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Chew G.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Horner W.E.,UL Environment | Kennedy K.,Center for Environmental Health | Grimes C.,Healthy Habitats LLC | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice | Year: 2016

Drawing evidence from epidemiology and exposure assessment studies and recommendations from expert practice, we describe a process to guide health care providers helping their patients who present with symptoms that might be associated with living in damp housing. We present the procedures in the form of a guided 2-part interview. The first part has 5 questions that triage the patient toward a more detailed questionnaire that reflects features of housing conditions known to be reliably associated with exposures to mold and dampness contaminants. We chose the questions based on the conditions associated with moisture problems in homes across the United States and Canada. The goal is to facilitate the clinician's effort to help patients reduce exposure to environmental triggers that elicit symptoms to better manage their disease. © 2016.

Frati-Munari A.C.,Hospital Medica Sur
Archivos de Cardiologia de Mexico | Year: 2013

Endothelial glycocalyx is a layer composed by glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and glycoproteins attached to the vascular endothelial luminal surface. It has several physiological roles: shear stress mechanotransduction to the endothelial cells, regulation of fluids and macromolecules vascular permeability, of coagulation cascade activation and fibrinolysis, and protects the endothelium from platelets and leukocytes adhesion. In general, glycocalyx protects vascular wall against pathogenic insults. The glycocalyx may be damaged by abnormal shear stress, reactive oxygen species, hypernatremia, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammatory molecules, resulting in endothelial dysfunction, enhanced vascular permeability, lipoproteins leakage to subendothelial space, activation of plasma coagulation, and increased adherence of platelets and leukocytes to the endothelial cells. Shredding of glycocalyx appears as an important initial step in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases. © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

Larenas Linnemann D.E.S.,Hospital Medica Sur
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings | Year: 2012

In 2011, one hundred years of allergen immunotherapy was celebrated. Several landmark studies date from the first decades of experience with this treatment and are still cited today, often without analysis of the original articles. Original articles of the oldest landmark studies on subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy were sought and reviewed in detail, together with some publications on their authors' historical background. Details that might be of importance to the present allergists are highlighted in this article. Study design, preparation of allergen extracts used for immunotherapy and clinical findings of the following studies are discussed. For the European school, Noon 1911 was the first report of successful application of grass pollen extract; Frankland 1954 was the first double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial (DBPC-RCT) in SCIT. For the European school: Noon published the first report of successful application of grass pollen extract (1911); Frankland was the first double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial (DBPC-RCT) in SCIT (1954). For the American line: Clowes published the first successful trial of ragweed SCIT (1913); Cooke used skin prick testing as diagnostic method (1915); Loveless used venom immunotherapy with purified venom (not whole body extract) (1956); in 1961/1968 Johnstone showed in a DBPC-RCT dose-effect of an allergen mix and highly significant asthma reduction after up to 14 yrs of treatment of asthmatic children; Lowell and Franklin did the first DB-RCT demonstrating ragweed pollen efficacy as part of a multi-allergen mix and 1967 ragweed pollen extract dose response. We discuss the first studies for SLIT in 1927 from Black (oral-IT versus SCIT) and 1986 from Scadding, DBPC-RCT with house dust mite extract. We conclude that an in-depth review of investigators'observations, methods, and thoughts, however, can also be enriching for investigators in the field today. Copyright © 2012, OceanSide Publications, Inc.

Cox L.,Nova Southeastern University | Larenas-Linnemann D.,Hospital Medica Sur | Lockey R.F.,University of South Florida | Passalacqua G.,University of Genoa
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma and venom hypersensitivity and has the potential of producing serious life-threatening anaphylaxis. Adverse reactions are generally classified into 2 categories: local reactions, which can manifest as redness, pruritus, and swelling at the injection site, and systemic reactions (SRs). SRs can range in severity from mild rhinitis to fatal cardiopulmonary arrest. Early administration of epinephrine, which is the treatment of choice to treat anaphylaxis, may prevent the progression of an SR to a more serious life-threatening problem. Although there is little debate about using epinephrine to treat a SCIT SR, there is a lack of consensus about when it should be first used. A uniform classification system for grading SCIT SRs will be helpful in assessing more accurately when epinephrine should be administered. The primary purpose of this article is to discuss the proposed grading system for SCIT SRs. © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Linnemann D.E.S.L.,Hospital Medica Sur | Blaiss M.S.,University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Immunotherapy | Year: 2014

Allergen immunotherapy is the sole treatment for IgE-mediated allergic diseases directed at the underlying mechanism. The two widely accepted administration routes are sublingual (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT). We reviewed how patients should best be selected for immunotherapy and how the optimal administration route can be defined. Before deciding SCIT or SLIT, appropriate selection of patients for allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is mandatory. To be eligible for AIT, subjects must have a clear medical history of allergic disease, with exacerbation of symptoms on exposure to one or more allergens and a corresponding positive skin or in vitro test. Then the route of administration should be based on: published evidence of clinical and immunologic efficacy (which varies per allergic disease and per allergen); mono- or multi-allergen immunotherapy, for SLIT multi-allergen immunotherapy was not effective; safety: adverse events with SLIT are more frequent, but less severe; and, costs and patient preferences, closely related to adherence issues. All these are discussed in the article. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd.

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