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Hospital de Órbigo, Spain

Hernandez-Labrado G.R.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Contreras-Donayre R.E.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Collazos-Castro J.E.,Hospital Nacional de Paraplejicos | Polo J.L.,University of Castilla - La Mancha
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

We have obtained impedance measurements of PEDOT:PSS films and propose a novel interpretation for electrical charge transport mechanisms in the polymer. A parabolic subdiffusion model produced excellent fitting for the impedance data, suggesting that anomalous ion diffusion limits charge transfer through the nanoporous film. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Context: Introducing a consensus on pharmacological treatment of male LUTs to be applied to Urology Primary Care. Evidence compilation: The consensus has been created by an expert committee based on the latest recommendations by the European and American Guides for male LUTs treatment. Also, a bibliographic review of the latest advances in the therapeutical approach to these patients has been carried out. Evidence synthesis: Although the prevalence of both LUTs and overactive bladder is high, and its impact on the quality of life and social cost have been widely described, the number of patients treated is low. On the other hand, current clinical practice doesnt necessarily match the Guides and for this reason false perceptions of the available treatments circulate. For instance, men with storage LUTS are often treated inadequately with α-blockers or 5-α-reductase inhibitors due to underlying obstructive disorders. However, it is known that the incidence of real obstruction tends to be low. Current evidence, though limited, shows that antimuscarinic drugs may be used safely by men with LUTs, and are not associated with an increase in the prevalence of high urinary retention. Conclusion: We propose an algorithm for the management of male LUTs in which various levels of clinical evaluation are shown for a specific diagnose, as well as for choosing the most appropriate treatment. © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

Di Lazzaro V.,University Cattolica | Di Lazzaro V.,AFaR Fatebenefratelli Association for Biomedical Research | Profice P.,University Cattolica | Ranieri F.,University Cattolica | And 4 more authors.
Brain Stimulation | Year: 2012

The human motor cortex can be activated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) evoking a high-frequency repetitive discharge of corticospinal neurones. The exact physiologic mechanisms producing the corticospinal activity still remain unclear because of the complexity of the interactions between the currents induced in the brain and the circuits of cerebral cortex, composed of multiple excitatory and inhibitory neurons and axons of different size, location, orientation and function. The aim of current paper is to evaluate whether the main characteristics of the activity evoked by single- and paired-pulse and repetitive TMS, can be accounted by the interaction of the induced currents in the brain with the key anatomic features of a simple cortical circuit composed of the superficial population of excitatory pyramidal neurons of layers II and III, the large pyramidal neurons in layer V, and the inhibitory GABA cells. This circuit represents the minimum architecture necessary for capturing the most essential cortical input-output operations of neocortex. The interaction between the induced currents in the brain and this simple model of cortical circuitry might explain the characteristics and nature of the repetitive discharge evoked by TMS, including its regular and rhythmic nature and its dose-dependency and pharmacologic modulation. The integrative properties of the circuit also provide a good framework for the interpretation of the changes in the cortical output produced by paired and repetitive TMS. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Mey J.,Hospital Nacional de Paraplejicos | Brook G.,RWTH Aachen | Hodde D.,RWTH Aachen | Kriebel A.,RWTH Aachen
Advances in Polymer Science | Year: 2012

Since axonal regeneration is possible in the peripheral nervous system, lesions can be treated by suturing disconnected nerve stumps or, when a lesion-induced gap must be bridged, by grafting an autologous nerve. However, nerve transplantations require multiple operations and cause a sensory deficit at the donor site. It is therefore desirable to develop artificial conduits for nerve regeneration as alternatives to the autograft. A core concept for the design of such implants is the incorporation of orientated nanofibers. Artificial implants have to promote and guide axonal growth, the migration of Schwann cells, and they must not cause excessive inflammatory reactions. With hollow tubes, which are already used as nerve bridges in clinical studies, it is not possible to achieve regeneration over distances much larger than 30 mm. For this purpose, biocompatible tubes are being developed that contain orientated electrospun fibers consisting of a range of natural or synthetic materials. More recently, artificial guidance materials have been endowed with biologically active molecules. Extracellular matrix proteins or synthetic peptides that activate integrin receptors have been coupled to electrospun fibers. Other approaches adopted gradients of neurotrophins or incorporate living cells. One of the long-term goals of this research is to develop cell-free artificial implants that become integrated at the lesion site to the extent that they become populated by migrating host glia and allow a similar degree of regeneration that is supported by the autologous nerve. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Nieto-Sampedro M.,Instituto Cajal Of Neurobiologia | Valle-Argos B.,Instituto Cajal Of Neurobiologia | Gomez-Nicola D.,Instituto Cajal Of Neurobiologia | Fernandez-Mayoralas A.,Institute Quimica Organica General | Nieto-Diaz M.,Hospital Nacional de Paraplejicos
Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology | Year: 2011

Treated glioblastoma patients survive from 6 to 14 months. In the first part of this review, we describe glioma origins, cancer stem cells and the genomic alterations that generate dysregulated cell division, with enhanced proliferation and diverse response to radiation and chemotherapy. We review the pathways that mediate tumour cell proliferation, neo-angiogenesis, tumor cell invasion, as well as necrotic and apoptotic cell death. Then, we examine the ability of gliomas to evade and suppress the host immune system, exhibited at the levels of antigen recognition and immune activation, limiting the effective signaling between glioma and host immune cells. The second part of the review presents current therapies and their drawbacks. This is followed by a summary of the work of our laboratory during the past 20 years, on oligosaccharide and glycosphingolipid inhibitors of astroblast and astrocytoma division. Neurostatins, the O-acetylated forms of gangliosides GD1b and GT1b naturally present in mammalian brain, are cytostatic for normal astroblasts, but cytotoxic for rat C6 glioma cells and human astrocytoma grades III and IV, with ID50 values ranging from 200 to 450 nM. The inhibitors do not affect neurons or fibroblasts up to concentrations of 4 μM or higher. At least four different neurostatin-activated, cell-mediated antitumoral processes, lead to tumor destruction: (i) inhibition of tumor neovascularization; (ii) activation of microglia; (iii) activation of natural killer (NK) cells; (iv) activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL). The enhanced antigenicity of neurostatin-treated glioma cells, could be related to their increased expression of connexin 43. Because neurostatins and their analogues show specific activity and no toxicity for normal cells, a clinical trial would be the logical next step. © the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.

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