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Background: Acute fascioliasis (FA), cystic echinococcosis (CE) and neurocysticercosis (NCC) are three endemic parasitic diseases in Chile for whom there is scarce information about the economic impact they represent during management at the hospital. Aims: To quantify and compare hospital care expenses caused by these three endemic helminth infections in a Chilean hospital. Methods: Retrospective analysis of hospital costs at a referral hospital in Santiago between 2006 and 2010. Hospital databases were used to identify patients with the corresponding infections, and those with suffcient data on hospital costs were included. Results: A total of 16 patients representing 21 cases were identifed and analyzed: four with AF, eleven with CE, and six with NCC. Median hospital expenses for cases with AF were US$ 1799 and mainly caused by bed-day costs. Median hospital costs for cases of CE were US$ 4707 and the most important costs components were medications, bed-day costs and consumables. NCC patients had median costs of US$ 1293, which were mainly due to bed-day costs. Non-paren-chymatous or mixed forms of NCC showed a trend toward higher hospital costs compared with parenchymatous forms. Conclusions: Although helminth infections in Chile, an upper middle income country, are declining and considered rare in routine clinical practice, hospital care expenses caused by patients with AF, CE, and NCC are high and might still present an important economic burden to the Chilean healthcare system. © 2014, Sociedad Chilena de Infectologia. All rights reserved.

Alberto Fica C.,Hospital Militar de Santiago | Marcela Cifuentes D.,University of Chile | Beatrice Herve E.,Laboratorio Of Microbiologia
Revista Chilena de Infectologia | Year: 2011

The best strategy to resolve the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is unsettled, and periodic reviews of new evidence are necessary. An update was performed to renew the 2001 recommendations on the diagnosis of this condition by The Chilean Society of Infectious Diseases. The main proposals are: to incorporate a microbiology-based strategy when there is a suspicion of VAP to gather local epidemiologic data and design appropriate empirical therapy for next cases, and to apply a non-invasive approach such as an endotracheal aspirate or mini-bronchoalveolar lavage, to facilitate accessibility and lower costs. There is no advantage on survival using either quantitative or qualitative cultures for VAP and a definite recommendation cannot be issued. Nonetheless, quantitative cultures are more specific and could facilitate to reject the diagnosis, look for other alternatives, and avoid unnecessary antibiotics. Biomarkers to assist VAP diagnosis are not recommended due to their poor performance. However, serial procalcitonin determinations have been useful to decrease antibiotic use in critical care patients and this biomarker has a better diagnostic yield than C reactive protein in this setting. This consensus also recommends discriminating VAP from ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT). The latter represents a separate entity characterized by an inflammatory response with purulent tracheal secretions but without new pulmonary infiltrates. Although preliminary data supports a beneficial effect of antibiotics to treat this condition, evidence is limited yet, and both conditions deserve to be discriminated (VAP versus VAT).

Olivares F.,University of Los Andes, Chile | Salinas M.,Hospital Militar de Santiago | Soto A.,Hospital Militar de Santiago | Dabanch J.,Hospital Militar de Santiago | Fica A.,Hospital Militar de Santiago
Revista Chilena de Infectologia | Year: 2015

Disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an infrequent condition with considerable morbidity and mortality in adult patients. It requires a high level of suspicion and diagnosis emerges by gathering clinical information, laboratory exams and images studies. ADEM is related to an immunological phenomena occurring after a bacterial/ viral infection or recent vaccination. Glucocorticoids are the first line treatment, reserving immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis to refractory cases. We report a male patient aged 25, with ADEM associated to parainfluenza 3 virus respiratory infection that required mechanical ventilation and that had a complete recovery only after plasmapheresis. © 2015, Sociedad Chilena de Infectologia. All rights reserved.

Fica A.,Head of the Infectious Diseases Unit | Seelmann D.,Hospital Militar de Santiago | Porte L.,Microbiology Unit | Eugenin D.,Critical Care Unit | Gallardo R.,Hospital Militar de Santiago
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Myopericarditis is an infrequent complication of acute diarrheal illness due to Campylobacter jejuni, and it has been mainly reported in developed nations. The first case detected in Chile - an upper-middle income country -, that is coincidental with the increasing importance of acute gastroenteritis associated to this pathogen, is described. Recognition of this agent in stools requires special laboratory techniques not widely available, and it was suspected when a young patient presented with acute diarrhea, fever, and chest pain combined with electrocardiogram (EKG) abnormalities and elevated myocardial enzymes. C. jejuni myopericarditis can easily be suspected but its detection requires dedicated laboratory techniques. © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda.

Background: Nosocomial infections are common adverse events associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and costs of patient care. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) are nosocomial infections associated with higher medical costs. Aims: To evaluate CR-BSI associated costs in the Hospital Militar of Santiago, Chile, during year 2013. Methods: Comparative study between cases (CR-BSI) and matched controls using the Pan American Health Organization protocol. Variables were excess in length of stay (LOS), antimicrobial use according to daily defined doses (DDD), and total number of microbial cultures per hospitalization which were compared with non-parametric tests. Results: We included 10 cases and 10 matched controls. Mean LOS among cases was 40 days vs. 20.3 among controls (excess 20.3 days per event; p < 0.05). Antimicrobial consumption was higher among cases (DDD 36 vs. 10.5; p < 0.05) and there was a trend to an increased number of bacterial cultures among cases (9 vs. 5; p = 0.057). The additional cost for the 10 subjects was 38 Chilean million pesos (USD 72,869) with a mean of 7,286 USD per event. Conclusions: During one year, CR-BSI generated an excess in LOS, antimicrobial consumption, and costs (7,286 USD per event of CR-BSI). © 2015, Sociedad Chilena de Infectologia. All rights reserved.

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