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Alvarado-Esquivel C.,Mexico State University | Urbina-Alvarez J.D.,Mexican Social Security Institute | Estrada-Martinez S.,Mexico State University | Torres-Castorena A.,Mexican Social Security Institute | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology International | Year: 2011

There are conflicting reports concerning the association of Toxoplasma gondii infection and schizophrenia in humans. Therefore, we determined such association in a Mexican population of Mestizo ethnicity. Through a case-control study design, 50 schizophrenic patients and 150 control subjects matched by gender, age, residence place, and ethnicity were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence and levels of T. gondii IgG antibodies and for the presence of T. gondii IgM antibodies. Schizophrenic patients attended a public psychiatric hospital in Durango City, Mexico, and the control group consisted of individuals of the general population of the same city. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were also obtained. Both the seroprevalence and the level of T.gondii IgG antibodies were higher in schizophrenic patients (10/50; 20%) than in control subjects (8/150; 5.3%) (OR = 4.44; 95% CI: 1.49-13.37; P= 0.003). The IgG T. gondii levels higher than 150. IU/ml were more frequently observed in patients than in controls (10% versus 2%, respectively; P= 0.02). One (50%) of the two patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia and none of the controls had T. gondii IgM antibodies (P= 0.01). T. gondii seropositivity was significantly higher in patients with a history of cleaning cat excrement (P= 0.005), and suffering from simple schizophrenia (ICD-10 classification: F20.6) (P= 0.03) than patients without these characteristics. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was also significantly higher in patients with simple schizophrenia (F20.6) than in those with paranoid schizophrenia (F20.0) (P= 0.02). This study provides elements to clarify the controversial information on the association of T. gondii infection and schizophrenia. © 2011. Source


Alvarado-Esquivel C.,Mexico State University | Carrillo-Oropeza D.,Hospital of Mental Health Dr. Miguel Vallebueno | Pacheco-Vega S.J.,Mexico State University | Hernandez-Tinoco J.,Mexico State University | And 7 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Toxoplasma gondii infection has been associated with psychiatric diseases. However, there is no information about the link between this infection and patients with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Methods: We performed a case-control study with 149 psychiatric patients suffering from mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use and 149 age- and gender-matched control subjects of the general population. We searched for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in the sera of participants by means of commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassays. Seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics in psychiatric patients was also investigated. Results: Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were present in 15 (10.1%) of 149 cases and in 14 (9.4%) of 149 controls (P = 1.0). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11 (7.4%) of the 149 cases and in 16 (10.7%) of the 149 controls (P = 0.31). No association of T. gondii exposure with socio-demographic characteristics of patients was found. Multivariate analysis of clinical and behavioral characteristics of cases showed that T. gondii seropositivity was positively associated with consumption of opossum meat (OR = 10.78; 95% CI: 2.16-53.81; P = 0.003) and soil flooring at home (OR = 11.15; 95% CI: 1.58-78.92; P = 0.01), and negatively associated with suicidal ideation (OR = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.05-0.64; P = 0.008). Conclusions: Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use do not appear to represent an increased risk for T. gondii exposure. This is the first report of a positive association of T. gondii exposure with consumption of opossum meat. Further studies to elucidate the role of T. gondii infection in suicidal ideation and behavior are needed to develop optimal strategies for the prevention of infection with T. gondii. © Alvarado-Esquivel et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source


Alvarado-Esquivel C.,Mexico State University | Sanchez-Anguiano L.F.,Mexico State University | Arnaud-Gil C.A.,Hospital of Mental Health Dr. Miguel Vallebueno | Lopez-Longoria J.C.,Hospital of Mental Health Dr. Miguel Vallebueno | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease | Year: 2013

The association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with suicide attempts has been scarcely evaluated. Two hundred eighty-three psychiatric outpatients (156 patients with history of suicide attempt and 127 control patients without history of suicide attempt) were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies. Seroprevalences of Toxoplasma IgG and IgM in the cases and the controls were similar: 7 (4.5%) and 3 (1.9%) vs. 10 (7.9%) and 3 (2.4%) (p = 0.23 and p = 0.55), respectively. In contrast, the Toxoplasma IgG levels higher than 150 IU/ml were more frequently observed in the cases than in the controls (100% vs. 50%, respectively; p = 0.04). The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection increased with age and with the number of suicide attempts. Toxoplasma seropositivity was associated with reflex impairment, national trips, and snake meat consumption. Our results suggest that although seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection is not associated with suicide attempts, a high anti-Toxoplasma antibody level is, therefore warranting further research. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Alvarado-Esquivel C.,Mexico State University | Sanchez-Anguiano L.F.,Mexico State University | Arnaud-Gil C.A.,Hospital of Mental Health Dr. Miguel Vallebueno | Hernandez-Tinoco J.,Mexico State University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2014

Background: Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Methods: Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Mexico were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained retrospectively from all outpatients and compared in relation to the presence or absence of suicide attempt history. Results: Increased prevalence of suicide attempts was associated with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) (P=0.01), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) (P=0.02), mood (affective) disorders (F30-39) (P<0.001), and disorders of adult personality and behavior (F60-69) (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that suicide attempts were associated with young age (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.39; P=0.003), female gender (OR=2.98, 95% CI: 1.55-5.73; P=0.001), urban residence (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.17-4.57; P=0.01), memory impairment (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.07-3.40; P=0.02), alcohol consumption (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.21-4.70; P=0.01), and sexual promiscuity (OR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.74- 8.77; P<0.001). Conclusions: We report the association of suicide attempts with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics in psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. Results may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients. © 2014 Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel et al. Source

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