Validation of an instrument for early detection of developmental problems in children under 5 years in Mexico [Validación de un instrumento para la detección oportuna de problemas de desarrollo en menores de 5 años en México]
Rizzoli-Cordoba A.,Investigacion Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez |
Schnaas-Arrieta L.,Instituto Nacional Of Perinatologia Dr Isidro Espinosa Of Los Reyes |
Carreon-Garcia J.,Secretaria de Salud |
Valadez-Correa E.,Secretaria de Salud |
And 4 more authors.
Boletin Medico del Hospital Infantil de Mexico | Year: 2013
Background. The "Evaluación del Desarrollo Infantil" (EDI) test was developed as an screening tool for the developmental evaluation of Mexican children younger than 5 years old. The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of EDI as a screening tool for children with developmental problems. Methods. We carried out a cross-sectional study including patients from urban and rural areas in three locations: Mexico City, Yucatan and Chihuahua. The disease spectrum was defined according to biological risk, environmental risk or without risk for developmental problems. Patients with obvious neurological disabilities or genetic syndromes were excluded. The gold standards were the Battelle Developmental Inventory 2 (in Spanish) and Bayley-III. Each participant had two complete applications of the EDI test (all interrogated and all observed) and the gold standard (Bayley-III only in Mexico City). Developmental delay was defined as a total development quotient <90. Results. The study included 438 children <5 years old. Distribution by site includes Mexico City (n =152, 34.7%), Yucatan (n =151, 34.5%), Chihuahua (n =135, 30.8%); female gender (n =190, 43.4%). Classification by risk includes biological (n =197, 45%), environmental (n =137, 31.3%), without risk (n =104, 23.7%). With BDI-II as the gold standard, the modified version of EDI (interrogated plus observation) has a sensitivity of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.75-0.86), specificity 0.61 (95% CI: 0.54-0.67), and concordance 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66-0.74). The partial correlation between EDI areas and Bayley-III areas (n =87) was adjusted by test group: fine motor 0.468, gross motor 0.441, language 0.508, social 0.336 and adaptive 0.355 (p ≤0.001). Conclusions. The modified version of EDI has similar properties as the various developmental screening tools available in the U.S. or Latin America and could be a good screening tool in Spanish.