A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other healthcare facility and includes severe pneumonia, infections of the urinary tract, bloodstream or other parts of the body. According to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control, approximately 1 in 18 of the people admitted to a hospital will contract an HAI. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), an infection of the lungs, is the second most common nosocomial infection and a leading cause of death in intensive care units. Signs and symptoms of HAP include cough, dyspnea (shortness of breath) fever, chills, and chest pain. The most common cause of HAI and HAP are Gram-negative bacteria, which have become increasingly resistant to many available antibiotic treatments.