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Medellín, Colombia

Chaparro L.E.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe | Furlan A.D.,Institute for Work and Health | Deshpande A.,University of Western Ontario | Mailis-Gagnon A.,Toronto Western Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Spine | Year: 2014

STUDY DESIGN.: Systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE.: To assess the efficacy of opioids in adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Opioids for CLBP has increased dramatically. However, the benefits and risks remain unclear. METHODS.: We updated a 2007 Cochrane Review through October 2012 of randomized controlled trials from multiple databases. Use of noninjectable opioids in CLBP for at least 4 weeks was compared with placebo or other treatments; comparisons with different opioids were excluded. Outcomes included pain and function using standardized mean difference (SMD) or risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and absolute risk difference with 95% CI for adverse effects. Study quality was evaluated using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. RESULTS.: Fifteen trials (5540 participants), including twelve new, met the criteria. Tramadol was better than placebo for pain (SMD, -0.55; 95% CI, -0.66 to -0.44) and function (SMD, -0.18; 95% CI, -0.29 to -0.07). Compared with placebo, transdermal buprenorphine decreased pain (SMD, -2.47; 95% CI, -2.69 to -2.25), but not function (SMD, -0.14; 95% CI, -0.53 to 0.25). Strong opioids (morphine, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and tapentadol), were better than placebo for pain (SMD, -0.43; 95% CI, -0.52 to -0.33) and function (SMD, -0.26; 95% CI, -0.37 to -0.15). One trial demonstrated little difference with tramadol compared with celecoxib for pain relief. Two trials (272 participants) found no difference between opioids and antidepressants for pain or function. Reviewed trials had low to moderate quality, high drop-out rates, short duration, and limited interpretability of functional improvement. No serious adverse effects, risks (addiction or overdose), or complications (sleep apnea, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, hypogonadism) were reported. CONCLUSION.: There is evidence of short-term efficacy (moderate for pain and small for function) of opioids to treat CLBP compared with placebo. The effectiveness and safety of long-term opioid therapy for treatment of CLBP remains unproven. © 2014, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Introduction: Survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) differs according to karyotype and the treatment they receive. Methods: In this retrospective cohort we evaluated survival, its prognostic factors and its association with the initial karyotype in 66 patients younger than 60 years with AML, who received chemotherapy or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Results: Overall survival at 2 years was 90% in the low risk group, 61% in the intermediate risk group and 30% in the high risk group (p = 0.016). The following factors affected overall survival: not having reached complete remission (HR: 16.36; IC 95%: 6.17-43.33), and not having received haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HR: 4.76; IC 95%: 1.36-16.69). As risk factor for relapse we found: High risk karyotype (HR: 9.18; IC 95%: 1.22-68.56) and not having performed haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HR: 3.06; IC 95%: 1.14-8.18). Conclusion: This study suggests that in Colombia the global survival of young patients with AML with intermediate or high cytogenetic risk at diagnosis may improve when they receive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as part of the treatment. © 2015, Universidad de Antioquia. All rights reserved.


Chaparro L.E.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

The use of opioids in the long-term management of chronic low-back pain (CLBP) has increased dramatically. Despite this trend, the benefits and risks of these medications remain unclear. This review is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2007. To determine the efficacy of opioids in adults with CLBP. We electronically searched the Cochrane Back Review Group's Specialized Register, CENTRAL, CINAHL and PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from January 2006 to October 2012. We checked the reference lists of these trials and other relevant systematic reviews for potential trials for inclusion. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the use of opioids (as monotherapy or in combination with other therapies) in adults with CLBP that were at least four weeks in duration. We included trials that compared non-injectable opioids to placebo or other treatments. We excluded trials that compared different opioids only. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data onto a pre-designed form. We pooled results using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.2. We reported on pain and function outcomes using standardized mean difference (SMD) or risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). We used absolute risk difference (RD) with 95% CI to report adverse effects. We included 15 trials (5540 participants). Tramadol was examined in five trials (1378 participants); it was found to be better than placebo for pain (SMD -0.55, 95% CI -0.66 to -0.44; low quality evidence) and function (SMD -0.18, 95% CI -0.29 to -0.07; moderate quality evidence). Transdermal buprenorphine (two trials, 653 participants) may make little difference for pain (SMD -2.47, 95%CI -2.69 to -2.25; very low quality evidence), but no difference compared to placebo for function (SMD -0.14, 95%CI -0.53 to 0.25; very low quality evidence). Strong opioids (morphine, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and tapentadol), examined in six trials (1887 participants), were better than placebo for pain (SMD -0.43, 95%CI -0.52 to -0.33; moderate quality evidence) and function (SMD -0.26, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.15; moderate quality evidence). One trial (1583 participants) demonstrated that tramadol may make little difference compared to celecoxib (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.90; very low quality evidence) for pain relief. Two trials (272 participants) found no difference between opioids and antidepressants for either pain (SMD 0.21, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.45; very low quality evidence), or function (SMD -0.11, 95% -0.63 to 0.42; very low quality evidence). The included trials in this review had high drop-out rates, were of short duration, and had limited interpretability of functional improvement. They did not report any serious adverse effects, risks (addiction or overdose), or complications (sleep apnea, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, hypogonadism). In general, the effect sizes were medium for pain and small for function. There is some evidence (very low to moderate quality) for short-term efficacy (for both pain and function) of opioids to treat CLBP compared to placebo. The very few trials that compared opioids to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or antidepressants did not show any differences regarding pain and function. The initiation of a trial of opioids for long-term management should be done with extreme caution, especially after a comprehensive assessment of potential risks. There are no placebo-RCTs supporting the effectiveness and safety of long-term opioid therapy for treatment of CLBP.


Chaparro L.E.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Chronic pain can often occur after surgery, substantially impairing patients' health and quality of life. It is caused by complex mechanisms that are not yet well understood. The predictable nature of most surgical procedures has allowed for the conduct of randomized controlled trials of pharmacological interventions aimed at preventing chronic postsurgical pain. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of systemic drugs for the prevention of chronic pain after surgery by examining the proportion of patients reporting pain three months or more after surgery. The secondary objective was to evaluate the safety of drugs administered for the prevention of chronic pain after surgery. We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of various systemically administered drugs for the prevention of chronic pain after surgery from CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and handsearches of other reviews and trial registries. The most recent search was performed on 17 July 2013.   Included studies were double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials involving adults and evaluating one or more drugs administered systemically before, during or after surgery, or both, which measured pain three months or more after surgery. Data collected from each study included the study drug name, dose, route, timing and duration of dosing; surgical procedure; proportion of patients reporting any pain three months or more after surgery, reporting at least 4/10 or moderate to severe pain three months or more after surgery; and proportion of participants dropping out of the study due to treatment-emergent adverse effects. We identified 40 RCTs of various pharmacological interventions including intravenous ketamine (14 RCTs), oral gabapentin (10 RCTs), oral pregabalin (5 RCTs), non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (3 RCTs), intravenous steroids (3 RCTs), oral N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) blockers (3 RCTs), oral mexiletine (2 RCTs), intravenous fentanyl (1 RCT), intravenous lidocaine (1 RCT), oral venlafaxine (1 RCT) and inhaled nitrous oxide (1 RCT). Meta-analysis suggested a modest but statistically significant reduction in the incidence of chronic pain after surgery following treatment with ketamine but not gabapentin or pregabalin. Results with ketamine should be viewed with caution since most of the included trials were small (that is < 100 participants per treatment arm), which could lead to the overestimation of treatment effect. Additional evidence from better, well designed, large-scale trials is needed in order to more rigorously evaluate pharmacological interventions for the prevention of chronic pain after surgery. Furthermore, available evidence does not support the efficacy of gabapentin, pregabalin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, intravenous steroids, oral NMDA blockers, oral mexiletine, intravenous fentanyl, intravenous lidocaine, oral venlafaxine or inhaled nitrous oxide for the prevention of chronic postoperative pain.


Berrio Valencia M.I.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe
Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia | Year: 2015

Background and objective: Anaphylaxis remains one of the potential causes of perioperative death, being generally unanticipated and quickly progressing to a life-threatening situation. A review of perioperative anaphylaxis is performed. Content: The diagnostic tests are important mainly to avoid further major events. The mainstays of treatment are adrenaline and intravenous fluids. Conclusion: The anesthesiologist should be familiar with the proper diagnosis, management and monitoring of perioperative anaphylaxis. © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia.

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