNT mutations occurred frequently (26%, 13 unrelated families, 18 patients) in our cohort. Seven new mutations were identified: p.Met337Val, p.Ala863Glu, c.3G>A (p.Met1?), p.Arg129*, p.Arg379*, p.Val665Profs*29 and p.Ala704Serfs*19. The most frequent mutation, p.Arg129*, was found recurrently in patients from Algeria. Most patients were diagnosed belatedly (8-18 months) after presenting severe hypoglycemia; others experiencing stress conditions were diagnosed earlier. Five patients also had mineralocorticoid deficiency at onset. One patient had congenital hypothyroidism and two cryptorchidism. In follow-up, we noticed gonadotropic and genitalia impairments (precocious puberty, testicular inclusions, interstitial Leydig cell adenoma, azoospermia), hypothyroidism and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Intrafamilial phenotype heterogeneity was also observed.NNT should be sequenced, not only in FGD, but also in all primary adrenal insufficiencies for which the most frequent etiologies have been ruled out. As NNT is involved in oxidative stress, careful follow-up is needed to evaluate mineralocorticoid biosynthesis extent, and gonadal, heart and thyroid function.

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