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Adeva M.M.,Hospital General Juan Cardona | Souto G.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Clinical Nutrition

The modern Western-type diet is deficient in fruits and vegetables and contains excessive animal products, generating the accumulation of non-metabolizable anions and a lifespan state of overlooked metabolic acidosis, whose magnitude increases progressively with aging due to the physiological decline in kidney function. In response to this state of diet-derived metabolic acidosis, the kidney implements compensating mechanisms aimed to restore the acid-base balance, such as the removal of the non-metabolizable anions, the conservation of citrate, and the enhancement of kidney ammoniagenesis and urinary excretion of ammonium ions. These adaptive processes lower the urine pH and induce an extensive change in urine composition, including hypocitraturia, hypercalciuria, and nitrogen and phosphate wasting. Low urine pH predisposes to uric acid stone formation. Hypocitraturia and hypercalciuria are risk factors for calcium stone disease. Even a very mild degree of metabolic acidosis induces skeletal muscle resistance to the insulin action and dietary acid load may be an important variable in predicting the metabolic abnormalities and the cardiovascular risk of the general population, the overweight and obese persons, and other patient populations including diabetes and chronic kidney failure. High dietary acid load is more likely to result in diabetes and systemic hypertension and may increase the cardiovascular risk. Results of recent observational studies confirm an association between insulin resistance and metabolic acidosis markers, including low serum bicarbonate, high serum anion gap, hypocitraturia, and low urine pH. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Source

Adeva M.M.,Hospital General Juan Cardona | Souto G.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Donapetry C.,Hospital General Juan Cardona
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental

Free ammonium ions are produced and consumed during cell metabolism. Glutamine synthetase utilizes free ammonium ions to produce glutamine in the cytosol whereas glutaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase generate free ammonium ions in the mitochondria from glutamine and glutamate, respectively. Ammonia and bicarbonate are condensed in the liver mitochondria to yield carbamoylphosphate initiating the urea cycle, the major mechanism of ammonium removal in humans. Healthy kidney produces ammonium which may be released into the systemic circulation or excreted into the urine depending predominantly on acid-base status, so that metabolic acidosis increases urinary ammonium excretion while metabolic alkalosis induces the opposite effect. Brain and skeletal muscle neither remove nor produce ammonium in normal conditions, but they are able to seize ammonium during hyperammonemia, releasing glutamine. Ammonia in gas phase has been detected in exhaled breath and skin, denoting that these organs may participate in nitrogen elimination. Ammonium homeostasis is profoundly altered in liver failure resulting in hyperammonemia due to the deficient ammonium clearance by the diseased liver and to the development of portal collateral circulation that diverts portal blood with high ammonium content to the systemic blood stream. Although blood ammonium concentration is usually elevated in liver disease, a substantial role of ammonium causing hepatic encephalopathy has not been demonstrated in human clinical studies. Hyperammonemia is also produced in urea cycle disorders and other situations leading to either defective ammonium removal or overproduction of ammonium that overcomes liver clearance capacity. Most diseases resulting in hyperammonemia and cerebral edema are preceded by hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis of unclear origin that may be caused by the intracellular acidosis occurring in these conditions. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Adeva M.M.,Hospital General Juan Cardona | Souto G.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Donapetry C.,Hospital General Juan Cardona | Portals M.,Hospital General Juan Cardona | And 2 more authors.
Neurochemistry International

Cerebral edema is a potentially life-threatening complication shared by diseases of different etiology, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, acute liver failure, high altitude exposure, dialysis disequilibrium syndrome, and salicylate intoxication. Pulmonary edema is also habitually present in these disorders, indicating that the microcirculatory disturbance causing edema is not confined to the brain. Both cerebral and pulmonary subclinical edema may be detected before it becomes clinically evident. Available evidence suggests that tissue hypoxia or intracellular acidosis is a commonality occurring in all of these disorders. Tissue ischemia induces physiological compensatory mechanisms to ensure cell oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal from tissues, including hyperventilation, elevation of red blood cell 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate content, and capillary vasodilatation. Clinical, laboratory, and necropsy findings in these diseases confirm the occurrence of low plasma carbon dioxide partial pressure, increased erythrocyte 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate concentration, and capillary vasodilatation with increased vascular permeability in all of them. Baseline tissue hypoxia or intracellular acidosis induced by the disease may further deteriorate when tissue oxygen requirement is no longer matched to oxygen delivery resulting in massive capillary vasodilatation with increased vascular permeability and plasma fluid leakage into the interstitial compartment leading to edema affecting the brain, lung, and other organs. Causative factors involved in the progression from physiological adaptation to devastating clinical edema are not well known and may include uncontrolled disease, malfunctioning adaptive responses, or unknown factors. The role of carbon monoxide and local nitric oxide production influencing tissue oxygenation is unclear. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Souto G.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Donapetry C.,Hospital General Juan Cardona | Calvino J.,Hospital General Juan Cardona | Adeva M.M.,Hospital General Juan Cardona
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders

Microalbuminuria has been conclusively established as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and there is evidence of an association between insulin resistance and microalbuminuria, the former preceding the latter in prospective studies. It has been demonstrated that even the slightest degree of metabolic acidosis produces insulin resistance in healthy humans. Many recent epidemiological studies link metabolic acidosis indicators with insulin resistance and systemic hypertension. The strongly acidogenic diet consumed in developed countries produces a lifetime acidotic state, exacerbated by excess body weight and aging, which may result in insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes, contributing to cardiovascular risk, along with genetic causes, lack of physical exercise, and other factors. Elevated fruits and vegetables consumption has been associated with lower diabetes incidence. Diseases featuring severe atheromatosis and elevated cardiovascular risk, such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney failure, are typically characterized by a chronic state of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic patients consume particularly acidogenic diets, and deficiency of insulin action generates ketone bodies, creating a baseline state of metabolic acidosisworsened by inadequate metabolic control, which creates a vicious circle by inducing insulin resistance. Even very slight levels of chronic kidney insufficiency are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may be explained at least in part by deficient acid excretory capacity of the kidney and consequent metabolic acidosis-induced insulin resistance. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Adeva-Andany M.,Hospital General Juan Cardona | Lopez-Ojen M.,Policlinica Assistens | Funcasta-Calderon R.,Hospital General Juan Cardona | Ameneiros-Rodriguez E.,Hospital General Juan Cardona | And 3 more authors.

Metabolic pathways involved in lactate metabolism are important to understand the physiological response to exercise and the pathogenesis of prevalent diseases such as diabetes and cancer. Monocarboxylate transporters are being investigated as potential targets for diagnosis and therapy of these and other disorders. Glucose and alanine produce pyruvate which is reduced to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase in the cytoplasm without oxygen consumption. Lactate removal takes place via its oxidation to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase. Pyruvate may be either oxidized to carbon dioxide producing energy or transformed into glucose. Pyruvate oxidation requires oxygen supply and the cooperation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Enzymes of the gluconeogenesis pathway sequentially convert pyruvate into glucose. Congenital or acquired deficiency on gluconeogenesis or pyruvate oxidation, including tissue hypoxia, may induce lactate accumulation. Both obese individuals and patients with diabetes show elevated plasma lactate concentration compared to healthy subjects, but there is no conclusive evidence of hyperlactatemia causing insulin resistance. Available evidence suggests an association between defective mitochondrial oxidative capacity in the pancreatic β-cells and diminished insulin secretion that may trigger the development of diabetes in patients already affected with insulin resistance. Several mutations in the mitochondrial DNA are associated with diabetes mellitus, although the pathogenesis remains unsettled. Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been detected in a number of human cancers. d-lactate is a lactate enantiomer normally formed during glycolysis. Excess d-lactate is generated in diabetes, particularly during diabetic ketoacidosis. d-lactic acidosis is typically associated with small bowel resection. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. Source

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