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Dzien A.,Medical Center Hentschelhof | Winner H.,University of Salzburg | Theurl E.,University of Innsbruck | Dzien-Bischinger C.,Medical Center Hentschelhof | Lechleitner M.,Hospital Hochzirl
Obesity Facts | Year: 2013

Objective: The aging-associated changes in body composition result in an increased cardiometabolic risk. A tremendous reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality can be obtained by statin therapy. Statins are well tolerated, with myopathy as the most serious negative side effect. Some recently published studies indicate that the incidence of type 2 diabetes might be increased during intensified statin therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate whether statin therapy has an influence on the aging-associated changes in fat-free mass (FFM). Methods: A total of 3,280 persons attending a medical outdoor center between January 2005 and July 2011 were assigned to 3 age groups from <60 to >75 years. Clinical data, body mass index (BMI), and body composition were evaluated in the different age groups in patients with and without statin therapy. To analyze the impact of statin use on FFM, we regressed a patient's FFM on an interaction term between statin use and age and other control variables. Results: Aging was associated with a decrease in BMI and FFM, while fat mass continuously increased up to the age of >75 years. This was paralleled by a continuous increase in fasting glucose levels in patients with and without statin therapy. The loss of FFM between the age group <60 years and >75 years was more pronounced in statin-treated patients (10.88%) than in non-statin users (8.47%). Creatine phosphokinase values revealed a decrease of 7.77 U/l between the age groups <60 and >75 years in non-statin users and of 14.75 U/l in statin users. Statistical analysis indicated that the effect of statin therapy on FFM is more pronounced in younger than in older patients. Conclusions: Patients under statin therapy seem to be more vulnerable to the aging-associated lowering of FFM. Diagnostic procedures and interventions to prevent a loss of muscle mass might be of particular advantage in elderly patients under statin therapy. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.


Dzien A.,Medical Center Hentschelhof | Winner H.,University of Salzburg | Theurl E.,University of Innsbruck | Dzien-Bischinger C.,Medical Center Hentschelhof | Lechleitner M.,Hospital Hochzirl
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging | Year: 2011

Objective: There is an ongoing debate about the relationship between obesity and morbidity in the elderly, the clinical relevance of overweight and obesity in older patients and the need or harms of treatment. The main purpose of our study was to investigate whether a higher BMi is associated with a worse cardiovascular risk in all age groups, especially in the older ones. Subjects and Design: We performed a retrospective evaluation of clinical data from 3926 patients who visited a medical outdoor center for diagnostic and/or therapeutic interventions in the period from January 1995 to July 2010. Patients were assigned to eight age groups of one decade from >20 years to =80 years. Results: The Body Mass index (BMi) of our patients showed a continuous increase with increasing age with peak values in the age decade 61-70 years (26.29 ±4.42 kg/m 2). This was paralleled by an increase in cardiovascular events and need for continuous medication, demonstrating peak values in the age decade 61-70 years (22.3% in the female and 24.7% in the male group). in all age decades up to 80 years the BMi values were higher in patients with events compared to those without it. multivariable linear regression analysis - including confounding variables (blood pressure, fasting glucose, HDl-cholesterol, triglycerides, physical activity, smoking) - revealed for all age groups a strong positive relation of BMi and a negative relation of fat free mass (FFM) to the probability for a cardiovascular event and need for medication. Conclusion: in all age groups, the percentage of cardiovascular events was directly correlated with the BMi. Having in mind the transition to an aging society, therapeutic and preventive strategies should, therefore, include weight management strategies also for the elderly.


Gosch M.,Paracelsus Medical University | Talasz H.,Hospital Hochzirl | Nicholas J.A.,University of Rochester | Kammerlander C.,Innsbruck Medical University | Lechleitner M.,Hospital Hochzirl
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery | Year: 2015

Purpose/introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) affects some 20 % of community-dwelling older people and 30–60 % of people in institutional care. UI is known as an independent predictor of falls, and likely impacts fracture rates. The aim of the study was to measure the prevalence of UI in a typical fragility fracture population, to evaluate the relationship of UI with functional disability in the postacute setting. Methods Our study is a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients admitted to rehabilitation setting after inpatient hospital management for a fragility fracture. We included all consecutively admitted fragility fracture patients aged over 65. All patients underwent standard clinical examination and Geriatric Assessment. We assessed UI using a two-stage process with a six-item UI screening questionnaire followed by an interview. Results 1,857 (80.7 % female) patients were available for analysis, mean age was 81.7 years. UI was identified in 59.2 % of all fragility fracture patients, and was more prevalent in females. Patients suffering from UI differed significantly in almost all measured functional and cognitive tests, with increased dependency/lower ADL scores, increased rates of immobility, and higher rates of cognitive dysfunction and depression. Conclusion This study confirms the high prevalence of UI in older fragility fracture patients, and the association between UI and functional impairments. The diagnostic work-up and treatment of patients should be focused on the special needs of these older patients. More efforts are needed to increase awareness about prevalence and consequences of UI among older fragility fracture patients. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.


Gosch M.,Hospital Hochzirl | Nicholas J.A.,University of Rochester
Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie | Year: 2014

Background: Delirium is common in older adults in the perioperative period, being a complication in up to 60 % of major surgical procedures. Delirium has a significant impact on the medical, functional, and cognitive outcomes of older patients. Treatment of delirium can be quite complex and requires individualized patient assessment, plan of care, and empirical treatment. In light of the difficulties associated with delirium treatment and the complexity and frequent inadequacy of nonpharmacologic preventive measures, several drugs have been evaluated for efficacy in delirium prevention. Methods: We performed a literature review using Medline and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case reports evaluating pharmacologic treatments for prevention of delirium in older adults. Trials focused on patients with alcohol abuse were excluded. Conclusion: There is some preliminary evidence that haloperidol, newer neuroleptics (e.g., risperidone or olanzapine), and melatonin may be effective in reducing the incidence of postoperative delirium, but the data are not robust. Health care teams should still focus on traditional delirium prevention efforts, and reserve specific pharmacologic prevention to individual high-risk patients for whom the risks and benefits have been carefully considered. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Gosch M.,Hospital Hochzirl | Wortz M.,Hospital Hochzirl | Nicholas J.A.,University of Rochester | Doshi H.K.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Gerontology | Year: 2014

Background: Hip fracture patients are at a higher risk for death compared to age-matched controls. While the reasons for this increased mortality risk are incompletely understood, medical comorbidities and associated medication prescribing likely play an important role in patient outcomes. Altered drug metabolism, polypharmacy and diminished physiologic reserve may all lead to adverse drug reactions and adverse outcomes. Additionally, underprescribing of efficacious medications may deprive older patients of potential therapeutic benefits. Objective: The aim of our trial was to estimate the impact of inappropriate medication prescribing on the long-term outcome of older hip fracture patients. Methods: The present study is a retrospective cohort study. We included all hip fracture patients who were consecutively admitted to our department from 2000 to 2004. We used the previously published STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment) criteria to assess the appropriateness of medication prescribing with an additional focus on osteoporosis medications and the total number of prescriptions. Prescriptions meeting STOPP and START criteria were considered 'positive items' and correlated with outcomes. Mortality was assessed by cross-referencing with the national death registry of the Tyrolean Institute of Epidemiology. Results: During the study period, a total of 457 patients with hip fracture (mean age 80.61 ± 7.07 years; range 65-98) were evaluated. The mean number of positive combined STOPP and START items per patient was 2 ± 1.3, with ranges from 0 to 6 (STOPP items), 0 to 4 (START items) and 0 to 7 (combined STOPP/START items). Only 44 (9.6%) of patients had no positive STOPP or START items. The mean number of positive items (STOPP, START and combined) was significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors. The all-cause mortality rate at 3 years was lowest in the subjects with 1 or 0 positive items (20.5%; n = 35) and highest among those with >3 positive items (44.4%; n = 63). Inappropriate medication prescribing remained an independent risk factor with an odds ratio of 1.28 (1.07-1.52) after adjustment for sex, age, activities of daily living, comorbidities and nutrition status. Conclusion: Inappropriate medication prescribing is an independent predictor of long-term mortality in older hip fracture patients. It increases the relative risk of mortality in older hip fracture patients by 28%. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Gosch M.,Hospital Hochzirl | Joosten-Gstrein B.,Hospital Hochzirl | Heppner H.-J.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Lechleitner M.,Hospital Hochzirl
Gerontology | Year: 2012

Objectives: To study whether geriatric patients with mild-to-moderate hyponatremia (≤131 mmol/l) reveal different outcomes in structured tests for functional and cognitive impairments, depression and malnutrition compared to normonatremic patients. Design: Single-center, retrospective case control study. Setting: The study was conducted in a Geriatric Evaluation and Management Unit of a Department for Geriatrics and Internal Medicine. Methods and Participants: We included 2,880 elderly patients (75.6% female, mean age 78.6 ± 6.98 years), consecutively admitted to the GEMU primarily or from another hospital or emergency department. Results were compared between a group of 129 patients with mild-to-moderate hyponatremia (118-131 mmol/l) and an age- and sex-matched control group of 129 patients with normal serum sodium values (>135 mmol/l). To assess functional and cognitive status, depression and malnutrition we used standardized tests of a geriatric assessment. Results: 16.7% (n = 477) of the total 2,880 patients were hyponatremic (≤135 mmol/l), 4.5% (n = 129) revealed moderate hyponatremia. Compared to the control group, these patients had significantly worse results in all tests of the Geriatric Assessment, including Activities of Daily Living, Mini Mental State Examination, Clock Completion Test, Geriatric Depression Score, Tinetti Mobility Test and the Timed Up&Go Test and the Mini Nutritional Assessment. Comorbidities were assessed by the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale with no significant difference between the two groups. The hyponatremic patients received significantly more medications than the normonatremic control group, but we could not find a significant difference with respect to the use of a distinct single drug therapy. Conclusion: We were able to demonstrate that geriatric patients with mild-to-moderate hyponatremia revealed a significantly worse outcome in all standardized tests of the geriatric assessment compared to a normonatremic control group. Serum sodium levels should therefore be considered when interpreting common tests of geriatric assessment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Lechleitner M.,Hospital Hochzirl
Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the elderly population. The primary goal of obesity therapy in elderly is the improvement of metabolic complications and the prevention of severe functional limitations. Clinical studies could demonstrate that the combination of nutritional intervention and physical exercise is of advantage to improve the functional status. Study evidence about the efficacy and safety of medication for weight reduction in elderly is limited, and the risks of bariatric surgery outweigh the possible benefits. The test battery of the comprehensive geriatric assessment is an important tool to determine body composition, nutritional status as well as functional and cognitive capacities of the elderly patient. These results are of central importance for the treatment plan and goals. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd.


Gosch M.,Hospital Hochzirl | Kammerlander C.,Innsbruck Medical University | Roth T.,Innsbruck Medical University | Doshi H.K.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery | Year: 2013

Postmenopausal osteoporosis has a big impact on health care budget worldwide, which are expected to double by 2050. In spite of severe medical and socioeconomic consequences from fragility fractures, there are insufficient efforts in optimizing osteoporotic treatment and prevention. Undertreatment of osteoporosis is a well known phenomenon, particularly in elderly patients. Treatment rates remain low across virtually all patient, provider, and hospital-level characteristics, even after fragility fractures. In-hospital initiation is one of the options to increase treatment rates and improve osteoporosis management. However, multiple factors contribute to the failure of initiating appropriate treatment of osteoporosis in patients with fragility fractures. These include a lack of knowledge in osteoporosis and an absence of a comprehensive treatment guideline among family physicians and orthopedic surgeons. Furthermore, orthopedic surgeons are hardly willing to accept their responsibility for osteoporosis treatment due to the fact that they are usually not familiar with the initiation of specific drug treatments. The presented algorithm offers trauma surgeons and orthopedic surgeons a safe and simple guided pathway of treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women appropriately after fragility fractures based on the current literature. From our point of view, this algorithm is useful for almost all cases and the user can expect treatment recommendations in more than 90 % of all cases. Nevertheless, some patients may require specialized review by an endocrinologist. The proposed algorithm may help to increase the rate of appropriate osteoporosis treatment hence reducing the rates of fragility fractures. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wendl-Soeldner M.A.,Innsbruck Medical University | Moll C.W.I.,Innsbruck Medical University | Kammerlander C.,Innsbruck Medical University | Gosch M.,Hospital Hochzirl | Roth T.,Innsbruck Medical University
Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie | Year: 2014

During the past decades, the number of hip fractures has been increasing steadily. Perioperative thromboprophylaxis has become a routine aspect in the care of geriatric hip fracture patients. In addition, a large proportion of these patients are already anticoagulated because of internistic comorbidities before they sustained the hip fracture. Although the management of preexisting anticoagulation in both orthopedic elective and emergency procedures is well reported, proximal femoral fractures are classified as "acute" and therefore represent neither of these two categories. In this study, we review the different options of handling preexisting anticoagulation and antiaggregation as well as perioperative thromboprophylaxis. The Innsbruck Algorithm for the management of anticoagulation in geriatric hip fracture patients suggests how perioperative bleeding risk can be minimized, while still addressing the underlying disease. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Liem I.S.,Innsbruck Medical University | Kammerlander C.,Innsbruck Medical University | Raas C.,Innsbruck Medical University | Gosch M.,Hospital Hochzirl | Blauth M.,Innsbruck Medical University
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2013

Background: Patients who sustain osteoporotic fractures have excessive mortality compared to age-matched controls, which is most pronounced within the first 6 months postfracture. However, the timing and cause of death in the first 3 months after sustaining a fracture are unclear. Questions/purposes: We therefore evaluated and compared the timing and cause of death in patients who sustained a pelvic, proximal femoral, spinal, or proximal humeral fracture 30 and 90 days after fracture. Methods: From medical records, we recorded age at time of fracture, sex, fracture site, comorbidities, date of death, and cause of death of 1630 patients with 1630 fractures admitted to our department between 2001 and 2007. The median age at the time of fracture was 83 years and 89% of the patients were women. Results: Fifty-eight patients died within 30 days after fracture (3.6%), and 122 patients (7.5%) died within 90 days after fracture. Cardiovascular causes of death were most frequent in all fracture groups. Patients who suffered from spinal fractures died earlier within 30 days after fracture than patients who suffered from other types of fractures. Conclusions: This shows the severity and impact of a spinal injury compared to other typical fragility fractures. Level of Evidence: Level II, prognostic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. © 2013 The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®.

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