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Herrera R.,University of Habana | Almaguer M.,University of Habana | Chipi J.,Heroes del Baire Hospital | Toirac X.,Heroes del Baire Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Nephron - Clinical Practice | Year: 2011

Chronic vascular diseases constitute a growing global health problem. Objectives: To (a) determine marker positivity for renovascular damage in the total adult population of the Isle of Youth, Cuba; (b) describe marker association with common risk factors for renal and related chronic vascular conditions, and (c) identify best predictors of renovascular damage. Methods: Previous informed consent was obtained, the population studied was 55,646, and subjects were aged ≥20 years. Blood pressure, weight and height were measured and a questionnaire applied. Urine markers for renovascular damage (hematuria, proteinuria and microalbuminuria) were also determined. Results: Positive markers were detected in 21.3%: hematuria (12.6%), microalbuminuria (6.8%), proteinuria (0.9%), and proteinuria + hematuria (0.9%). Risk factors were highly prevalent: 15.1% were aged ≥60 years; 32.3% overweight, 13.9% obese, and 25.1% smokers. Prevalence of high blood pressure (30%), diabetes mellitus (5.4%) and cardiovascular disease (5%) was also high, while cerebrovascular disease registered 0.9%. Markers were more prevalent in older people and in those suffering from diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, overweight or obesity. Risk factor regression tree analysis identified hypertension as the best predictor of renovascular damage. Conclusions: Adult population-wide screening revealed hidden morbidity and permitted better risk stratification. Results serve to inform community-based multidisciplinary and intersectoral disease prevention and management. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG.


Herrera Valdes R.,University of Habana | Almaguer Lopez M.,University of Habana | Almaguer Lopez M.,Nephrology Institute | Chipi Cabrera J.,Heroes del Baire Hospital | And 6 more authors.
MEDICC Review | Year: 2010

INTRODUCTION: The disease complex comprised of atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other associated chronic vascular diseases is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Microalbuminuria is a marker for vascular damage in the heart, kidney and brain. This paper presents selected findings of the clinical-epidemiological Isle of Youth Study (ISYS) of markers for kidney and vascular damage from chronic vascular diseases and their common risk factors in total population, focusing on Phase 2 reassessment (in 2010) of Phase 1 (2004 to 2006) results. OBJECTIVES: (1) Update the prevalence of risk factors in the study population aged ≥20 years (adult population). (2) Confirm presence of microalbuminuria in at-risk adults diagnosed as presumptive positives in Phase I. (3) Evaluate association between microalbuminuria and selected risk factors. METHODS: Of 3779 adults positive for microalbuminuria in ISYS Phase 1, 73.1% were reevaluated. The risk-factor questionnaire was re-administered and blood pressure, weight and height were measured. Blood was tested for creatinine, glycemia, cholesterol and triglycerides. Glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Albuminuria was measured in urine using Micral-Test (Germany) and albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) by nephelometry. This paper uses ACR as the reference for analyzing risk factor associations. Double-entry tables were developed to analyze association among microalbuminuria, risk factors and co-morbidities. RESULTS: Most prevalent risks were hypertension, consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excess weight and hypertriglyceridemia. Microalbuminuria was confirmed in 18% of cases, using the same test. Elevated prevalence of microalbuminuria was positively associated with advancing age, male sex, underweight, smoking, NSAID use, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: The at-risk cohort studied presented low levels of confirmation for positive microalbuminuria. Positive microalbuminuria stratified individuals at greatest risk, except for obesity.

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