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Romero-Fernandez M.M.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Romero-Fernandez M.M.,Hospital General Universitario Of Ciudad Real | Royo-Bordonada M.A.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Rodriguez-Artalejo F.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Rodriguez-Artalejo F.,CIBER ISCIII
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2013

Objective To evaluate the nutritional quality of products advertised on television (TV) during children's viewing time in Spain, applying the UK nutrient profile model (UKNPM). Design We recorded 80 h of four general TV station broadcasts during children's viewing time in May and June 2008, and identified all advertisements for foods and beverages. Nutritional information was obtained from the product labels or websites and from food composition tables. Each product was classified as healthy (e.g. gazpacho, a vegetable juice) or less healthy (e.g. potato crisp snacks) according to the UKNPM criteria. Setting Four free-of-charge TV channels in Spain: two national channels and two regional ones. Subjects TV commercials of food and beverages. Results A total of 486 commercials were broadcast for ninety-six different products, with a mean frequency of 5·1 advertisements per product. Some 61·5 % of the ninety-six products were less healthy, and the percentage was higher for foods (74·1 %). All (100%) of the breakfast cereals and 80 % of the non-alcoholic drinks and soft drinks were less healthy. Of the total sample of commercials, 59·7 % were for less healthy products, a percentage that rose to 71·2 % during children's reinforced protection viewing time. Conclusions Over half the commercials were for less healthy products, a proportion that rose to over two-thirds during the hours of special protection for children. This suggests that applying the UKNPM to regulate food advertising during this slot would entail the withdrawal of most food commercials in Spain. TV advertising of products with low nutritional quality should be restricted. © 2012 The Authors. Source


Barbero M.H.R.,Hospital General Universitario Of Ciudad Real
DOLOR | Year: 2014

It is known that pain is a disagreeable sensory and emotional experience that is associated with some type of injury (I begin paradoxically, since it is a response before a harmful stimulation). It is totally subjective, assessable information and borne in mind by every individual, since it is normally a warning of an abnormal condition that it is going to affect the subject. This indication is set off and alerts us at various times, depending on the threshold of the pain that has each of us has. The threshold of pain is defined as the minimal intensity from which a stimulus is considered to be painful. It should not be confused with the tolerance to pain that is the maximum intensity of pain that we are capable of enduring. Neither of these indications, though in this case we will focus on the threshold of pain, are constant in all subjects throughout our life, but diverse studies have confirmed it is going to be influenced by genetics and social and emotional factors, amongst others. Source


Rubio C.,Universitario Sanchinarro | Morera R.,Hospital General Universitario Of Ciudad Real | Hernando O.,Universitario Sanchinarro | Leroy T.,University of Lille Nord de France | Lartigau S.E.,University of Lille Nord de France
Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy | Year: 2013

Aim: Review of main SBRT features and indications in primary tumors. Background: Stereotactic body radiotherapy has been developed in the last few years. SBRT allows the hypofractionated treatment of extra cranial tumors, using either a single or limited number of dose fractions, and resulting in the delivery of a high biological effective dose with low toxicity. Material and methods: SBRT requires a high level of accuracy for all phases of the treatment process: effective patient immobilization, precise target localization, highly conformed dosimetry and image guided systems for treatment verification. The implementation of SBRT in routine requires a careful considering of organ motion. Gating and tracking are effective ways to do so, and less invasive technologies "fiducials free" have been developed. Due to the hypofractionated scheme, the physician must pay attention to new dosimetric constraints in organ at risk and new radiobiological models are needed to assess the optimal fractionation and dose schemes. Results: Currently, SBRT is safe and effective to treat primary tumors, which are otherwise untreatable with conventional radiotherapy or surgery. SBRT has quickly developed because of its excellent results in terms of tolerance and its high locoregional control rates. SBRT indications in primary tumors, such as lung primary tumors, have become a standard of care for inoperable patients. SBRT seems to be effective in many others indications in curative or palliative intent such as liver primary tumors, and novel indications and strategies are currently emerging in prostate cancer, head and neck tumor recurrences or pelvis reirradiations. Conclusion: Currently, SBRT is mainly used when there is no other therapeutic alternative for the patient. This is due to the lack of randomized trials in these settings. However, the results shown in retrospective studies let us hope to impose SBRT as a new standard of care for many patients in the next few years. © 2013 Greater Poland Cancer Centre. Source


Rojo M.G.,Hospital General Universitario Of Ciudad Real | Daniel C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Schrader T.,Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences
Analytical Cellular Pathology | Year: 2012

Background: EURO-TELEPATH is a European COST Action IC0604. It started in 2007 and will end in November 2011. Its main objectives are evaluating and validating the common technological framework and communication standards required to access, transmit, and manage digital medical records by pathologists and other medical specialties in a networked environment. Business modelling: Working Group 1, "Business Modelling in Pathology," has designed main pathology processes-Frozen Study, Formalin Fixed Specimen Study, Telepathology, Cytology, and Autopsy-using Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN). Informatics standards in pathology: Working Group 2 has been dedicated to promoting the application of informatics standards in pathology, collaborating with Integrating Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Health Level Seven (HL7), and other standardization bodies. Conclusions: Health terminology standardization research has become a topic of great interest. Future research work should focus on standardizing automatic image analysis and tissue microarrays imaging. © 2012-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source


Cancelo-Hidalgo M.J.,University of Alcala | Cancelo-Hidalgo M.J.,Hospital Universitario Of Guadalajara | Castelo-Branco C.,University of Barcelona | Palacios S.,Palacios Institute of Womans Health | And 4 more authors.
Current Medical Research and Opinion | Year: 2013

Objective: A systematic review was conducted to analyze the tolerability of several oral iron supplements based on data obtained in available publications and to report the incidence of adverse effects (AEs) for each supplement both overall and gastrointestinal. Methods: Electronic databases-Medline, the Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched for studies published up to January 2009. Clinical or observational studies reporting data on the tolerability of oral iron supplements were included. Results were described statistically and a quasi-binomial logistic regression model was developed to evaluate and compare the tolerability of the supplements studied. Results: For this review 111 studies were included, with data on 10,695 patients. Ferrous sulfate with mucoproteose had the lowest incidence of AEs (4.1% for overall AEs, 3.7% for gastrointestinal AEs [GAEs]) and was used as the reference supplement in the regression model. Incidence rates of overall AEs for the other supplements were 7.3% for iron protein succinylate [GAEs: 7%; OR for AE compared to the reference supplement, 1.96], 23.5% for ferrous glycine sulfate [GAEs: 18.5%; OR: 5.90], 30.9% for ferrous gluconate [GAEs: 29.9%; OR: 11.06], 32.3% for ferrous sulfate without mucoproteose [GAEs: 30.2%; OR: 11.21], and 47.0% for ferrous fumarate [GAEs: 43.4%; OR: 19.87]. The differences in incidence of AEs between extended-release ferrous sulfate with mucoproteose and all other supplements except iron protein succinylate were statistically significant at p<0.001. These findings are subject to some limitations as the designs and methodologies of the studies included show heterogeneity among them that has partially been counteracted by the large sample size provided by the substantial number of trials, which is considered a strength in tolerability studies. Conclusion: Extended-release ferrous sulfate with mucoproteose appears to be the best tolerated of the different oral iron supplements evaluated. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved. Source

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