Medellín, Colombia
Medellín, Colombia

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Chaparro L.E.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe | Furlan A.D.,Institute for Work and Health | Deshpande A.,University of Western Ontario | Mailis-Gagnon A.,Toronto Western Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Spine | Year: 2014

STUDY DESIGN.: Systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE.: To assess the efficacy of opioids in adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Opioids for CLBP has increased dramatically. However, the benefits and risks remain unclear. METHODS.: We updated a 2007 Cochrane Review through October 2012 of randomized controlled trials from multiple databases. Use of noninjectable opioids in CLBP for at least 4 weeks was compared with placebo or other treatments; comparisons with different opioids were excluded. Outcomes included pain and function using standardized mean difference (SMD) or risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and absolute risk difference with 95% CI for adverse effects. Study quality was evaluated using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. RESULTS.: Fifteen trials (5540 participants), including twelve new, met the criteria. Tramadol was better than placebo for pain (SMD, -0.55; 95% CI, -0.66 to -0.44) and function (SMD, -0.18; 95% CI, -0.29 to -0.07). Compared with placebo, transdermal buprenorphine decreased pain (SMD, -2.47; 95% CI, -2.69 to -2.25), but not function (SMD, -0.14; 95% CI, -0.53 to 0.25). Strong opioids (morphine, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and tapentadol), were better than placebo for pain (SMD, -0.43; 95% CI, -0.52 to -0.33) and function (SMD, -0.26; 95% CI, -0.37 to -0.15). One trial demonstrated little difference with tramadol compared with celecoxib for pain relief. Two trials (272 participants) found no difference between opioids and antidepressants for pain or function. Reviewed trials had low to moderate quality, high drop-out rates, short duration, and limited interpretability of functional improvement. No serious adverse effects, risks (addiction or overdose), or complications (sleep apnea, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, hypogonadism) were reported. CONCLUSION.: There is evidence of short-term efficacy (moderate for pain and small for function) of opioids to treat CLBP compared with placebo. The effectiveness and safety of long-term opioid therapy for treatment of CLBP remains unproven. © 2014, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Initial interpretation of the process of coagulation refers to two pathways: (1) the extrinsic pathway, consisting of tissue factor (TF) and factor VII, and (2) the intrinsic pathway, in which factors XII, XI, IX, VIII and V are involved. Currently, this concept has changed and it is accepted that the main initiating event in blood coagulation is TF exposure. In this article, we review the new concepts of the coagulation cascade based on thromboelastography findings and the different mechanisms involved in trauma-associated coagulopathy. For this purpose, a systematic research was carried out using the main databases, including Medline, Embase and Lilacs between 2000 and 2011. One hundred and fourteen articles were found, and 50 were selected for the review. A relevant finding was that thromboelastography allows a precise detection of the underlying flaw in the coagulation cascade. Therefore, this procedure has become an essential tool and a guide for the management of trauma-associated coagulopathy. © 2011 Published by Elsevier España.

Sitges-Serra A.,Hospital Del Mar | Fontane J.,Hospital Del Mar | Duenas J.P.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe | Duque C.S.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2013

Background Staged thyroidectomy has been recommended when loss of the signal from intraoperative nerve monitoring is observed after first-side dissection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. There is no high-quality evidence supporting this recommendation. In addition, it is not clear whether signal loss predicts postoperative vocal cord paralysis. Methods This was a prospective observational study of consecutive adult patients undergoing neuromonitored total thyroidectomy for either malignancy or multinodular goitre. The prevalence of first-side loss of signal was recorded. Surgery was completed, and vagus and laryngeal nerves on the first side were rechecked at the end of the procedure. Results Two-hundred and ninety patients were included. Loss of signal on the first side was noted in 16 procedures (5·5 per cent). Thyroidectomy was completed and, at retesting, 15 of 16 initially silent nerves recovered an electromyographic signal with a mean(s.d.) amplitude of 132(26) mcV. Mean time to recovery was 20·2 (range 10-35) min. In no patient was the signal lost on the opposite side. Only three of 15 nerves with a recovered signal were associated with transient vocal cord dysfunction. Conclusion After loss of signal of the recurrent laryngeal nerve dissected initially, there was a 90 per cent chance of intraoperative signal recovery. In this setting, judicious bilateral thyroidectomy can be performed without risk of bilateral recurrent nerve paresis. © 2013 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Agudelo O.M.,University of Antioquia | Aristizabal B.H.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe | Yanow S.K.,University of Alberta | Arango E.,University of Antioquia | And 2 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: A large-scale study was set up in order to study the epidemiology, clinical aspects, and immunopathology of gestational and placental malaria in north-west Colombia. In this region, recent reports using a qPCR technique, confirmed frequencies of infection, by Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax, up to 45%. Given the high rates of infection observed both in mother and placenta, a first exploratory study was proposed in order to characterize the effect on the inflammation status, tissue damage and hypoxia in Plasmodium spp. infected placentas. Methods. A descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional design was applied to pregnant women with (PM+) and without (PM-) placental malaria. Messenger RNA expression of Fas, FasL; COX-1, COX-2, HIF, VEGF, and the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF, were measured in peripheral and placental blood using a quantitative PCR. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined with a TUNEL assay. Results: In total 50 placentas were studied: 25 were positive for submicroscopic infection and 25 were negative for Plasmodium infection. Expression of IL-4 and IL-10 was observed high in placental tissue of PM+, while IL-2 was high in peripheral blood of the same group. Expression of TNF and IFNγ in peripheral blood of the PM + group was high. Similarly, the apoptotic index and Fas expression were significantly high in PM+. However, FasL expression was observed low in PM + compared to PM-. Inflammation markers (HIF, VEGF) and hypoxia markers (COX-1, COX-2) were high in the PM + group. Conclusion: During placental malaria expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines is up-regulated and markers of hypoxia and tissue damage are increased in cases of submicroscopic infection. © 2014 Agudelo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Chaparro L.E.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

The use of opioids in the long-term management of chronic low-back pain (CLBP) has increased dramatically. Despite this trend, the benefits and risks of these medications remain unclear. This review is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2007. To determine the efficacy of opioids in adults with CLBP. We electronically searched the Cochrane Back Review Group's Specialized Register, CENTRAL, CINAHL and PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from January 2006 to October 2012. We checked the reference lists of these trials and other relevant systematic reviews for potential trials for inclusion. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the use of opioids (as monotherapy or in combination with other therapies) in adults with CLBP that were at least four weeks in duration. We included trials that compared non-injectable opioids to placebo or other treatments. We excluded trials that compared different opioids only. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data onto a pre-designed form. We pooled results using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.2. We reported on pain and function outcomes using standardized mean difference (SMD) or risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). We used absolute risk difference (RD) with 95% CI to report adverse effects. We included 15 trials (5540 participants). Tramadol was examined in five trials (1378 participants); it was found to be better than placebo for pain (SMD -0.55, 95% CI -0.66 to -0.44; low quality evidence) and function (SMD -0.18, 95% CI -0.29 to -0.07; moderate quality evidence). Transdermal buprenorphine (two trials, 653 participants) may make little difference for pain (SMD -2.47, 95%CI -2.69 to -2.25; very low quality evidence), but no difference compared to placebo for function (SMD -0.14, 95%CI -0.53 to 0.25; very low quality evidence). Strong opioids (morphine, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and tapentadol), examined in six trials (1887 participants), were better than placebo for pain (SMD -0.43, 95%CI -0.52 to -0.33; moderate quality evidence) and function (SMD -0.26, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.15; moderate quality evidence). One trial (1583 participants) demonstrated that tramadol may make little difference compared to celecoxib (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.90; very low quality evidence) for pain relief. Two trials (272 participants) found no difference between opioids and antidepressants for either pain (SMD 0.21, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.45; very low quality evidence), or function (SMD -0.11, 95% -0.63 to 0.42; very low quality evidence). The included trials in this review had high drop-out rates, were of short duration, and had limited interpretability of functional improvement. They did not report any serious adverse effects, risks (addiction or overdose), or complications (sleep apnea, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, hypogonadism). In general, the effect sizes were medium for pain and small for function. There is some evidence (very low to moderate quality) for short-term efficacy (for both pain and function) of opioids to treat CLBP compared to placebo. The very few trials that compared opioids to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or antidepressants did not show any differences regarding pain and function. The initiation of a trial of opioids for long-term management should be done with extreme caution, especially after a comprehensive assessment of potential risks. There are no placebo-RCTs supporting the effectiveness and safety of long-term opioid therapy for treatment of CLBP.

Chaparro L.E.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Chronic pain can often occur after surgery, substantially impairing patients' health and quality of life. It is caused by complex mechanisms that are not yet well understood. The predictable nature of most surgical procedures has allowed for the conduct of randomized controlled trials of pharmacological interventions aimed at preventing chronic postsurgical pain. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of systemic drugs for the prevention of chronic pain after surgery by examining the proportion of patients reporting pain three months or more after surgery. The secondary objective was to evaluate the safety of drugs administered for the prevention of chronic pain after surgery. We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of various systemically administered drugs for the prevention of chronic pain after surgery from CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and handsearches of other reviews and trial registries. The most recent search was performed on 17 July 2013.   Included studies were double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials involving adults and evaluating one or more drugs administered systemically before, during or after surgery, or both, which measured pain three months or more after surgery. Data collected from each study included the study drug name, dose, route, timing and duration of dosing; surgical procedure; proportion of patients reporting any pain three months or more after surgery, reporting at least 4/10 or moderate to severe pain three months or more after surgery; and proportion of participants dropping out of the study due to treatment-emergent adverse effects. We identified 40 RCTs of various pharmacological interventions including intravenous ketamine (14 RCTs), oral gabapentin (10 RCTs), oral pregabalin (5 RCTs), non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (3 RCTs), intravenous steroids (3 RCTs), oral N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) blockers (3 RCTs), oral mexiletine (2 RCTs), intravenous fentanyl (1 RCT), intravenous lidocaine (1 RCT), oral venlafaxine (1 RCT) and inhaled nitrous oxide (1 RCT). Meta-analysis suggested a modest but statistically significant reduction in the incidence of chronic pain after surgery following treatment with ketamine but not gabapentin or pregabalin. Results with ketamine should be viewed with caution since most of the included trials were small (that is < 100 participants per treatment arm), which could lead to the overestimation of treatment effect. Additional evidence from better, well designed, large-scale trials is needed in order to more rigorously evaluate pharmacological interventions for the prevention of chronic pain after surgery. Furthermore, available evidence does not support the efficacy of gabapentin, pregabalin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, intravenous steroids, oral NMDA blockers, oral mexiletine, intravenous fentanyl, intravenous lidocaine, oral venlafaxine or inhaled nitrous oxide for the prevention of chronic postoperative pain.

Sanabria A.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2013

Perforated peptic ulcer is a common abdominal disease that is treated by surgery. The development of laparoscopic surgery has changed the way to treat such abdominal surgical emergencies. The results of some clinical trials suggest that laparoscopic surgery could be a better strategy than open surgery in the correction of perforated peptic ulcer but the evidence is not strongly in favour for or against this intervention. To measure the effect of laparoscopic surgical treatment versus open surgical treatment in patients with a diagnosis of perforated peptic ulcer in relation to abdominal septic complications, surgical wound infection, extra-abdominal complications, hospital length of stay and direct costs. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library (2004, Issue 2), PubMed/MEDLINE (1966 to July 2004), EMBASE (1985 to November 2004) and LILACS (1988 to November 2004) as well as the reference lists of relevant articles. Searches in all databases were updated in December 2009 and January 2012. We did not confine our search to English language publications. Randomized clinical trials comparing laparoscopic surgery versus open surgery for the repair of perforated peptic ulcer using any mechanical method of closure (suture, omental patch or fibrin sealant). Primary outcome measures included proportion of septic and other abdominal complications (surgical site infection, suture leakage, intra-abdominal abscess, postoperative ileus) and extra-abdominal complications (pulmonary). Secondary outcomes included mortality, time to return to normal diet, time of nasogastric aspiration, hospital length-of-stay and costs. Outcomes were summarized by reporting odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using the fixed-effect model. We included three randomized clinical trials of acceptable quality. We found no statistically significant differences between laparoscopic and open surgery in the proportion of abdominal septic complications (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.30 to 1.47), pulmonary complications (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.17 to 1.12) or number of septic abdominal complications (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.15). Heterogeneity was significant for pulmonary complications and operating time. This review suggests that a decrease in septic abdominal complications may exist when laparoscopic surgery is used to correct perforated peptic ulcer. However, it is necessary to perform more randomized controlled trials with a greater number of patients to confirm such an assumption, guaranteeing a long learning curve for participating surgeons. With the information provided it could be said that laparoscopic surgery results are not clinically different from those of open surgery.

Berrio Valencia M.I.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe
Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia | Year: 2015

Background and objective: Anaphylaxis remains one of the potential causes of perioperative death, being generally unanticipated and quickly progressing to a life-threatening situation. A review of perioperative anaphylaxis is performed. Content: The diagnostic tests are important mainly to avoid further major events. The mainstays of treatment are adrenaline and intravenous fluids. Conclusion: The anesthesiologist should be familiar with the proper diagnosis, management and monitoring of perioperative anaphylaxis. © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia.

Ladino L.D.,University of Saskatchewan | Ladino L.D.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe | Hernandez-Ronquillo L.,University of Saskatchewan | Tellez-Zenteno J.F.,University of Saskatchewan
Epilepsy Research | Year: 2014

Objective: No consensus exists regarding the management of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) after successful epilepsy surgery (ES). We performed a meta-analysis with the most relevant evidence in this topic. Our aim was to provide evidence-based estimates of results on AEDs discontinuation after ES. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and Embase using Medical Subject Headings and keywords related to AEDs discontinuation after ES. Two reviewers independently applied the following inclusion criteria: original published research that directly compared seizure outcomes in patients having or not AEDs discontinuation after ES. Two investigators independently extracted data, resolving disagreements through discussion. A random and fixed-effect model was used to derive a pooled odds ratio (OR) for either seizure recurrence in both groups. Results: Of 257 abstracts initially identified by the search, 57 were reviewed as full text. Sixteen articles fulfilled eligibility criteria and described outcomes in 1456 patients with AEDs discontinuation and 685 patients with no discontinuation. The odds of having seizure recurrence after AEDs discontinuation was 0.39 times lower in patients with attempted discontinuation after surgery (OR 0.39, CI 95% 0.300-0.507, p < 0.001). Most likely the difference is related with a selected population where discontinuation was attempted. Significance: Seizure recurrence was higher for patients without AED modification than for the withdrawal group. Patients with seizure recurrence after discontinuation can be managed easily after re-start of medications. The discontinuation of medications should be done in good candidates and the decision should be individualized taking into account clinical, electrographical, imaging and histopathological variables. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Uribe Arcila J.F.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe
Urologia Colombiana | Year: 2016

Testosterone is an intracrine hormone that is synthesized from cholesterol, using a cascade of enzymes that is best known of «frontdoor» pathway for production. However, there are at least two alternative adrenal ways for testosterone synthesis also considered «frontdoor» and two «backdoor» pathways that just now are beginning to be recognized with clinical significance. In prostate cancer the presence of testosterone and its by-products is essential, in what is known as the «androgen's hypothesis». Additionally in prostate cancer the remaining amounts of androgens are very important, as well as knowing if the body has some alternate routes to produce the most important androgens, i.e. dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Knowing the «backdoor pathway» and controlling it is fundamental in the current management of prostate cancer. The so-called ultra-castration (or hypercastration) is not the final frontier in the treatment of hormone resistant disease; alternatives related to the androgen receptor as its modification or destruction are in experimentation. © 2015 Sociedad Colombiana de Urología.

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